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The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting from ca. The History of Greece traditionally encompasses the study of the Greek people, the areas they ruled historically and the territory now composing the modern state of The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Helladic is a modern archaeological term meant to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland Ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. Cycladic civilization (also known as Cycladic culture or The Cycladic period) is an Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades in the Aegean The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. Mycenaean Greece is a cultural period of ancient Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese The Dark Ages (ca 1150 BC–800 BC refers to Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century The archaic period in Greece ( 750 BC 480 BC) is a period of Ancient Greek history In the context of the art architecture and culture of Ancient Greece, the classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries The Hellenistic period of European history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon in 323 BC and the annexation Roman Greece is the period of Greek history (of Greece proper as opposed to the other centers of Hellenism in the Roman world following the Roman victory over Roman Greece See also Roman Greece The Greek peninsula became a Roman protectorate in 146 BC, and the Aegean islands were added Most of Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. The history of modern Greece began with the recognition of Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832 after the Greek War of Independence. The Greek War of Independence (1821–1829 also commonly known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση Elliniki Epanastasi; Ottoman The Kingdom of Greece ( Greek:, Vasíleion tīs Elládos) was a state established in 1832 in the Convention of London by the Great The Axis occupation of Greece during World War II ( Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation" began in April The Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, "the Civil War" fought from 1946 to 1949 by the Governmental forces receiving logistical support by the United Kingdom Regime of the Colonels redirects here For the Polish regime of colonels see Colonels' group. The history of the Hellenic Republic constitutes three discrete republican periods in modern Greek History: 1822 - 1832, 1924 - The economic history of the Greek World spans several millennia and encompasses many modern day nation states The military history of Greece is the history of the wars and battles of the Greek people in Greece, the Balkans and the Greek colonies in the Mediterranean In the modern history of Greece, starting from the Greek War of Independence, the Constitution of 1975/1986/2001 is the last in a series of democratically adopted Constitutions Since the time of Homer, some Greeks have called themselves Hellenes ( in Homer "Hellas" (Eλλάς and "Hellenes" were names of Greece has a rich and varied artistic history spanning some 5000 years The History of Greece traditionally encompasses the study of the Greek people, the areas they ruled historically and the territory now composing the modern state of Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean 750 BC (the archaic period) to 146 BC (the Roman conquest). The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. The archaic period in Greece ( 750 BC 480 BC) is a period of Ancient Greek history The Battle of Corinth was a battle fought between the Roman Republic and the Greek state of Corinth and its allies in the It is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of Western Civilization. Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin Greek culture had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of Europe. The Culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years with its beginnings in the Mycenaean and Minoan Civilizations, continuing most notably into Classical Greece The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
The civilization of the ancient Greeks has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, and arts, giving rise to the Renaissance in Western Europe and again resurgent during various neo-Classical revivals in 18th and 19th century Europe and the Americas. The " Catalogue of Women " (7th century BC presents an Aitiology for the various tribes of the Greeks (Hellenes deriving them from Hellen The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America
There are no fixed or universally agreed upon dates for the beginning or the end of the ancient Greek period. In common usage it can refer to all Greek history before the Roman conquest, but historians use the term more precisely. The Greek-speaking Mycenaean (Helladic) civilization that collapsed about 1150 BC, and which preceded the Hellenic culture is generally excluded from the Ancient Greek era. Mycenaean Greece is a cultural period of ancient Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese Helladic is a modern archaeological term meant to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland Ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. Traditionally, historians took the date of the first recorded Olympic Games in 776 BC as the beginning of the ancient Greek period. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games Events and trends 778 BC — Agamestor King of Athens, dies after a reign of 17 years and is succeeded by his son Aeschylus Between the end of the Mycenaean period, and the first Olympics is a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, because there are no written records, and few archaeological remnants. This period is now often included in the term Ancient Greece.
The end of the Ancient Greek period was traditionally seen as the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, which was seen to begin the Hellenistic period. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. However, Ancient Greece is often taken to include the following period, until to the Roman conquest of 146 BC. Some writers treat the ancient Greek civilization as a continuum running until the advent of Christianity in the 3rd century; this, however, is unconventional. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The 3rd century is the period from 201 to 300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
The Ancient Greek period is subdivided into four periods on a pragmatic basis of pottery styles and political events. The Greek Dark Ages (c. The Dark Ages (ca 1150 BC–800 BC refers to Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century 1150-c. 800 BC) features the use of geometric designs on pottery; it is followed the by archaic period (c. The archaic period in Greece ( 750 BC 480 BC) is a period of Ancient Greek history 800-c. 500BC), in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, hieratic poses with the dreamlike 'archaic smile'. The Archaic smile was used by Greek Archaic sculptors especially in the second quarter of the sixth century BCE The Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens in 510 BC. The Classical period (c. In the context of the art architecture and culture of Ancient Greece, the classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries 500-323 BC) is characterised by a style which was considered by later observers to be exemplary (i. e. 'classical') - for instance the Parthenon. The Parthenon ( Ancient Greek:) is a temple of the Greek goddess Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Athenian Acropolis The death of Alexander in 323 BC is used to mark the beginning of the Hellenistic period, when Greek culture and power expanded into the near and middle east; a period which finishes with the Roman conquest of 146 BC.
Any history of ancient Greece requires a cautionary note on sources. Those Greek historians and political writers whose works have survived, notably Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato and Aristotle, were mostly either Athenian or pro-Athenian. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek Xenophon (Ancient Greek, Modern Greek "Ξενοφών" "Ξενοφώντας" ca For the Athenian general see Demosthenes (general. For the ancient physician see Demosthenes Philalethes. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's That is why we know far more about the history and politics of Athens than of any other city, and why we know almost nothing about some cities' histories. These writers, furthermore, concentrate almost wholly on political, military and diplomatic history, and ignore economic and social history. All histories of ancient Greece have to contend with these limits in their sources. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c
The tribes who would become the Greeks are believed to have migrated southward into the Balkan peninsula in several waves beginning in the Middle Bronze Age (roughly 2000 BC). The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Helladic is a modern archaeological term meant to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland Ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for The Proto-Greek language would date to the period just preceding these migrations, either to the late 3rd millennium BC, or to the 17th century BC at the latest. The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. It represents a period of time in which Imperialism, or the desire to conquer grew to prominence The 17th century BC is a Century which lasted from 1700 BC to 1601 BC The Bronze Age civilisation of the proto-Greeks is generally referred to as Helladic. Helladic is a modern archaeological term meant to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland Ancient Greece during the Bronze Age.
This period culminated in the so-called Mycenaean Culture, which features in the famous epics of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Mycenaean Greece is a cultural period of ancient Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. For reasons which are unknown, this culture collapsed spectacularly around 1150 BC, with cities being sacked and massive depopulation. This Bronze Age collapse approximately coincides with the apparent arrival of the last group of proto-Greeks into Greece proper, the Dorians. The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the The Dorians or Dorian Greeks ( Greek:, Dōrieis singular, Dōrieus were The Dorians or Dorian Greeks ( Greek:, Dōrieis singular, Dōrieus were The two events have traditionally been causally linked, but this is by no means certain. With the Bronze Age collapse, Greece entered into a period of obscurity, or 'dark age'. The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the
The period from 1100 BC to the 8th century BC is a "Dark Age" following the Bronze Age collapse from which no primary texts survive, and only scant archaeological evidence remains. The Dark Ages (ca 1150 BC–800 BC refers to Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. The Dark Ages (ca 1150 BC–800 BC refers to Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the Secondary and tertiary texts such as Herodotus' Histories, Pausanias' Description of Greece, Diodorus' Bibliotheca, and Jerome's Chronicon contain brief chronologies and king lists for this period. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. Pausanias ( Greek:) was a Greek traveller and Geographer of the 2nd century CE, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος The Chronicle (or Chronicon or Temporum liber) was a Universal chronicle, one of Jerome 's earliest attempts in the department of history
In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. The archaic period in Greece ( 750 BC 480 BC) is a period of Ancient Greek history Literacy had been lost and Linear B, the Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Linear B is a script that was used for writing Mycenaean, an early form of Greek. The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to originate around 1050 BC The Greek alphabet (Ελληνικό αλφάβητο is a set of twenty-four letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early From about the 9th century BC written records begin to appear. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbours by the sea or mountain ranges.
The first half of the 7th century saw the Lelantine War (c. The Lelantine War was a long military conflict between the two ancient Greek city states Chalkis and Eretria that took place in the early 710-c. 650 BC), an ongoing conflict with the distinction of being the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. Fought between the then important poleis (city-states) of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea, both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor. A polis ( πόλις, pronunciation, in English-- plural poleis ( πόλεις, pronunciation, in English --is a City, a A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. Chalcis or Chalkida, Halkida, Halkis or Chalkis ( Greek, Modern Χαλκίδα xal'ciða Ancient/ Katharevousa: -ίς This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria on Euboea It should not be confused with Eretria in western Magnesia, Greece or the modern African nation For the mythological figure see Euboea (mythology Euboea ( Modern Greek, Εύβοια - Évia &mdash
The first half of the 7th century also seems to have seen the rise of a mercantile class (shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC). Merchants function as professionals who deal with Trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves in order to produce Profit. The history of Ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms into three periods the Archaic the Classical and the Hellenistic Events and trends 689 BC — King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks Babylon. This seems to have introduced tension to many city states. The aristocratic regimes which generally governed the poleis were threatened by the new-found wealth of merchants, who in turn desired political power. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations From 650 BC onwards, the aristocracies had to fight not to be overthrown and replaced by populist tyrants. Events and trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras Guatemala. In modern usage a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a State or within an Organization. The word derives from the non-pejorative Greek τύραννος tyrannos, meaning "illegitimate ruler", although this was applicable to both good and bad leaders alike. Words and phrases are pejorative if they imply disapproval or contempt Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly 
A growing population and shortage of land also seems to have created internal strife between the poor and the rich in many city states. In Sparta, the Messenian Wars resulted in the conquest of Messenia and enserfment of the Messenians, an act without precedent or antecedent in ancient Greece. The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη Messenia or Messinia (Μεσσηνία is a prefecture in the Peloponnese, a region of Greece. This practice allowed a social revolution to occur . The subjugated population, thenceforth know as helots, would farm and labour for Sparta, whilst every Spartan male became a soldier of the Spartan Army in a permanently militarized state. The helots (in Classical Greek / Heílôtes) were an unfree population group that formed the Even the elite were obliged to live and train as soldiers; this equality between rich and poor served to diffuse the social conflict. These reforms, attributed to the shadowy Lycurgus of Sparta were probably complete by 650 BC. Lycurgus ( Greek:, Lukoûrgos; 700 BC?&ndash630 BC was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of
Athens suffered a land and agrarian crisis in the late 7th century, again resulting in civil strife. The Archon (chief magistrate) Draco made severe reforms to the law code in 621 BC (hence Draconian), but these failed to quell the conflict. This is a list of the eponymous archons of Athens. Background The Archon was the chief Magistrate in many Greek cities but in Eventually the moderate reforms of Solon (594 BC), improving the lot of the poor, but firmly entrenching the aristocracy in power, gave Athens some stability. Solon ( ancient Greek:, c 638 BC&ndash558 BC was an Athenian Statesman, Lawmaker and Lyric poet.
By the 6th century BC several cities had emerged as dominant in Greek affairs: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes. The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's This article covers the history of Sparta from its founding to the present concentrating primarily on the Spartan state during the height of its power from the 6th Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. Thebes ( Classic Greek Θῆβαι, Mod Θήβα) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range which divides Each of them had brought the surrounding rural areas and smaller towns under their control, and Athens and Corinth had become major maritime and mercantile powers as well.
Rapidly increasing population in the 8th and 7th centuries had resulted in emigration of many Greeks to form colonies in Magna Græcia (Southern Italy and Sicily), Asia Minor and further afield (see below). Colonies in antiquity were City-states founded from a mother- City Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The emigration effectively ceased in the 6th century by which time the Greek world had, culturally and linguistically, become much larger than the area of present-day Greece. Greek colonies were not politically controlled by their founding cities, although they often retained religious and commercial links with them.
In this period, huge economic development occurred in Greece and also her overseas colonies which experienced a growth in commerce and manufacturing. There also was a large improvement in the living standards of the population. Some studies estimate that the average size of the Greek household, in the period from 800 BC to 300 BC, increased five times, which indicates a large increase in the average income of the population. Events By place Egypt Pyrrhus, the King of Epirus, is taken as a hostage to Egypt after the Battle of Ipsus
In the second half of the 6th century, Athens fell under the tyranny of Peisistratos and then his sons Hippias and Hipparchus. Peisistratus (sometimes transliterated Peisistratos Psistratus, Peistratus, Pesistratusor or Pisistratus, Greek: Hippias of Athens (Ἱππίας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος was one of the sons of Peisistratus, and was Tyrant of Athens in the 6th century BC Hipparchus (Ἵππαρχος (d 514 BCE was a ruler of Athens. However, in 510 BC, at the instigation of the Athenian aristocrat Cleisthenes, the Spartan king Cleomenes I helped the Athenians overthrow the tyranny. Cleisthenes (Κλεισθένης also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family Cleomenes (kliːˈɑməniːz Greek Κλεομένης (d c 489 BC was an Agiad King of Sparta in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC Promptly turning on each other Cleomenes I then installed Isagoras as a pro-Spartan archon. Isagoras (Ἰσαγόρας son of Tisander was an Athenian Aristocrat in the late 6th century BC. Eager to prevent Athens becoming a Spartan puppet, Cleisthenes responded by proposing to his fellow citizens that Athens undergo a revolution; that all citizens shared in the power, regardless of status; that Athens become a 'democracy'. Athenian democracy developed in the Greek City-state of Athens So enthusiastically did the Athenians take to this idea, that, having overthrown Isagoras and implemented Cleisthenes's reforms, they were easily able to repel a Spartan-led three-pronged invasion aimed at restoring Isagoras . The advent of the democracy cured many of the ills of Athens, and led to a 'golden age' for the Athenians.
Athens and Sparta would soon have to become allies in the face of the largest external threat ancient Greece would see until the Roman conquest. In the context of the art architecture and culture of Ancient Greece, the classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries After suppressing the Ionian Revolt, a rebellion of the Greek cities of Ionia, Darius I of Persia, King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, decided to subjugate Greece. The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the Tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century Geography Physical Ionia was of small extent not exceeding 90 geographical miles in length from north to south with a breadth varying from 40 to 55 miles but to this Darius I the Great (c 549 BC&ndash486 BC 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 Dārayavahuš: "Possessing goodness" Having ascended to power amidst controversy and bloodshed King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers throughout history and in many cases the literal title The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of His invasion in 490 BC was ended by the heroic Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon under Miltiades the Younger. The Battle of Marathon ( Greek: Μάχη τοῡ Μαραθῶνος Machē tou Marathōnos) during the Greco-Persian Wars took place in 490 Miltiades the Younger ( Greek: Μιλτιάδης ὁ Νεὠτερος c Xerxes I of Persia, son and successor of Darius I, attempted his own invasion 10 years later, but was, despite his overwhelmingly large army, defeated after the famous rearguard action at Thermopylae, and victories for the allied Greeks at the Battles of Salamis and Plataea. Xerxes I of Persia was a King of Persia (reigned 485–465 BC of the Achaemenid dynasty. In the Battle of Thermopylae, which occurred in August 480 BC (and was detailed almost entirely by Herodotus) an alliance of Greek City-states fought The Battle of Salamis ( Ancient Greek:) was a decisive naval battle between the Greek City-states and Persia in September 480 BC in the The Battle of Plataea was the final major Battle of the Greco-Persian Wars in southern Greece. The Greco-Persian Wars continued until 449 BC, led by the Athenians and their Delian League, during which time the Macedon, Thrace, the Aegean Islands and Ionia were all liberated from Persian influence. The Delian League was an association of approximately 150 5th-century BC Greek City-states under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe The Aegean Islands (Νησιά Αιγαίου Nisiá Aigaíou; Ege Adaları are a group of Islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece Geography Physical Ionia was of small extent not exceeding 90 geographical miles in length from north to south with a breadth varying from 40 to 55 miles but to this
The now dominant position of the maritime Athenian 'Empire' threatened Sparta and the Peloponnesian League of mainland Greek cities. The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of states in the Peloponnese in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Inevitably, this led to conflict, resulting in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Though effectively a stalemate for the vast majority of its length, Athens suffered a number of setbacks during the war. A great plague in 430 BC, followed by the Sicilian Expedition, a disastrous military expedition to Sicily, severely weakened Athens. The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Sparta was able to ferment rebellion amongst Athens's allies, further reducing the Athenian ability to wage war. The decisive moment came in 405 BC when Sparta cut off the grain supply to Athens from the Hellespont. See also Dardanelles Hellespont ( Turkish, Greek; ie "Sea of Helle" variously named in classical literature Hellespontium Pelagus Forced to attack, the crippled Athenian fleet was decisively defeated by the Spartans under the command of Lysander at Aegospotami. Lysander (died 395 BC Λύσανδρος, Lýsandros) was a Spartan General and the commander of the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont which was victorious The naval Battle of Aegospotami took place in 404 BC and was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War. In 404 BC Athens sued for peace, and Sparta dictated a predictably stern settlement: Athens lost her city walls (including the Long Walls), her fleet, and all of her overseas possessions. Long Walls ( Μακρά Τείχη) in Ancient Greece, were walls built from a city to its port providing a secure connection to the sea even during times of siege
Greece thus entered the 4th century under a Spartan hegemony, but it was clear from the start that this was weak. The period of Spartan hegemony is a moment in classical Greek history that extends from the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC to the Battle A demographic crisis meant Sparta was overstretched, and by 395 BC Athens, Argos, Thebes, and Corinth felt able to challenge Spartan dominance, resulting in the Corinthian War (395-387 BC). Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Argos ( Greek: Ἄργος, Árgos ˈaɾɣos is a city in Greece in the Peloponnese near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor Thebes ( Classic Greek Θῆβαι, Mod Θήβα) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range which divides Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states Thebes Another war of stalemates, it ended with the status quo restored, after the threat of Persian intervention on behalf of the Spartans.
The Spartan hegemony lasted another 16 years, until, when attempting to impose their will on the Thebans, the Spartans suffered a decisive defeat at Leuctra (371 BC). The Battle of Leuctra (or Leuktra was a battle fought between the Thebans and the Spartans and their respective allies amidst the post- Corinthian War conflict The brilliant Theban general Epaminondas then led Theban troops into the Peloponnese, whereupon other city-states defected from the Spartan cause. Epaminondas ( Greek:) (ca 418 BC&ndash362 BC was a Theban General and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek The Thebans were thus able to march into Messenia and free the population. Deprived of land and its serfs, Sparta declined to a second-rank power. The Theban hegemony thus established was short-lived; at the battle of Mantinea in 362 BC, Thebes lost her key leader, Epaminondas, and great loss of manpower, even though they were victorious in battle. The Theban Hegemony lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian In fact such were the losses to all the great city-states at Mantinea that none could establish dominance in the aftermath.
The weakened state of the heartland of Greece coincided with the rising power of Macedon, led by Philip II. Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most Philip II of Macedon, ( Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών &mdash φίλος = friend + ίππος = Horse In twenty years, Philip had unified his kingdom, expanded it north and west at the expense of Illyrian tribes, and then conquered Thessaly and Thrace. Illyrians has come to refer to a broad ill-defined " Indo-European " group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans ( Illyria, roughly Thessalia redirects here For the Butterfly Genus, see Thessalia (butterfly. Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe His success was partly due to his innovative reforms to the army. The Army of ancient Macedon is considered to be among the greatest military forces of the ancient world Phillip intervened repeatedly in the affairs of the southern city-states, culminating in his invasion of 338 BC. Decisively defeating an allied army of Thebes and Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea, he became de facto hegemon of all of Greece. He compelled the majority of the city-states to join the League of Corinth, allying them to him, and preventing them from warring with each other. The League of Corinth, also sometimes referred to as Hellenic League (original name Hellenes - 'The Greeks' was a federation of Greek states created by Philip Philip then entered into war against the Achemaenid Empire, but was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis early on in the conflict. Pausanias of Orestis (Greek was a member of Philip II of Macedon 's Somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard
Alexander, son and successor of Philip, continued the war. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Alexander defeated Darius III of Persia and completely destroyed the Achaemenid Empire, annexing it to Macedon and earning himself the epithet 'the Great'. Darius III ( Artashata) (c 380&ndash330 BC Persian داریوش Dāriūš dɔːriˈuːʃ was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of When Alexander died in 323 BC, Greek power and influence was at its zenith. However, there had been a fundamental shift away from the fierce independence and classical culture of the poleis - and instead towards the developing Hellenistic culture. The Hellenistic period of European history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon in 323 BC and the annexation
The Hellenistic period lasts from 323 BC to the annexation of the Greece by the Roman Republic in 146 BC. This article focuses on the historical aspects of the Hellenistic age for the cultural aspects see Hellenistic civilisation. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. This article focuses on the historical aspects of the Hellenistic age for the cultural aspects see Hellenistic civilisation. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which remained essentially unchanged until the advent of Christianity, it did mark the end of Greek political independence. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
During the Hellenistic period the importance of "Greece proper" (that is, the territory of modern Greece) within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also Ptolemaic Egypt began when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and ended with the death of queen Cleopatra The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i See Hellenistic civilization for the history of Greek culture outside of Greece in this period. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period.
The conquests of Alexander had a number of consequences for the Greek city-states. It greatly widened the horizons of the Greeks, and led to a steady emigration, particularly of the young and ambitious, to the new Greek empires in the east. Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria, Antioch and the many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as what are now Afghanistan and Pakistan, where the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and the Indo-Greek Kingdom survived until the end of the 1st century BC. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The Gr(aeco-Bactrian Kingdom was the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent during the last two centuries The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC.
After the death of Alexander his empire was, after quite some conflict, divided amongst his generals, resulting in the Ptolemaic Kingdom (based upon Egypt), the Seleucid Empire (based on the Levant, Mesopotamia and Persia, and the Antigonid dynasty based in Macedon. The Ptolemaic Kingdom in and around Egypt began following Alexander the Great 's conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Macedonian Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed" Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most In the intervening period, the poleis of Greece were able to wrest back some of their freedom, although still nominally subject to the Macedonian Kingdom. The city states formed themselves into two leagues; the Achaean League (including Thebes, Corinth and Argos) and the Aetolian League (including Sparta and Athens). The Achaean League (Ἀχαϊκὴ Συμμαχία or (Ἀχαϊκὴ Συμπολιτεία was a Confederation of Greek city states in Achaea The Aetolian League was a confederation of states in Ancient Greece centered on the cities of Aetolia in central Greece For much of the period until the Roman conquest, these leagues were usually at war with each other, and/or allied to different sides in the conflicts between the Diadochi (the successor states to Alexander's empire). The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Greek Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, "successors" were the rival successors
The Antigonid Kingdom became involved in a war with the Roman Republic in the late 3rd century. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Although the First Macedonian War was inconclusive, the Romans, in typical fashion continued to make war on Macedon until it was completely absorbed into the Roman Republic (by 149 BC). The First Macedonian War (214 BC - 205 BC was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against In the east the unwieldy Seleucid Empire gradually disintegrated, although a rump survived until 64 BC, whilst the Ptolemaic Kingdom continued in Egypt until 30 BC, when it too was conquered by the Romans. The Aetolian league grew wary of Roman involvement in Greece, and sided with the Seleucids in the Roman-Syrian War; when the Romans were victorius, the league was effectively absorbed into the Republic. Although the Achaean league outlasted both the Aetolian league and Macedon, it was also soon defeated and absorbed by the Romans in 146 BC, bringing an end to the independence of all of Greece.
During the Archaic period, the population of Greece grew beyond the capacity of its limited arable land (according to one estimate, the population of Ancient Greece increased by a factor larger than ten during the period from 800 BC to 400 BC, increasing from a population of 800,000 to a total estimated population of 10 to 13 million). Taormina ( Sicilian: Taurmina; Greek: - Tauromenion; Latin Tauromenium) is a Comune and small town Classical demography refers to the study of human Demography in the Classical period. In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for  From about 750 BC the Greeks began 250 years of expansion, settling colonies in all directions. Events and trends 756 BC — Founding of Cyzicus. 755 BC — Ashur-nirari V succeeds Ashur-Dan III as king of Assyria To the east, the Aegean coast of Asia Minor was colonized first, followed by Cyprus and the coasts of Thrace, the Sea of Marmara and south coast of the Black Sea. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black This article treats the History of Cyprus in Classical Antiquity, from the 8th century BC to the Middle Ages. Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Eventually Greek colonization reached as far north-east as present day Ukraine and Russia (Taganrog). Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Taganrog (Таганро́г təgʌnˈrok is a seaport city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of Taganrog To the west the coasts of Illyria, Sicily and Southern Italy were settled, followed by Southern France, Corsica, and even northeastern Spain. Illyria ( Albanian Iliria ( Ancient Greek; Latin Illyria; see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel Southern France (or the South of France) colloquially known as Le Midi, is a loosely defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Greek colonies were also founded in Egypt and Libya. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Ancient Libya was the region west of the Nile Valley. It corresponds to what is now generally called Northwest Africa. Modern Syracuse, Naples, Marseille and Istanbul had their beginnings as the Greek colonies Syracusae (Συρακούσαι), Neapolis (Νεάπολις), Massalia (Μασσαλία) and Byzantion (Βυζάντιον). Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM These colonies played an important role in the spread of Greek influence throughout Europe, and also aided in the establishment of long-distance trading networks between the Greek city-states, boosting the economy of ancient Greece. The Economy of Ancient Greece was characterized by the extreme importance of Agriculture, all the more so because of the relative poverty of Greece
Ancient Greece consisted of several hundred more-or-less independent city states (poleis). A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. This was a situation unlike that in most other contemporary societies, which were either tribal, or kingdoms ruling over relatively large territories. The most comparable situation is probably to be found in the great maritime cities-states of Phoenicia. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Undoubtedly the geography of Greece, divided and sub-divided by hills, mountains and rivers contributed to the fragmentary nature of Ancient Greece. The country of Greece is located in southeastern Europe, on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. However, there is also a degree to which the situation was something inherently Greek. The ancient Greeks had no doubt that they were 'one people'; they had the same religion, same basic culture, and same language. Yet the independence of the poleis was fiercely defended; unification was something rarely contemplated by the Ancient Greeks. Thus, the major peculiarities of the Ancient Greek political system were; firstly, its fragmentary nature, and that this does not particularly seem to have tribal origin; and secondly the particular focus on urban centres within otherwise tiny states. The peculiarities of the Greek system are further evidenced by the colonies that they set up throughout the Mediterranean Sea, which, though they might count a certain Greek polis as their 'mother' (and remain sympathetic to her), were completely independent of the founding city.
Inevitably smaller poleis might be dominated by larger neighbours, but conquest or direct rule by another city state appears to have been quite rare. Instead the poleis grouped themselves into leagues, membership of which was in a constant state of flux. Later in the Classical period, the leagues would become fewer and larger, be dominated by one city (particularly Athens, Sparta and Thebes); and often poleis would be compelled to join under threat of war (or as part of a peace treaty). In the context of the art architecture and culture of Ancient Greece, the classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries Even after Philip II of Macedon 'conquered' the heartlands of Ancient Greece, he did not attempt to annex the territory, or unify it into a new province, but simply compelled most of the poleis to join his own Corinthian League. Philip II of Macedon, ( Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών &mdash φίλος = friend + ίππος = Horse The League of Corinth, also sometimes referred to as Hellenic League (original name Hellenes - 'The Greeks' was a federation of Greek states created by Philip
Initially many Greek-city states seem to have been petty kingdoms; there was often a city official carrying some residual, ceremonial functions of the king (basileus), e. Ancient Greek law is a branch of comparative jurisprudence relating to the laws and legal institutions of Ancient Greece. "Basilissa" redirects here For the saint of this name see Julian and Basilissa. g. the archon basileus in Athens . Archon Basileus (Ἄρχων Βασιλεύς was a Greek title meaning 'king magistrate' the term is derived the words Archon " Magistrate However, by the Archaic period and the first historical consciousness, most had already become aristocratic oligarchies. Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment It is unclear exactly how this change occurred. For instance, in Athens, the kingship had been reduced to a hereditary, life-long chief magistracy (archon) by c. This is a list of the eponymous archons of Athens. Background The Archon was the chief Magistrate in many Greek cities but in 1050 BC; by 753 BC this had become a decennial, elected archonship; and finally by 683 BC an annually elected archonship. Through each stage more power would have been transferred to the aristocracy as a whole, and away from a single individual.
Inevitably, the domination of politics and concommitant aggregation of wealth by small groups of families was apt to cause social unrest in many poleis. In many cities a tyrant (not in the modern sense of repressive autocracies), would at some point seize control, and govern according to their own will; often a populist agenda would help sustain them in power. In modern usage a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a State or within an Organization. In a system racked with class conflict, government by a 'strongman' was often the best solution. Class conflict, also class war or class warfare, is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different
Athens fell under a tyranny in the second half of the 6th century. When this tyranny was ended, as a radical solution to prevent the aristocracy regaining power, the Athenians founded the world's first democracy. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system A citizens' assembly (the Ecclesia), for the discussion of city policy had existed since the reforms of Draco in 621 BC; all citizens were permitted to attend after the reforms of Solon (early 6th century), but the poorest citizens could not address the assembly, or run for office. A popular assembly is a localized citizen gathering to address issues of importance to the community ecclesia or ekklesia ( Greek) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens during its Golden Age ( Solon ( ancient Greek:, c 638 BC&ndash558 BC was an Athenian Statesman, Lawmaker and Lyric poet. With the establishment of the democracy, the assembly became the de jure mechanism of government; all citizens now had equal privileges in the assembly. However, non-citizens, such as metics (foreigners living in Athens), or slaves, had no political rights at all. In Ancient Greece, the term metic meant resident alien a person who did not have citizen rights in their Greek City-state ( Polis) of residence Slavery was common practice and an integral component of Ancient Greece throughout its history as it was in other societies of the time
After the rise of the democracy in Athens, other city-states founded democracies. However, many retained more traditional forms of government. As so often in other matters, Sparta was a notable exception to the rest of Greece, ruled through the whole period by not one, but two hereditary monarchs. This was a form of diarchy. Diarchy (or dyarchy) from the Greek "δύο" and αρχειν "to rule" is a form of government in which two diarchs are the heads of state The Kings of Sparta belonged to the Agiads and the Eurypontids, descendants respectively of Eurysthenes and Procles. Sparta was an important Greek city-state in the Peloponnesus. In Greek mythology, Eurysthenes (Εὐρυσθένης was one of the Heracleidae, a great-great-great-grandson of Heracles, and a son of Aristodemus In Greek mythology, Procles (Προκλῆς was one of the Heracleidae, a great-great-great-grandson of Heracles, and a son of Aristodemus. Both dynasty founders were believed to be twin sons of Aristodemus, a Heraclid ruler. In Greek mythology, Aristodemus was a son of Aristomachus and brother of Cresphontes and Temenus. In Greek mythology, the Heracleidae or Heraclids were the numerous descendants of Heracles (Hercules especially applied in a narrower sense to the descendants However, the powers of these kings was trammeled by both a council of elders (the Gerousia) and magistrates specifically appointed to watch over the kings (the Ephors). The Gerousia was the Spartan Senate (council of elders It was created by the Spartan lawgiver Lycurgus in the seventh century BC in his Great An ephor ( Classical Greek) (from the Greek, epi, "on" or "over" and, horaō, "to see" i
Only free, land owning, native-born men could be citizens entitled to the full protection of the law in a city-state (later Pericles introduced exceptions to the native-born restriction). This article aims to give an overview of warfare in the Ancient Greek Archaic and Classical periods (approximately 750-320 BC dealing with the history the The Army of ancient Macedon is considered to be among the greatest military forces of the ancient world A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. Pericles (also spelled Perikles) (c 495 – 429 BC Greek:, meaning "surrounded by glory" was a prominent and influential Statesman, orator In most city-states, unlike Rome, social prominence did not allow special rights. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC For example, being born in a certain family generally brought no special privileges. Sometimes families controlled public religious functions, but this ordinarily did not give any extra power in the government. In Athens, the population was divided into four social classes based on wealth. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's People could change classes if they made more money. In Sparta, all male citizens were given the title of equal if they finished their education. The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη However, Spartan kings, who served as the city-state's dual military and religious leaders, came from two families. Slaves had no power or status. Slavery was common practice and an integral component of Ancient Greece throughout its history as it was in other societies of the time They had the right to have a family and own property, however they had no political rights. By 600 BC chattel slavery had spread in Greece. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία By the 5th century BC slaves made up one-third of the total population in some city-states. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. Slaves outside of Sparta almost never revolted because they were made up of too many nationalities and were too scattered to organize.
Most families owned slaves as household servants and labourers, and even poor families might have owned a few slaves. Owners were not allowed to beat or kill their slaves. Owners often promised to free slaves in the future to encourage slaves to work hard. Unlike in Rome, freedmen (slaves who were freed) did not become citizens. A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. Instead, they were mixed into the population of metics, which included people from foreign countries or other city-states who were officially allowed to live in the state. In Ancient Greece, the term metic meant resident alien a person who did not have citizen rights in their Greek City-state ( Polis) of residence
City-states legally owned slaves. These public slaves had a larger measure of independence than slaves owned by families, living on their own and performing specialized tasks. In Athens, public slaves were trained to look out for counterfeit coinage, while temple slaves acted as servants of the temple's deity. Coin counterfeiting occurs regularly in the antique Coin market but there are various modern forgeries that make it into general circulation A listing of Greek mythological beings Many of the gods and goddesses had Roman and Etruscan equivalents.
Sparta had a special type of slaves called helots. The helots (in Classical Greek / Heílôtes) were an unfree population group that formed the Helots were Greek war captives owned by the state and assigned to families where they were forced to stay. Helots raised food and did household chores so that women could concentrate on raising strong children while men could devote their time to training as hoplites. The word hoplite ( Greek: hoplitēs; pl hoplitai) derives from hoplon ( plural hopla) meaning an item of armour or equipment thus 'hoplite' Their masters treated them harshly and helots often resorted to slave rebellions. A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. Slave rebellions have occurred in nearly all societies that practice slavery and are amongst the most feared events
For most of Greek history, education was private, except in Sparta. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency During the Hellenistic period, some city-states established public schools. This article focuses on the historical aspects of the Hellenistic age for the cultural aspects see Hellenistic civilisation. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils" Only wealthy families could afford a teacher. Boys learned how to read, write and quote literature. They also learned to sing and play one musical instrument and were trained as athletes for military service. They studied not for a job, but to become an effective citizen. Girls also learned to read, write and do simple arithmetic so they could manage the household. Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics used by almost everyone They almost never received education after childhood.
Boys went to school at the age of seven, or went to the barracks, if they lived in Sparta. A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils" The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη The three types of teachings were: grammatistes for arithmetic, kitharistes for music and dancing, and Paedotribae for sports.
Boys from wealthy families attending the private school lessons were taken care by a paidagogos, a household slave selected for this task who accompanied the boy during the day. A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils" Classes were held in teachers' private houses and included reading, writing, mathematics, singing, and playing of the lyre and flute. When the boy became 12 years old the schooling started to include sports as wrestling, running, and throwing discus and javelin. In Athens some older youths attended academy for the finer disciplines such as culture, sciences, music, and the arts. The schooling ended at the age of 18, followed by military training in the army usually for one or two years. 
A small number of boys continued their education after childhood, as in the Spartan agoge. The agoge (Άγωγή was a rigorous education and training regime for all Spartan citizens except the sons in the ruling houses A crucial part of a wealthy teenager's education was a mentorship with an elder, which in few places and times may have included pederastic love. Greek Pederasty, as idealised by the Greeks from archaic times onward was a relationship and bond between an adolescent boy and an adult man outside The teenager learned by watching his mentor talking about politics in the agora, helping him perform his public duties, exercising with him in the gymnasium and attending symposia with him. The Agora was an open "place of assembly" in ancient Greek city-states Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means "to drink together" but has since come to refer to any Academic conference The richest students continued their education by studying with famous teachers. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Some of Athens' greatest such schools included the Lyceum (the so-called Peripatetic school founded by Aristotle of Stageira) and the Platonic Academy (founded by Plato of Athens). This article is about Lyceum as school or as public hall Lyceum can also be short for Lyceum Theatre. The Peripatetics were members of a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. For the Raphael painting see The School of Athens The Academy (Ἀκαδήμεια was founded by Plato in ca Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece The education system of the wealthy ancient Greeks is also called Paideia. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency In Ancient Greek, the word Paideia (παιδεία means "education" or "instruction
At its economic height, in the 5th and 4th centuries BC, ancient Greece was the most advanced economy in the world. The Economy of Ancient Greece was characterized by the extreme importance of Agriculture, all the more so because of the relative poverty of Greece According to some economic historians, it was one of the most advanced preindustrial economies. This is demonstrated by the average daily wage of the Greek worker which was, in terms of wheat, about 12 kg. This was more than 3 times the average daily wage of an Egyptian worker during the Roman period, about 3. 75 kg. 
Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. Reason involves the ability to think understand and draw Conclusions in an Abstract way as in Human thinking Inquiry or enquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting Knowledge, resolving Doubt, or solving a Problem. In many ways, it had an important influence on modern philosophy, as well as modern science. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Clear unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers, to medieval Muslim philosophers and scientists, to the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, to the secular sciences of the modern day. Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neoplatonism Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding
Neither reason nor inquiry began with the Greeks. Defining the difference between the Greek quest for knowledge and the quests of the elder civilizations, such as the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians, has long been a topic of study by theorists of civilization. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital
Alfred North Whitehead once claimed that all of philosophy is but a footnote to Plato. Ancient Greek literature refers to Literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Comedy was one of two principal dramatic forms in ancient Greece the other being Tragedy. The theatre of ancient Greece, or ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical Culture that flourished in ancient Greece between c Alfred North Whitehead, OM ( February 15 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England &ndash December 30 1947, Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece To suggest that all of Western literature is no more than a footnote to the writings of ancient Greece is an exaggeration, but it is nevertheless true that the Greek world of thought was so far-ranging that there is scarcely an idea discussed today not already debated by the ancient writers. Western literature refers to the Literature of the Indo-European languages, as well as several languages geographically or historically related to the Indo-European Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry.
Greek mythology consists of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their religious practices. pre-Hellenistic Classical Greece Scylax of Caryanda Anaximander Hecataeus of Miletus Massaliote Periplus Greek astronomy is the Astronomy of those who wrote in the Greek language in Classical antiquity. Greek mathematics, as that term is used in this article is the Mathematics written in Greek, developed from the 6th century BC to the 5th century The first known Greek medical school opened in Cnidus in 700 BC Ancient Greek technology developed at an unprecedented speed during the 5th century BC continuing up to and including the girls period and beyond In Greek mythology, Nike ( Greek Νίκη níːkɛː meaning Victory) was a Goddess who personified Triumph This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present particularly in the areas of Sculpture Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices. Hellenistic religion comprises any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the peoples who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance }} A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and The main Greek gods were the twelve Olympians, Zeus, his wife Hera, Poseidon, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Demeter, and Hestia. Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (ˈhɪərə or /ˈhɛrə/ Greek) or Here ( in Ionic and Homer In Greek mythology, Poseidon ( Greek:; Latin: Neptūnus) was the god of the Sea and as "Earth-Shaker" In Greek mythology, Ares ( Ancient Greek:, Μodern Greek Άρης) is the son of Zeus and Hera. Hermes ( Greek,, ˈhɝmiːz in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them of Shepherds and Hephaestus (hɨˈfiːstəs or /hɨˈfɛstəs/ Greek Hēphaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan. ATHENA was an Antimatter research project that took place at the AD Ring at CERN. In Greek mythology, Artemis language|Greek] ( Nominative), ( Genitive))] was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister Demeter (dɨˈmiːtɚ Greek:, possibly "distribution-mother" from the noun of the Indo-European mother-earth * dheghom * mater In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia, (Roman name Vesta daughter of Kronus and Rhea, ( ancient Greek) is the Goddess Other important deities included Hebe, Helios, Hades, Dionysus, Persephone and Heracles (a demi-god). In Greek mythology, Hēbē ( Greek:) is the Goddess of youth ( Roman equivalent Juventas) In Greek mythology the Sun was personified as Helios (ˈhiliˌɑs ( Ἥλιος Latinized as Helius) Hades (from Greek, Hadēs, originally, Haidēs or, Aidēs, probably from Indo-European *n̥-wid- 'unseen' refers both to the ancient In Classical mythology, Dionysus or Dionysos (in Greek, Διόνυσος or Διώνυσος; associated with Roman In Greek mythology, Persephone ( Kore or Cora) was the embodiment of the Earth's fertility at the same time that she was the Queen of the Underworld In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or The term " demigod " meaning "half-god" is used to describe mythological figures whose one parent was a god and whose other parent was human Zeus' parents were Kronos and Rhea who also were the parents of Poseidon, Hades, Hera, Hestia, and Demeter.
The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London.