Anabolic steroids, anabolic-androgenic steroids or AAS, are a class of steroid hormones related to the hormone testosterone. A steroid is a Terpenoid Lipid characterized by a Carbon skeleton with four fused rings generally arranged in a 6-6-6-5 fashion Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries They increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup of cellular tissue (anabolism), especially in muscles. Protein biosynthesis (synthesis is the process in which cells build Proteins The term is sometimes used to refer only to protein translation but more The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living Organisms It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living and is often called Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism Anabolism is the set of Metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair. Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound usually a Steroid Hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine In biology and medicine virilization refers to the biological development of Sex differences, changes which make a Male body different from a Female body The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of Mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the Larynx. The word anabolic comes from the Greek: anabole, "to build up", and the word androgenic comes from the Greek: andros, "man" + genein, "to produce". Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
Anabolic steroids were first isolated, identified and synthesized in the 1930s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate bone growth and appetite, induce male puberty, and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS. In Chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of Chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Bones are rigid organs that form part of the Endoskeleton of Vertebrates They function to move support and protect the various organs of the body produce Wasting could also mean unefficient and/or uneffective consumption. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Anabolic steroids also produce increases in muscle mass and physical strength, and are consequently used in sport and bodybuilding to enhance strength or physique. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing Muscle hypertrophy. Serious health risks can be produced by long-term use or excessive doses of anabolic steroids. These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels (increased low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein), acne, high blood pressure, liver damage, and dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart. Cholesterol is a Lipid found in the Cell membranes and transported in the Blood plasma of all Animals It is an essential component of mammalian Low-density lipoprotein ( LDL) is a type of Lipoprotein that transports Cholesterol and Triglycerides from the Liver to peripheral High-density lipoproteins ( HDL) is one of the 5 major groups of Lipoproteins ( Chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL Acne vulgaris (commonly called acne) is a Skin disease caused by changes in the Pilosebaceous units (skin structures consisting of a Hair follicle Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated Drug metabolism in liver The human body identifies almost all drugs as foreign substances (i The left ventricle is one of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles in the Human Heart. Some of these effects can be mitigated by exercise, or by taking supplemental drugs. 
Non-medical uses for anabolic steroids are controversial, because of their adverse effects and their use to gain weight and potential advantage in competitive sports. The use of anabolic steroids is banned by all major sporting bodies, including the International Olympic Committee, Major League Baseball, the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, WWE, ICC, ITF, FIFA, FINA, UEFA, the European Athletic Association, and the Brazilian Football Confederation. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, The International Cricket Council (ICC is the international governing body of Cricket. The International Tennis Federation (ITF is the governing body of world Tennis, made up of 205 national tennis associations The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (French for International Federation of Association Football) The Union of European Football Associations (Union des associations européennes de football is the administrative and controlling body for European football. The European Athletic Association is the European governing body for the sport of athletics. The Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF or Confederação Brasileira de Futebol in Portuguese is the governing body of football in Brazil, Anabolic steroids are controlled substances in many countries, including Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (U. A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture possession and use are regulated by a government For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the S. ), while in other countries, such as Mexico and Thailand, they are readily available over-the-counter. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Over-the-counter (OTC drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to Prescription drugs The name "over-the-counter" In countries where the drugs are controlled, there is often a black market in which smuggled or counterfeit drugs are sold to users. Smuggling, also known as trafficking, is the clandestine transportation of goods or persons past a point where prohibited such as out of a building into a Prison A counterfeit drug or a counterfeit medicine is a Medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin The quality of such illegal drugs may be low, and contaminants may cause additional health risks. In countries where anabolic steroids are strictly regulated some have called for less regulation.
Performance enhancing substances have been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine by societies around the world, with the aim of promoting vitality and strength. The term traditional medicine ( Indigenous medicine or folk medicine) describes medical knowledge systems which developed over centuries within various societies  In particular, the use of steroid hormones pre-dates their identification and isolation: medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied. A steroid is a Terpenoid Lipid characterized by a Carbon skeleton with four fused rings generally arranged in a 6-6-6-5 fashion Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" virility plural testes) is the male  In 1889, the 72-year-old British neurologist Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard injected himself with an extract of dog and guinea pig testicles, and reported at a scientific meeting that these injections had led to a variety of beneficial effects. Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard (variant Charles Edward) Mauritian Physiologist and Neurologist, was born at Port Louis, Mauritius The Guinea pig (also commonly called the cavy after its scientific name Cavia porcellus) is a species of Rodent belonging to the family Caviidae 
The development of modern pharmaceutical anabolic steroids can be traced back to 1931 when Adolf Butenandt, a chemist in Marburg, purified 15 milligrams of the male hormone androstenone from tens of thousands of litres of urine. Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt ( March 24, 1903 &ndash January 18, 1995) was a German Biochemist. A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the River Lahn. It is the main town of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district Androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-4-one is a Steroid found in both Male and Female Sweat and Urine. This hormone was synthesized in 1934 by Leopold Ruzicka, a chemist in Zurich. In Chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of Chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products Lavoslav Stjepan Ružička ( September 13, 1887 &ndash September 26, 1976) was a Croatian scientist winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the It was already known that the testes contained a more powerful androgen than androstenone, and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland, raced to isolate it. The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" virility plural testes) is the male Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound usually a Steroid Hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation 
This testicular hormone was first identified by Karoly Gyula David, E. The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" virility plural testes) is the male Dingemanse, J. Freud and Ernst Laqueur in a May 1935 paper "On Crystalline Male Hormone from Testicles (Testosterone). " They named the hormone testosterone, from the stems of testicle and sterol, and the suffix of ketone. Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries In Linguistics, a stem (sometimes also theme) is the part of a word that is common to all its inflected variants Sterols, or steroid alcohols are a subgroup of Steroids with a Hydroxyl group at the 3-position of the A-ring In Grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an Affix which is placed at the end of a word A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the Functional group characterized by a Carbonyl group (O=C linked to two other Carbon atoms or The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. In Chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of Chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products Hanisch published a paper describing "A Method for Preparing Testosterone from Cholesterol. " Only a week later, the third group, Ruzicka and A. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone (Androsten-3-one-17-ol). " Ruzicka and Butenandt were offered the 1939 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for their work, but the Nazi government forced Butenandt to decline the honor. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of Chemistry. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers 
Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyl testosterone or injections of testosterone propionate, began as early as 1937. In Chemistry, a methyl group is a Hydrophobic Alkyl Functional group named after Methane (4 Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries  Testosterone propionate is mentioned in a letter to the editor of Strength and Health magazine in 1938; this is the earliest known reference to an anabolic steroid in a U.S. weightlifting or bodybuilding magazine. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Weightlifting, also called Olympic weightlifting or Olympic-style weightlifting, is a sport in which participants attempt a maximum weight single lift of a barbell Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing Muscle hypertrophy.
During the Second World War, German scientists synthesized other anabolic steroids, and experimented on concentration camp inmates and prisoners of war in an attempt to treat chronic wasting. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including See also List of Nazi-German concentration camps, Extermination camp Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany under Hitler maintained Cachexia (kəˈkɛksiə is loss of weight, Muscle atrophy, fatigue weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to  They also experimented on German soldiers, hoping to increase their aggression. Adolf Hitler himself, according to his physician, was injected with testosterone derivatives to treat various ailments. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately  The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the 1940s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and amateur weight lifters. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games Amateurism (from Fr amateur "lover of" from OFr from L Weightlifting, also called Olympic weightlifting or Olympic-style weightlifting, is a sport in which participants attempt a maximum weight single lift of a barbell  In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. S. Olympic Team physician Dr. John Ziegler worked with synthetic chemists to develop an anabolic steroid for American weightlifters, resulting in the production of methandrostenolone (Dianabol). Methandrostenolone ( Dianabol DBOL) is an Anabolic steroid originally developed by John Ziegler and released in the US in 1958 by Ciba Methandrostenolone ( Dianabol DBOL) is an Anabolic steroid originally developed by John Ziegler and released in the US in 1958 by Ciba  Dianabol, developed by Ciba Pharmaceuticals, was approved for use in the U. S. by the Food and Drug Administration in 1958. Dianabol had the same strength building properties as testosterone, but with reduced side effects. 
From the 1950s until the 1980s, there were doubts that anabolic steroids produced anything more than a placebo effect. Placebo is a substance or procedure a patient accepts as medicine or therapy but which has no specific therapeutic activity In a 1972 study, participants were informed they would receive injections of anabolic steroids on a daily basis, but instead had actually been given a placebo. Placebo is a substance or procedure a patient accepts as medicine or therapy but which has no specific therapeutic activity They reportedly could not tell the difference, and the perceived performance enhancement was similar to that of subjects taking the real anabolic compounds. Endurance (also called sufferance) is the ability for humans to exert themselves through aerobic or Anaerobic exercise for relatively long periods of time According to Geraline Lin, a researcher for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, these results remained unchallenged for 18 years, even though the study used inconsistent controls and insignificant doses. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science  In a 2001 study, the effects of high doses of anabolic steroids were examined, by injecting variable doses (up to 600 mg/week) of testosterone enanthate into muscle tissue for 20 weeks. Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism The results showed a clear increase in muscle mass and decrease in fat mass associated with the testosterone doses. 
Anabolic steroids are primarily administered orally (by mouth) or parenterally. Steroid hormones are Steroids which act as Hormones Mammalian steroid hormones can be grouped into five groups by the receptors to which they bind Steroid hormone receptors are Intracellular receptors (typically Cytoplasmic that perform Signal transduction for Steroid hormones Steroid In Pharmacology and Toxicology, a route Some anabolic steroids may also be administered by topical or transdermal methods; however, not as much is known of these more recently developed routes of administration. A transdermal patch or skin patch is a Medicated Adhesive patch that is placed on the Skin to deliver a specific Dose of medication The traditional routes of administration do not have differential effects on the efficacy of the drug. Studies indicate that the anabolic properties of anabolic steroids are relatively similar despite the differences in pharmacokinetic principles such as first-pass metabolism. The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of Drug metabolism whereby the Concentration However, the first-pass metabolism that orally-administered AAS are subjected to has been shown to produce more harmful side effects, particularly liver damage.
As the name suggests, anabolic-androgenic steroids have two different, but overlapping, types of effects. First, they are anabolic, meaning that they promote anabolism (cell growth). Anabolism is the set of Metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids, increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow, which increases the production of red blood cells. Protein biosynthesis (synthesis is the process in which cells build Proteins The term is sometimes used to refer only to protein translation but more In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of Bones In adults marrow in large bones produces new Blood cells It constitutes 4% of Red blood cells are the most common type of Blood cell and the Vertebrate body's principal means of delivering Oxygen to the body tissues via the Blood
Second, these steroids are androgenic or virilizing, meaning in particular that they affect the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics. Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound usually a Steroid Hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine In biology and medicine virilization refers to the biological development of Sex differences, changes which make a Male body different from a Female body The biochemical functions of androgens such as testosterone are numerous. Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound usually a Steroid Hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality (especially in fetal development). The sebaceous glands are Glands found in the Skin of Mammals Locations and morphology A branched type of Acinar gland, these Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children (the adult penis does not grow even when exposed to high doses of androgens), increased growth of androgen-sensitive hair (pubic, beard, chest, and limb hair), increased vocal cord size, deepening the voice, increased libido, suppression of natural sex hormones, and impaired production of sperm. Clitoromegaly (or macroclitoris) is an abnormal enlargement of the Clitoris (not to be confused with the normal enlargement of the clitoris seen during Sexual arousal The penis (plural penises, penes Pubic hair is Hair in the frontal Genital area the crotch, and sometimes at the top of the inside of the legs these areas form the pubic region The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of Mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the Larynx. Libido in its common usage means Sexual desire however more technical definitions such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general referring to libido The word endogenous means "arising from within" the opposite of Exogenous. Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are Steroid hormones that interact with Vertebrate Androgen or Estrogen receptors Spermatogenesis is the process by which male Spermatogonia develop into mature Spermatozoa. 
Through a combination of these effects, anabolic steroids stimulate the formation of muscles and hence cause an increase in the size of muscle fibers, leading to increased muscle mass and strength. Skeletal muscle is a type of Striated muscle, which usually attaches to tendons  This increase in muscle mass is mostly due to larger skeletal muscles, and is caused by both increased production of muscle proteins as well as a decline in the breakdown rate of these proteins. A high testosterone dose also decreases the amount of fat in muscle, while increasing protein content. Anabolic steroids also decrease overall fat.
Anabolic steroids can cause many adverse effects. In Medicine, an adverse effect is a harmful and undesired effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as Chemotherapy or Surgery. Most of these side effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure, especially in those with pre-existing hypertension, and harmful changes in cholesterol levels: some steroids cause an increase in LDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol. Blood pressure is also the title of a short story by Damon Runyan in Guys and Dolls and Other Stories Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated Cholesterol is a Lipid found in the Cell membranes and transported in the Blood plasma of all Animals It is an essential component of mammalian Low-density lipoprotein ( LDL) is a type of Lipoprotein that transports Cholesterol and Triglycerides from the Liver to peripheral High-density lipoproteins ( HDL) is one of the 5 major groups of Lipoproteins ( Chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL  Anabolic steroids such as testosterone also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases refers to the class of diseases that involve the Heart or Blood vessels ( arteries and Coronary artery disease (CAD (or atherosclerotic Heart disease) is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls  Acne is fairly common among anabolic steroid users, mostly due to stimulation of the sebaceous glands by increased testosterone levels. Acne vulgaris (commonly called acne) is a Skin disease caused by changes in the Pilosebaceous units (skin structures consisting of a Hair follicle The sebaceous glands are Glands found in the Skin of Mammals Locations and morphology A branched type of Acinar gland, these  Conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) can accelerate the rate of premature baldness for those who are genetically predisposed. Dihydrotestosterone ( DHT) (Full name 5α-Dihydrotestosterone, abbreviating to 5α-DHT; INN: androstanolone; commonly called Baldness involves the state of lacking hair where it often grows especially on the head
Other side effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart, such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle, which impairs its contraction and relaxation. The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic Left ventricular hypertrophy ( LVH) is the thickening of the Myocardium (muscle of the Left ventricle of the Heart. Diastole is the period of time when the heart fills with blood after systole (contraction  Possible effects of these alterations in the heart are hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, heart attacks, and sudden cardiac death. Dysrhythmia redirects here For the American band see Dysrhythmia (band. Heart failure is a Cardiac condition that occurs when a problem with the structure or function of the Heart impairs its ability to supply Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply The term sudden cardiac death refers to Natural death from cardiac causes heralded by abrupt loss of Consciousness within one hour of the onset of acute symptoms  These changes are also seen in non-drug using athletes, but steroid use may accelerate this process. A sportsperson ( British and American English) or athlete (principally American English is any person who participates regularly in a Sport.  However, both the connection between changes in the structure of the left ventricle and decreased cardiac function, as well as the connection to steroid use have been disputed. 
High doses of oral anabolic steroid compounds can cause liver damage as the steroids are metabolized (17α-alkylated) in the digestive system to increase their bioavailability and stability. Drug metabolism in liver The human body identifies almost all drugs as foreign substances (i An alkyl is a Univalent radical consisting of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain In Pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered Dose of unchanged drug that reaches the Systemic circulation, one of  When high doses of such steroids are used for long periods, the liver damage may be severe and lead to liver cancer. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC also called hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer of the Liver. 
There are also gender-specific side effects of anabolic steroids. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia (which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estrogen), may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estrogen by the enzyme aromatase. Gynecomastia, or gynaecomastia, ˌgaɪnəkoʊˈmæstiə is the development of abnormally large Mammary glands in Males resulting in breast enlargement which Estrogens (US otherwise oestrogens or œstrogens) are a group of Steroid compounds named for their importance in the Estrous cycle,  Reduced sexual function and temporary infertility can also occur in males. A model defining different aspects of sexual function relevant for the assessment of Sexual dysfunction developed at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden Female infertility|Male infertility Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a Man or a Woman to contribute to conception.  Another male-specific side effect which can occur is testicular atrophy, caused by the suppression of natural testosterone levels, which inhibits production of sperm (most of the mass of the testes is developing sperm). Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the Male Reproductive organs (the Testes, which in humans are located in the Scrotum Spermatogenesis is the process by which male Spermatogonia develop into mature Spermatozoa. This side effect is temporary: the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing anabolic steroid use as normal production of sperm resumes.  Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair, deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris, and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles. Hirsutism (from Latin hirsutus = shaggy hairy is defined as excessive and increased Hair growth in women in locations where the occurrence of Terminal Clitoromegaly (or macroclitoris) is an abnormal enlargement of the Clitoris (not to be confused with the normal enlargement of the clitoris seen during Sexual arousal The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive-age Females Overt menstruation (where there is blood flow from the When taken during pregnancy, anabolic steroids can affect fetal development by causing the development of male features in the female fetus and female features in the male fetus. Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo or fetus (or foetus) gestates during Pregnancy, from fertilization 
A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use anabolic steroids. For example, the steroids may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones (premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites), resulting in stunted growth. The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline Cartilage plate in the metaphyses of children and Metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind" - specifically the study of their small-molecule metabolite Stunted growth is a reduced growth rate in human development It is a primary manifestation of Malnutrition in early Childhood, including malnutrition during Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation, increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development. Bone age is a way of describing the degree of maturation of a child's Bones As a person grows from fetal life through childhood Puberty, and finishes growth Anabolic steroid use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. In Probability theory and Statistics, correlation, (often measured as a correlation coefficient) indicates the strength and direction of a linear 
The effect of anabolic steroids on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: first, they increase the production of proteins; second, they reduce recovery time by blocking the effects of stress hormone cortisol on muscle tissue, so that catabolism of muscle is greatly reduced. Protein biosynthesis (synthesis is the process in which cells build Proteins The term is sometimes used to refer only to protein translation but more Cortisol is a Corticosteroid Hormone produced by the Adrenal gland (in the Zona fasciculata of the Adrenal cortex) For the related metabolic process see Anabolism. Catabolism is the set of Metabolic pathways which break down molecules into It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through anabolic steroids inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible Glucocorticoids (GC are a class of Steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the glucocorticoid receptor ( GR) and trigger similar effects  Anabolic steroids also affect the number of cells that develop into fat-storage cells, by favouring cellular differentiation into muscle cells instead. In Developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized Cell type. 
The main way in which steroid hormones interact with cells is by binding to proteins called steroid receptors. Steroid hormone receptors are Intracellular receptors (typically Cytoplasmic that perform Signal transduction for Steroid hormones Steroid When steroids bind to these receptors, the proteins move into the cell nucleus and either alter the expression of genes or activate processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. In Cell biology, the nucleus (pl nuclei; from Latin la ''nucleus'' or la ''nuculeus'' "little nut" or kernel is a membrane-enclosed Gene expression is the process by which inheritable information from a Gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made into a functional Gene product, such History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance In Biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another 
In the case of anabolic steroids, the receptors involved are called the androgen receptors. The androgen receptor ( AR) also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4 is a type of Nuclear receptor which is activated by The mechanisms of action differ depending on the specific anabolic steroid. Different types of anabolic steroids bind to the androgen receptor with different affinities, depending on their chemical structure.  Anabolic steroids such as methandrostenolone bind weakly to this receptor and instead directly affect protein synthesis or glycogenolysis. Methandrostenolone ( Dianabol DBOL) is an Anabolic steroid originally developed by John Ziegler and released in the US in 1958 by Ciba Protein biosynthesis (synthesis is the process in which cells build Proteins The term is sometimes used to refer only to protein translation but more Glycogenolysis (also known as "Glycogenlysis" is the Catabolism of Glycogen by removal of a Glucose monomer through cleavage with inorganic  On the other hand, steroids such as oxandrolone bind tightly to the receptor and act mostly on gene expression. Oxandrolone ( Oxandrin) is an Anabolic steroid created by Searle Laboratories, now Pfizer Inc Gene expression is the process by which inheritable information from a Gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made into a functional Gene product, such
The pharmacodynamics of anabolic steroids are unlike peptide hormones. Pharmacodynamics is the study of the Biochemical and Physiological effects of drugs on the body or on microorganisms or parasites within or on the body and the mechanisms Peptide hormones cannot penetrate the cell membranes and only indirectly affect the nucleus of target cells through their interaction with the cell’s surface receptors. Conversely, as steroid hormones, anabolic steroids are membrane permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of anabolic steroids begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the permeable membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor located in the cytoplasm of that cell. From there, the entire receptor-complex moves from the cytoplasm into the nucleus by a process called translocation. Once in the nucleus, the receptor-complex interacts with the DNA by recoding the genetic information to produce more myonuclei, this is known as transcription. After the restructuring of DNA, mRNA sends the new message back into the cytoplasm where specific organelles, such as ribosomes, make new protein.
Since the discovery and synthesis of testosterone in the 1930s, anabolic steroids have been used by physicians for many purposes, with varying degrees of success.
It is difficult to determine what percent of the population in general have actually used anabolic steroids, but the number seems to be fairly low. Studies in the United States have shown anabolic steroid users tend to be mostly middle-class heterosexual men with a median age of about 25 who are noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes and use the drugs for cosmetic purposes. Heterosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the opposite sex or to a heterosexual orientation In Probability theory and Statistics, a median is described as the number separating the higher half of a sample a population or a Probability distribution  Another study found that non-medical use of AAS among college students was at or less than 1%.  According to a recent survey, 78. 4% of steroid users were noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes while about 13% reported unsafe injection practices such as reusing needles, sharing needles, and sharing multidose vials, though a 2007 study found that sharing of needles was extremely uncommon among individuals using anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes, less than 1%.  Anabolic steroid users often are stereotyped as uneducated "muscle heads" by popular media and culture; however, a 1998 study on steroid users showed them to be the most educated drug users out of all users of controlled substances.  Another 2007 study found that 74% of non-medical anabolic steroid users had secondary college degrees and more had completed college and less had failed to complete high school than is expected from the general populace.  The same study found that individuals using Anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes had a higher employment rate and a higher household income than the general population.  Anabolic steroid users also tend to research the drugs they are taking more than any other group of users of controlled substances. Moreover, anabolic steroid users tend to be disillusioned by the portrayal of anabolic steroids as deadly in the media and in politics.  According to one study, AAS users also distrust their physicians and in the sample 56% had not disclosed their AAS use to their physicians.  Another 2007 study had similar findings, showing that while 66% of individuals using anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes were willing to seek medical supervision for their steroid use, 58% lacked trust in their physicians, 92% felt that the medical communities knowledge of non-medical anabolic steroid use was lacking and 99% felt that the public has an exaggerated view of the side effects of anabolic steroid use.  A recent study has also shown that long term AAS users were more likely to have symptoms of muscle dysmorphia and also showed stronger endorsement of more conventional male roles. Muscle dysmorphia is a disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with the idea that he or she is not Muscular enough 
Anabolic steroids have been used by men and women in many different kinds of professional sports (cricket, track and field, weightlifting, bodybuilding, shot put, cycling, baseball, wrestling, mixed martial arts, boxing, football, etc. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Weightlifting, also called Olympic weightlifting or Olympic-style weightlifting, is a sport in which participants attempt a maximum weight single lift of a barbell Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing Muscle hypertrophy. The shot put is an Athletics (track and field event involving "putting" (throwing in a pushing motion a heavy Cycling is the use of Bicycles or - less commonly - Unicycles Tricycles Quadricycles and other similar wheeled Human powered vehicles Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two people in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of the opponent Mixed martial arts (MMA is a full contact Combat sport that allows a wide variety of fighting techniques from a mixture of Martial arts traditions and Boxing (sometimes also known as English boxing or pugilism) is a Combat sport in which two participants generally of similar weight, Football is the word given to a number of similar Team sports all of which involve (to varying degrees kicking a Ball with the foot in an attempt to score a ) to attain a competitive edge or to assist in recovery from injury. Such use is prohibited by the rules of the governing bodies of many sports. Anabolic steroid use occurs among adolescents, especially by those participating in competitive sports. It has been suggested that the prevalence of use among high-school students in the U. S. may be as high as 2. 7%.  Male students used anabolic steroids more frequently than female students and, on average, those who participated in sports used steroids more often than those who did not.
There are three common forms in which anabolic steroids are administered: oral pills, injectable steroids, and skin patches. Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries Oral administration is most convenient, but the steroid must be chemically modified so that the liver cannot break it down before it reaches the systemic circulation; these formulations can cause liver damage in high doses. Drug metabolism in liver The human body identifies almost all drugs as foreign substances (i  Injectable steroids are typically administered into the muscle, not into the vein, to avoid sudden changes in the amount of the drug in the bloodstream. Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. A transdermal patch or skin patch is a Medicated Adhesive patch that is placed on the Skin to deliver a specific Dose of medication Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes. 
Various methods of minimizing the adverse effects of anabolic steroids have been implemented by those using them either for medical or other reasons. A steroid cycle is the period in time where an individual is actively taking Anabolic steroids. Post-cycle therapy ( PCT) is a drug regimen designed to stimulate the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPTA so that it begins to produce testosterone normally For example, users may increase their cardiovascular exercise level to help to counter the effects of changes in the left ventricle. Aerobic exercise refers to Exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body Hypertrophy is the increase of the size of an organ or in a select area of the tissue The left ventricle is one of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles in the Human Heart.  Some androgens are converted by the body into estrogen, a process, known as aromatisation, which has potential adverse effects described previously. Estrogens (US otherwise oestrogens or œstrogens) are a group of Steroid compounds named for their importance in the Estrous cycle, Consequently, during a steroid cycle, users may also take drugs to prevent aromatisation (called aromatase inhibitors) or drugs which affect estrogen receptor binding (called selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs): for example, the SERM tamoxifen prevents binding to the estrogen receptor in the breast, and so it can be used to reduce the risk of gynecomastia. A steroid cycle is the period in time where an individual is actively taking Anabolic steroids. Aromatase inhibitors ( AI) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of Breast cancer and Ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women that The estrogen receptor (ER is a member of the nuclear hormone family of Intracellular receptors which is activated by the Hormone 17β-estradiol Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators ( SERMs) are a class of Medication that acts on the Estrogen receptor. Tamoxifen is an orally active Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM that is used in the treatment of Breast cancer and is currently the world's largest Gynecomastia, or gynaecomastia, ˌgaɪnəkoʊˈmæstiə is the development of abnormally large Mammary glands in Males resulting in breast enlargement which 
To combat the natural testosterone suppression and to restore proper function of numerous glands involved, what is known as "post-cycle therapy" or PCT is sometimes used. The Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, and Gonads PCT takes place after each cycle of anabolic steroid use and typically consists of a combination of the following drugs, depending on which protocol is used:
The aim of PCT is to return the body's endogenous hormonal balance to its original state within the shortest period of time. People prone to the premature hair loss exacerbated by steroid use have been known to take the prescription drug finasteride for prolonged periods of time. Finasteride (marketed as Proscar, Propecia, Fincar, Finpecia, Finax, Finast, Finara, Finalo, Finasteride reduces the conversion of testosterone to DHT, the latter having much higher potency for alopecia. Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries Alopecia or hair loss is the medical description of the loss of hair from the head or body sometimes to the extent of Baldness. Finasteride is useless in the cases when steroid is not converted into a more androgenic derivative.  Since anabolic steroids can be toxic to the liver or can cause increases in blood pressure or cholesterol, many users consider it ideal to get frequent blood work tests and blood pressure tests to make sure their blood pressure or cholesterol are still within normal levels.
Anabolic steroids, like other drugs, have been the subject of controversy. A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body Although anabolic steroids have been frequently linked in the media to dangerous side effects and high mortality rates, they are used widely in medicine with an accepted side effect profile, providing patients are monitored for possible complications.  Former assistant professor at the University of Toronto and World Wrestling Entertainment athletic physician Mauro Di Pasquale has stated, "As used by most people, including athletes, the adverse effects of anabolic steroids appear to be minimal. This article is about the University of Toronto's St George Campus World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, Mauro G Di Pasquale, BSc, MD, MRO, MFS is a bodybuilding author and columnist "
In 1992, NFL football player Lyle Alzado died from brain cancer, which he attributed to the use of anabolic steroids. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with Lyle Martin Alzado ( April 3, 1949 – May 14, 1992) was a NFL American football player most famous for his intense and  However, although steroids have been known to cause liver cancer, there is no published evidence that anabolic steroids cause either brain cancer or the specific type of T-cell lymphoma that caused his death. Lymphoma a type of Neoplasm that originates in Lymphocytes (a type of White blood cell in the vertebrate Immune system)  Alzado's doctors stated that anabolic steroids did not contribute to his death. 
Other purported side effects include the idea that anabolic steroids have caused many teenagers to commit suicide.  While lower levels of testosterone have been known to cause depression, and ending a steroid cycle temporarily lowers testosterone levels, the hypothesis that anabolic steroids are responsible for suicides among teenagers remains unproven. Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression A steroid cycle is the period in time where an individual is actively taking Anabolic steroids. Although teen bodybuilders have been using steroids since at least the early 1960s, there have been few studies examining a possible link between steroids and suicide in the medical literature. 
Arnold Schwarzenegger has admitted to using anabolic steroids during his bodybuilding career for many years before they were made illegal, and in 1997 he underwent surgery to correct a defect relating to his heart. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor Some have assumed this was due to anabolic steroids.  Although anabolic steroid use can sometimes cause enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle, Schwarzenegger was born with a congenital genetic defect in which his heart had a bicuspid aortic valve; a condition that rendered his aortic valve with two cusps instead of three, which can occasionally cause problems later in life. A congenital disorder is a disease or disorder that is present at birth A bicuspid aortic valve is a defect of the aortic valve that results in the formation of two leaflets or cusps instead of the normal three 
Another condition that is frequently discussed as a possible side effect of anabolic steroids is known as "roid rage"; however there is no consensus in the medical literature as to whether such a condition actually exists. Testosterone levels are indeed associated with aggression and hypomania, but the link between other anabolic steroids and aggression remains unclear. Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries  While some studies have shown a correlation between manic symptoms and anabolic steroid use, later studies have questioned these conclusions.  Currently, three blind studies have demonstrated a link between aggression and steroid use, but with estimates of over one million past or current steroid users in the United states, an extremely small percentage of those using steroids appear to have experienced mental disturbance severe enough to result in clinical treatments or medical case reports. A randomized controlled trial (RCT is a type of scientific Experiment most commonly used in testing the Efficacy or Effectiveness of Healthcare  Individual studies vary in their findings, with some reporting no increase in aggression or hostility with anabolic steroid use, and others finding a correlation.  Including a study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used anabolic steroids and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin. 
It has previously been theorized that some studies showing a correlation between angry behavior and steroid use are confounded by the fact that steroid users are likely to demonstrate cluster B personality disorders prior to administering steroids. Personality disorder, formerly referred to as a Character Disorder is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of feeling thinking and behavior  In addition, many case studies have concluded anabolic steroids have little or no real effect on increased aggressive behavior. 
The legal status of anabolic steroids varies from country to country: some have stricter controls on their use or prescription than others. In the U. S. , anabolic steroids are currently listed as Schedule III controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act, which makes the possession of such substances without a prescription a federal crime punishable by up to seven years in prison. A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture possession and use are regulated by a government The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control  In Canada, anabolic steroids and their derivatives are part of the Controlled drugs and substances act and are Schedule IV substances, meaning that it is illegal to obtain or sell them without a prescription; however, possession is not punishable, a consequence reserved for schedule I, II or III substances. The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canada 's federal drug control statute Those guilty of buying or selling anabolic steroids in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. Import and export also carry similar penalties.  Anabolic steroids are also illegal without prescription in Australia, Argentina, Brazil and Portugal, and are listed as Schedule 4 Controlled Drugs in the United Kingdom. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The United Kingdom Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 aimed to control the possession and supply of numerous listed drugs and drug-like substances as a Controlled substance. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located On the other hand, anabolic steroids are readily available without a prescription in some countries such as Mexico and Thailand. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj
The history of the U. S. legislation on anabolic steroids goes back to the late 1980s, when the U.S. Congress considered placing anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substances Act following the controversy over Ben Johnson's victory at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Benjamin Sinclair "Ben" Johnson CM (b December 30, 1961) is a Canadian former sprinter, who enjoyed a high-profile The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event staged in 1988 in Seoul ( soʊl is the Capital and largest City of South Korea. During deliberations, the AMA, DEA, FDA as well as the NIDA all opposed listing anabolic steroids as controlled substances, citing the fact that use of these hormones does not lead to the physical or psychological dependence required for such scheduling under the Controlled Substance Act. The American Medical Association (AMA founded in 1847 and incorporated 1897 is the largest association of Physicians and Medical students in the United States The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science Nevertheless, anabolic steroids were added to Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act in the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990.  The same act also introduced more stringent controls with higher criminal penalties for offenses involving the illegal distribution of anabolic steroids and human growth hormone. By the early 1990s, after anabolic steroids were scheduled in the U. S. , several pharmaceutical companies stopped manufacturing or marketing the products in the U. S. , including Ciba, Searle, Syntex and others. In the Controlled Substances Act, anabolic steroids are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promote muscle growth. Estrogens (US otherwise oestrogens or œstrogens) are a group of Steroid compounds named for their importance in the Estrous cycle, A progestin is a synthetic progestagen that has progestinic effects similar to Progesterone. Corticosteroids are a class of Steroid hormones that are produced in the Adrenal cortex. The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004, which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances, with effect from January 20, 2005. A prohormone is a substance that is a precursor to a Hormone, usually having minimal hormonal effect by itself A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture possession and use are regulated by a government Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
In September 2007 the DEA wrapped up an 18-month international investigation of illicit anabolic steroid use in which 124 arrests were made and which targeted over 25 Chinese companies which produced raw materials for producing steroids and human growth hormone. The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and Growth hormone (GH is a protein Hormone secreted by the Pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction The investigation, dubbed "Operation Raw Deal," was the largest anabolic steroid operation in United States history and involved China, Mexico, Canada, Australia, Germany and Thailand among other countries. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The investigation also focused on online message boards where advice was given on how to use anabolic steroids and the DEA also intercepted hundreds of thousands of e-mails. The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and The DEA has also stated that the e-mails intercepted were compiled into a massive database of names which could lead to months or years of future arrests of steroid users. The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and 
Anabolic steroids are banned by all major sports bodies including the Olympics, the NBA, the NHL, as well as the NFL. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league.  The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) maintains the list of performance-enhancing substances used by many major sports bodies and includes all anabolic agents, which includes all anabolic steroids and precursors as well as all hormones and related substances. The World Anti-Doping Agency ( WADA) Agence mondiale antidopage is an independent foundation created through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee  Spain has passed an anti-doping law creating a national anti-doping agency. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.  Italy passed a law in 2000 where penalties range up to three years in prison if an athlete has tested positive for banned substances. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest  In 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed into law ratification of the International Convention Against Doping in Sport which would encourage cooperation with WADA. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, USSR; now Saint Petersburg, Russia was the second President of Russia Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting anabolic steroids in sports including Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Sweden. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. 
In countries where anabolic steroids are illegal or controlled, the majority of steroids are obtained illegally through black market trade.  These steroids are usually manufactured in other countries, and therefore must be smuggled across international borders. Smuggling, also known as trafficking, is the clandestine transportation of goods or persons past a point where prohibited such as out of a building into a Prison Like most significant smuggling operations, organized crime is involved. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. Smuggling of anabolic steroids often occurs in conjunction with other illegal drugs, although in comparison with the trade in psychoactive recreational drugs such as cannabis and heroin, there have not been many high profile cases of individual smugglers of anabolic steroids being caught. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Recreational drug use is the use of Psychoactive drugs for Recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative
In addition to smuggling, illegal trade in counterfeit drugs has emerged rapidly in recent years, as computers and scanning technology have made it easy to copy the label design of genuine products. A counterfeit drug or a counterfeit medicine is a Medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin Consequently, the market has been flooded with products containing anything from vegetable oil to toxic substances. These products have been bought and injected by unsuspecting users, some of whom have died as a result of blood poisoning, methanol poisoning, or subcutaneous abscess. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound The subcutaneous tissue or subcutis is the layer of Loose connective tissue directly underlying the Dermis. 
Anabolic steroids need sophisticated pharmaceutical processes and equipment to produce, so they are either manufactured by legitimate pharmaceutical companies or by underground laboratories with large overheads. Common problems associated with illegal drug trades, such as chemical substitutions, cutting, and diluting, affect illegal anabolic steroids as well, so that when they reach the distribution level, the quality may be compromised and the drugs may be dangerous. In the 1990s, most U. S. producers such as Ciba, Searle and Syntex stopped making and marketing anabolic steroids within the U. Ciba is a Chemical company based in and near Basel, Switzerland. GD Searle & Company or just Searle was a company focusing on life sciences specifically pharmaceuticals agriculture and animal health Laboratorios Syntex SA was a pharmaceutical company formed in Mexico City in 1944 by Russell Marker to manufacture therapeutic steroids from the Mexican yam S. However, in many other regions, particularly Eastern Europe, they are still produced in quantity. European anabolic steroids are the source of most medical grade anabolic steroids sold illegally in North America. However, anabolic steroids are still in wider use for veterinary purposes, and many illegal anabolic steroids are actually veterinary grade.  These can also be dangerous, as they may have been produced and handled in cruder and less sterile environments. 
In the U. S. , Canada and Europe, steroids are purchased just like any other illegal drug, through dealers who are able to obtain the drugs from a number of sources. Most users would prefer to buy from legitimate sources but cannot because of the legal restrictions. Instead, illegal anabolic steroids are sold at gyms, competitions, and through the mail. For the most part, these substances are smuggled, but may also be obtained through pharmacists, veterinarians, and physicians. Pharmacists are Health professionals who practice the art and science of Pharmacy. A veterinarian ( American English) or a Veterinary surgeon ( British English) often shortened to vet, is a Physician A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health  In addition, a significant number of counterfeit products are sold as anabolic steroids, particularly via mail order from websites posing as overseas pharmacies. Individuals also produce fake steroids and attempt to sell them over the Internet, causing a wide variety of health concerns. In the U. S. , black market importation continues from Mexico, Thailand, and other countries where steroids are more easily available or not illegal at all. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj 
After the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 listed anabolic steroids as Schedule III controlled substances in the U. The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control S. , a small movement has arisen that is highly critical of current laws concerning anabolic steroids. On June 21, 2005, Real Sports aired a segment discussing the legality and prohibition of anabolic steroids in America. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel is a monthly sports Newsmagazine on HBO that debuted on April 2, 1995.  The show featured Gary I. Wadler, M.D., chairman of the U. Gary I Wadler is an Internist with special expertise in the field of drug use in sports S. Anti-Doping Agency and a prominent anti-steroid activist. When pressed for scientific evidence by correspondent Armen Keteyian that anabolic steroids are as "highly fatal" as is often claimed, Wadler admitted there was no evidence. Armen Keteyian (born March 6, 1953 in Detroit Michigan) is an American television journalist and author Bryant Gumbel concluded the "hoopla" concerning the dangers of anabolic steroids in the media was "all smoke and no fire".  The show also featured John Romano, a pro-steroid activist who writes "The Romano Factor", a pro-steroid column for bodybuilding magazine Muscular Development. Muscular Development is an American fitness and Bodybuilding magazine first published in 1964
In July 2005, Philip Sweitzer, an attorney and author, published an open letter to the Members of the House Committee on Government Reform, and the Senate Committee on Commerce et al. In it he criticized lawmakers' actions in scheduling anabolic steroids, as well as criticized their "disregard of scientific reality for symbolic effect". He also pleaded for the consideration of the decriminalization of anabolic steroids and asked for a new policy direction.  Several other legal reviewers have criticized controlled substance status for anabolic steroids, including lawyer Rick Collins whose book, Legal Muscle, details published resources on anabolic steroids and the law. Collins opposes non-medical teen steroid use or steroid use to cheat in sports, but advocates wider discretion for physicians in the case of mature adults. In 2006, he argued at PUMPED, a steroid seminar in Manhattan, that the reporting of the risks associated with anabolic steroids in the media is biased and misinformed. He also argues that anabolic steroid criminalization increases the risks associated with anabolic steroids due to impurities in black market products.  However, the U. S. government's position since the late 1980s has been and continues to be that the risks of steroid use are too great to allow them to be decriminalized or unregulated.