Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. Treatment of physical trauma is described here and in First aid. Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Please do not add warnings to this page about the pictures Wikipedia is not censored for taste and has a guideline preventing such warnings - WikipediaNo disclaimers in articles In some cases, it is carried out on individuals as a preventative surgery for such problems. A special case is the congenital amputation, a congenital disorder, where foetal limbs have been cut off by constrictive bands. Congenital amputation is a Congenital disorder caused by fibrous bands of the amnion that constrict foetal limbs to such an extent that they fall off due A congenital disorder is a disease or disorder that is present at birth A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and In some countries, amputation of the hands or feet is or was used as a form of punishment for people who committed crimes. Punishment is the practice of imposing something unpleasant or aversive on a person or animal usually in response to disobedient or morally wrong behavior Amputation has also been used as a tactic in war and acts of terrorism. In some cultures and religions, minor amputations or mutilations are considered a ritual accomplishment. Unlike many non-mammalian animals (such as lizards that shed their tails), once removed, human extremities do not grow back. Lizards are a large and widespread group of Reptiles of the order Squamata, with nearly 5000 species and ranging across all continents except A transplant or a prosthesis is the only option for recovering the loss. In Medicine, a prosthesis (plural prostheses) is an Artificial extension that replaces a missing Body part.
Origins of the word
Amputation is derived from the Latin amputare, to cut away, from amb (about) and putare (to prune). The Latin word has never been recorded in a surgical context, being reserved to indicate punishment for criminals. The English word amputation was first applied to surgery in the 17th century, possibly first in Peter Lowe's A discourse of the Whole Art of Chirurgerie (published in either 1597 or 1612), his work was derived from 16th century French texts and early English writers also used the words "extirpation" (16th century French texts tended to use extirper), "disarticulation," and "dismemberment" (from the Old French desmembrer and a more common term before the 17th century for limb loss or removal), or simply "cutting. " but by the end of the 17th century amputation had come to dominate as the accepted medical term.
The history of human amputation can be divided into a number of periods. Initially, limb loss was usually the result of trauma or 'nonsurgical' removal. This was followed by the hesitant beginnings of surgical intervention, mainly on gangrenous limbs or those already terribly damaged, which developed through to surgical amputations around the 15th century, the distinction is marked by the choice of the patient and the aim of saving a life and achieving a healed stump, despite the difficulties with infection and the lack of effective control for pain or blood loss. Please do not add warnings to this page about the pictures Wikipedia is not censored for taste and has a guideline preventing such warnings - WikipediaNo disclaimers in articles Improvements in surgical techniques were married with better haemorrhage control in the 19th century and in the 1840s with anaesthesia and around twenty years later efficient infection control. Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging / haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences) is the loss of Blood from Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek grc αν- an-, "without" and grc αἲσθησις The 20th century noted marked improvements in surgical techniques and also a move to increasingly sophisticated prosthetic limbs.
Types of amputation include:
- amputation of digits
- partial foot amputation (Chopart, Lisfranc)
- ankle disarticulation (Syme, Pyrogoff)
- below-knee amputation (transtibial)
- knee-bearing amputation (knee disarticulation)
- above knee amputation (transfemoral)
- Van-ness rotation/rotationplasty (Foot being turned around and reattached to allow the ankle joint to be used as a knee. A leg is a limb on an Animal 's Body that supports the rest of the animal above the ground between the Ankle and the Hip and is used for Rotationplasty is an operative procedure where a portion of a limb is removed while the remaining limb below the involved portion is rotated and reattached )
- hip disarticulation
- amputation of digits
- metacarpal amputation
- wrist disarticulation
- forearm amputation (transradial)
- elbow disarticulation
- above-elbow amputation (transhumeral)
- shoulder disarticulation and forequarter amputation
- Krukenberg procedure
- The avulsion of some teeth (mainly incisives) is or was practiced by some cultures for ritual purposes (for instance in the Iberomaurusian culture of Neolithic North Africa). A hemipelvectomy is a high level pelvic Amputation. Along with Hip-disarticulations hemipelvectomies are the rarest of lower extremity amputations In Anatomy, an arm is one of the Upper limbs of an animal The term arm can also be used for analogous structures such as one of the paired upper limbs The Krukenberg procedure, first described in 1917 by surgeon Hermann Krukenberg, is a surgical technique that converts a forearm stump into a Pincer. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan
Hemicorporectomy, or amputation at the waist, is the most radical amputation. In Medicine ( Surgery) hemicorporectomy (also named translumbar amputation and "halfectomy") is a Radical surgery in which
Genital modification and mutilation may involve amputating tissue (as the case is with circumcision), although not necessarily as a result of injury or disease. The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to Human Genitals. Male circumcision is the removal of some or all of the Foreskin (prepuce from the Penis.
As a rule, partial amputations are preferred to preserve joint function, but in oncological surgery, disarticulation is favored.
Reasons for amputation
- Diabetic foot infection or gangrene (the most common reason for non-traumatic amputation)
- Cancerous bone or soft tissue tumours (e. g. osteosarcoma, osteochondroma, fibrosarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, sacrococcygeal teratoma)
- Severe limb injuries in which the limb cannot be spared or attempts to spare the limb have failed
- Circulation problems
- Deformities of digits and/or limbs
- Extra digits and/or limbs (e. See also Teratoma Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT is a Teratoma (a kind of tumor located at the base of the Coccyx (tailbone g. polydactyly)
- Any advanced cancers
- Bone infection (osteomyelitis)
- Traumatic amputation (Amputation occurs actually at scene of accident, the limb can be partially or wholly severed)
- Amputation in utero (Amniotic band)
- Punishment/Torture (e. Polydactyly or polydactylism (from Ancient Greek πολύς (polus "many" + δάκτυλος (daktulos g in some countries, for example the Muslim world, theft is prevented by the threat of amputation of a hand, although the practice is highly controversial and some Islamic authorities are calling for a moratorium upon it, pending developments in Islamic law. )
- Sometimes professional athletes may choose to have a non-essential digit amputated to relieve chronic pain and impaired performance. A sportsperson ( British and American English) or athlete (principally American English is any person who participates regularly in a Sport. Daniel Chick elected to have his left ring finger amputated as chronic pain and injury was limiting his performance. Daniel Chick (born 10 February 1976 is a professional Australian rules footballer who played for Hawthorn and the West Coast Eagles in the Australian The ring finger is the fourth digit of the human Hand, and the second most Ulnar Finger, located between the Middle finger and the  Rugby union player Jone Tawake also had a finger removed. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Jone Tawake (born 17 April 1982), (height 187m weight 118kg is a Fijian born rugby union player 
Curved knives such as this one were used, in the past, for some kinds of amputations.
The first step is ligating the supplying artery and vein, to prevent hemorrhage. In medicine a ligature is a device similar to a Tourniquet, usually of thread or string tied around a limb blood vessel or similar to restrict blood flow Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging / haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences) is the loss of Blood from The muscles are transected, and finally the bone is sawed through with an oscillating saw. Bones are rigid organs that form part of the Endoskeleton of Vertebrates They function to move support and protect the various organs of the body produce Oscillation is the repetitive variation typically in Time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of Equilibrium) or between two or more different states A saw is a Tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials Skin and muscle flaps are then transposed over the stump, occasionally with the insertion of elements to attach a prosthesis. In Medicine, a prosthesis (plural prostheses) is an Artificial extension that replaces a missing Body part.
In some rare cases when a person has become trapped in a deserted place, with no means of communication or hope of rescue, the victim has amputated their own limb:
- In 2007, 66-year old Al Hill amputated his leg below the knee using his pocketknife after the leg got stuck beneath a fallen tree he was cutting in California. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. 
- In 2003, 27-year old Aron Ralston amputated his forearm using his pocketknife and breaking and tearing the two bones, after the arm got stuck under a boulder when hiking in Utah. Aron Lee Ralston (born October 27, 1975) is an American mountain climber who became famous in May 2003 when he was forced to Amputate The forearm is the structure on the Upper limb, between the elbow and the Wrist. A pocketknife is a folding Knife with a Blade that fits inside the handle and that is small enough to fit in a Pocket. Bones are rigid organs that form part of the Endoskeleton of Vertebrates They function to move support and protect the various organs of the body produce The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. 
- Also in 2003, an Australian coal miner amputated his own arm with a Stanley knife after it became trapped when the front-end loader he was driving overturned three kilometers underground. A loader is a type of construction equipment (engineering vehicle machinery that is primarily used to "load" material (asphalt demolition debris 
- In the 1990s, a crab fisherman got his arm caught in the winch during a storm and had to amputate it at the shoulder, as reported in The New Englander.
Even rarer are cases where self-amputation is performed for criminal or political purposes:
- About 50 people in Vernon, Florida, collected insurance claims for loss-of-limb accidents in the late 1950s and early 1960s; this was more than two-thirds of all such claims in the United States during that time. Vernon is a city in Washington County, Florida, United States. 
- On March 7, 1998, Daniel Rudolph, the elder brother of the 1996 Olympics bomber Eric Robert Rudolph, videotaped himself cutting off one of his own hands with an electric saw in order to "send a message to the FBI and the media. Events 161 - Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) The Centennial Olympic Park bombing was a terrorist Bombing on July 27, 1996 in Atlanta Georgia during the 1996 Summer Eric Robert Rudolph (born September 19, 1966) also known as the Olympic Park Bomber, is an American radical described by the FBI as a Terrorist "
Body Integrity Identity Disorder is a psychological condition in which an individual feels compelled to remove one or more of their body parts, usually a limb. Body Integrity Identity Disorder ( BIID) also known as Amputee Identity Disorder, refers to the psychological feeling that one would be happier living life as an amputee In some cases, that individual may take drastic measures to remove the offending appendages, either by causing irreparable damage to the limb so that medical intervention can not save the limb, or by causing the limb to be severed.
A large proportion of amputees (50-80%) experience the phenomenon of phantom limbs; they feel body parts that are no longer there. A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb (even an organ like the appendix is still attached to the body and is moving appropriately These limbs can itch, ache, and feel as if they are moving. Some scientists believe it has to do with a kind of neural map that the brain has of the body, which sends information to the rest of the brain about limbs regardless of their existence. Phantom sensations and phantom pain may also occur after the removal of body parts other than the limbs, e. g. after amputation of the breast, extraction of a tooth (phantom tooth pain) or removal of an eye (phantom eye syndrome). The phantom eye syndrome is a Phantom pain in the eye and visual Hallucinations, after the removal of an eye ( Enucleation, Evisceration) A similar phenomenon is unexplained sensation in a body part unrelated to the amputated limb. It has been hypothesized that the portion of the brain responsible for processing stimulation from amputated limbs, being deprived of input, actually expands into the surrounding brain, such that an individual who has had an arm amputated will experience unexplained pressure or movement on their face or head. The individual may also experience some trauma as well as emotional discomfort.
In many cases, the phantom limb aids in adaptation to a prosthesis, as it permits the person to experience proprioception of the prosthetic limb. Proprioception (ˌproʊpriːəˈsɛpʃən PRO -pree-o-SEP-shun from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own" and perception is the Sense
Another side-effect can be heterotopic ossification, especially when a bone injury is combined with a head injury. Heterotopic ossification (HO is the process by which Trabecular bone forms outside of the Skeleton. The brain signals the bone to grow instead of scar tissue to form, and nodules and other growth can interfere with prosthetics and sometimes require further operations. This type of injury has been especially common among soldiers wounded by improvised explosive devices in the Iraq war. An improvised explosive device ( IED) is a Bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional Military action The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign 
- Rick Allen—Drummer for the band Def Leppard; lost his left arm in a car accident. Richard John Cyril "Rick" Allen (born November 1, 1963, Dronfield, Derbyshire, England) is the drummer for the
- Douglas Bader—Royal Air Force fighter pilot during WWII; lost both legs performing low-flying aerobatics. Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader CBE, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, FRAeS, DL, RAF (21 February 1910 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
- Lucien Bouchard—Canadian politician and Quebec nationalist; lost a leg to necrotizing fasciitis. Lucien Bouchard PC GOQ (born December 22, 1938) is a Quebec lawyer diplomat and Politician. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person Quebec nationalism is a contemporary nationalist movement in Canada similar to what is found in other multi-ethnic and multi-lingual regions of the world Necrotizing fasciitis (NF or fasciitis necroticans, commonly known as "flesh-eating disease" or "flesh-eating bacteria" is a rare Infection
- Roberto Carlos—Brazilian singer; lost his leg in a train accident. Roberto Carlos Braga (xoˈbeɾtu ˈkäɾlus (born April 19, 1941 in Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Espírito Santo, Brazil) is a |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
- Ronald D. Castille—Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania State Supreme Court and former Philadelphia District Attorney; lost his leg in the Vietnam War. Ronald D Castille (born March 16 1944 is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the court of last resort for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə A district attorney (DA is in some US jurisdictions the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of alleged criminals The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
- Tammy Duckworth—American politician; lost both legs in the Iraq War. Ladda "Tammy" Duckworth (born 1968 is an Illinois National Guard major and Iraq War veteran from the U The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign
- Graham Edwards—Australian politician; lost both legs in the Vietnam War. Graham John Edwards (born 18 July 1946) Australian politician was an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
- Rahm Emanuel—U. S. Congressman; lost part of his right middle finger to a meat slicer while an employee at Arby's as a teenager. Rahm Emanuel (born November 29 1959) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003 representing, which The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Arby's is a Fast food Restaurant chain in the United States and Canada that is a wholly owned subsidiary of Wendy's/Arby's Group
- Terry Fox—Canadian athlete and cancer treatment activist; lost a leg to cancer. Terrance Stanley "Terry" Fox, CC ( July 28, 1958 – June 28, 1981) was a Canadian humanitarian, Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled
- Zach Gowen—American professional wrestler; lost a leg to cancer as a child. Zachary Gowen (born March 30 1983) is an American professional wrestler. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Professional wrestling, or pro wrestling, is a non-competitive professional Sport, where all matches are scripted by the promotion's booking staff
- Lou Fananek Hagen—Singer of Czech Rock Band, Tři sestry. Tři sestry ( Czech for Three Sisters is a famous Punk rock band from the Czech Republic. Lost his leg in train accident.
- Bethany Hamilton—American surfer; lost an arm to a shark attack
- Burkhard Heim—German theoretical physicist; lost both hands in a laboratory explosion
- Daniel Ken Inouye— Medal of Honor recipient, U.S. Senator; WWII war hero; lost his right arm due to battle wounds. Bethany Meilani Hamilton (born February 8, 1990) is an American surfer. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Surfing is a surface water sport in which the participant is carried along the face of a breaking wave, most commonly using a Surfboard, although wave-riders A shark attack is an attack on a human by a Shark. Every year a number of people are attacked by sharks although death is quite unusual Burkhard Heim ( February 9 1925 - January 14 2001) was a German theoretical physicist. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A physicist is a Scientist who studies or practices Physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning is an American politician who currently serves as the senior United States Senator from Hawaii. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
- Matthias Lanzinger—Austrian Alpine skier; lost leg after fracturing his shin and fibula during a World Cup Super-G run at Kvitfjell, Norway. Matthias Lanzinger (born December 9, 1980) is an Austrian former Alpine skier. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Kvitfjell (White mountain is a Ski resort in the municipality of Ringebu, Norway. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional
- Heather Mills—estranged wife of former Beatle Paul McCartney as well as an activist and former model. Heather Anne Mills (born 12 January 1968 is an English charity campaigner and former model, and the ex-wife of musician Paul McCartney. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942 is an English rock Singer, Bass guitarist songwriter Composer,
- Aimee Mullins—American model and athlete; lost both legs due to congenital disease. Wall climbing at h20 (541889183jpg|thumb|right|200px|The artificially-legged Aimee Mullins watches the also artificially-legged Hugh Herr climb the wall at the MIT Media Lab's h2 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A model is a person who is posed or displayed for the purpose of Art, Fashion, or other products and Advertising.
- Oscar Pistorius—South African sprinter; lost both lower legs due to a congenital disorder. Oscar Leonard Carl Pistorius (born 22 November 1986 is a South African Paralympic runner The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Sprints are short running races in athletics. They are roughly classified as events in which top runners will not have to "pace themselves" but can run as fast as A congenital disorder is a disease or disorder that is present at birth
- Daniel Scioli—Argentine politician, Buenos Aires governor, former vice-president of Argentina, large appliances company owner and motorboat offshore driver; lost right arm at Offshore racing race. Daniel Osvaldo Scioli (born 13 January 1957) was Vice President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007 and is the current Governor of Buenos Aires Province For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.
- Darío Silva—Uruguayan footballer; lost his right leg after a car accident. Dario Debray Silva Pereira (born November 2 1972 in Treinta y Tres, Uruguay) commonly known as Darío Silva, is a former footballer Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America
- Donald K. "Deke" Slayton—Mercury Seven astronaut (flew on Apollo-Soyuz Test Project); lost left ring finger as a child in a farming accident. Donald Kent “Deke” Slayton (March 1 1924 – June 13 1993 was one of the original " Mercury Seven " NASA astronauts The Mercury Seven was the group of seven Mercury astronauts picked by NASA on April 9, 1959. An astronaut or cosmonaut (космона́вт) is a person trained
- Bionica von Takedown—American roller derby girl; lost her leg in an automobile accident. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Roller derby is an American -invented contact Sport —and historically a form of Sports entertainment —based on formation Roller skating
- Alex Zanardi—Italian car racing driver; lost both legs in a CART car accident at Lausitzring
Amputation in Fiction
- In the 1989 book Geek Love by Katherine Dunn, Arty Binewski starts a cult centered around elective amputation. Alessandro "Alex" Zanardi (born October 23, 1966 in Bologna Italy) is an Italian racing driver Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Auto racing (also known as automobile racing, motor racing or car racing) is a Motorsport involving Racing Cars It Champ Car, was the name for a class and specification of cars used in American Championship Car Racing for many decades primarily for use in the Indianapolis The EuroSpeedway Lausitz is a Race track located near Klettwitz in the state of Brandenburg in Eastern Germany, near the borders to Geek Love is also a single from American singer Fan 3 and a song by Bang Bang Machine.
- In the 2008 book "Duma Key" by Stephen King. Edgar Freemantle is a wealthy contractor who suffers a traumatic brain injury and loses his right arm in an accident at a job site; he feels almost compelled to draw and paint, a compulsion he relates to a phantom limb sensation he has in his right arm.
- One of the characters in the Spider-Man comic series, Dr. Curt Conners is an amputee who turns into The Lizard in an attempt to create a formula used to regenerate lost limbs.
- ^ Islam Online- News Section
- ^ Tariq Ramadan : Do you trust this man? - People, News - Independent.co.uk
- ^ RTE: Aussie Rules star has finger removed
- ^ SportsAustralia.com: Tawake undergoes surgery to remove finger
- ^ Man Pinned Under Tree Amputates His Leg
- ^ CMU grad describes cutting off his arm to save his life. A tourniquet is a constricting or compressing device used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time Autotomy (from the Greek auto = "self-" and tomy = "severing" or self amputation is the act whereby an animal severs Amputee Soccer Championship Central America One of the tragic legacies of conflicts in Central America in the decade of the Retrieved on 2008-05-07. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses
- ^ smh.com.au - The Sydney Morning Herald
- ^ Life: Dismembered again
- ^ Errol Morris: Profiles
- ^ CNN - Bombing suspect's brother cuts hand off with saw - March 9, 1998
- ^ Heidi Schultz (January 2005). "Phantom Input". National Geographic Magazine.
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