|Motto:||It is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness. |
|Type:||Non-profit, Interest group|
|Founded:||July 1961 by Peter Benenson in the UK|
|Location:||Global, general secretariat in London|
|Key people:||Irene Khan, Seán MacBride, Martin Ennals|
|Fields:||Protecting human rights|
|Services:||Media attention, direct-appeal campaigns, research, lobbying|
|Members:||2. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage An interest group (also advocacy group, lobby group, pressure group or special interest group) is an organized collection of people who seek Peter Benenson ( July 31 1921 &ndash February 25 2005) was an English lawyer and the founder of Human rights group The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Irene Zubaida Khan, born December 24, 1956 in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is the Secretary General of Amnesty International Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 &ndash 15 January 1988 was a prominent international politician. Martin Ennals (1927 - 1991 was a British Human rights activist. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled 2 million members and supporters|
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom from discrimination, within the context of its work to promote all human rights. " Founded in the UK in 1961, AI draws its attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international standards. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located It works to mobilize public opinion which exerts pressure on individuals who perpetrate abuses.  The organization was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its "campaign against torture" and the UN Human Rights Prize in 1978, but has received criticism for both alleged anti-Western and alleged pro-Western bias. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally The United Nations Prizes in the Field of Human Rights were instituted by United Nations General Assembly resolution 2217 in 1966 The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings 
Amnesty International was founded in London in July 1961 by English labor lawyer, Peter Benenson. Peter Benenson ( July 31 1921 &ndash February 25 2005) was an English lawyer and the founder of Human rights group According to his own account, which is subject to controversy, he was travelling in the London Underground on 19 November 1960, when he read of two Portuguese students who had been sentenced to seven years of imprisonment for having drunk a toast to liberty. The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land  In his famous newspaper article The Forgotten Prisoners, Benenson later described his reaction as follows: "Open your newspaper any day of the week and you will find a story from somewhere of someone being imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions are unacceptable to his government [. . . ] The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, something effective could be done. " Benenson and his friend Eric Baker, in consultation with other writers, academics and lawyers and, in particular, Alec Digges, an experienced and disciplined member of the Communist Party, wrote via Louis Blom-Cooper to David Astor, editor of The Observer newspaper, who, on May 28, 1961, published Benenson’s article The Forgotten Prisoners. Eric Baker, played by Ed O'Neill, is a recurring character during the final two seasons of the American television series The West Wing. Sir Louis Jacques Blom-Cooper QC FKC is an author and UK Lawyer specialising in public law and administrative law Francis David Langhorne Astor CH ( March 5, 1912, London &ndash December 7, 2001, London) was a Newspaper The Observer is a British Newspaper published on Sundays In about the same place on the political spectrum as its daily sister paper The Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The article brought the reader’s attention to those "imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government" or, put another way, to violations, by governments, of articles 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights(UDHR). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais The article described these violations occurring, on a global scale, in the context of restrictions to press freedom, to political oppositions, to timely public trial before impartial courts, and to asylum. Public trial or open trial is a trial open to public as opposed to the Secret trial. It marked the launch of "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961", the aim of which was to mobilize public opinion, quickly and widely, in defense of these individuals, who Benenson named "Prisoners of Conscience". The "Appeal for Amnesty" was reprinted by a large number of international newspapers. In the same year Benenson had a book published, Persecution 1961, which detailed the cases of several prisoners of conscience investigated and compiled by Benenson and Baker. Prisoner of conscience (POC is a term coined by the human rights group Amnesty International in the early 1960s  In July 1961 the leadership had decided that the appeal would form the basis of a permanent organization, which on 30 September 1962 was officially named 'Amnesty International' (Between the 'Appeal for Amnesty, 1961' and September 1962 the organization had been known simply as 'Amnesty'. Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. )
What started as a short appeal soon became a permanent international movement working to protect those imprisoned for non-violent expression of their views and to secure worldwide recognition of Articles 18 and 19 of the UDHR. From the very beginning, research and campaigning were present in Amnesty International’s work. A library was established for information about prisoners of conscience and a network of local groups, called ‘THREES’ groups, was started. Each group worked on behalf of three prisoners, one from each of the then three main ideological regions of the world: communist, capitalist and developing.
By the mid-1960s Amnesty International’s global presence was growing and an International Secretariat and International Executive Committee was established to manage Amnesty International’s national organizations, called ‘Sections’, which had appeared in several countries. The international movement was starting to agree its core principles and techniques. For example, the issue of whether or not to adopt prisoners who had advocated violence, like Nelson Mandela, brought unanimous agreement that it could not give the name of 'Prisoner of Conscience' to such prisoners. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative Aside from the work of the library and groups, Amnesty International’s activities were expanding to helping prisoner’s families, sending observers to trials, making representations to governments, and finding asylum or overseas employment for prisoners. Its activity and influence was also increasing within intergovernmental organizations; it would be awarded consultative status by the United Nations, the Council of Europe and UNESCO before the decade ended. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16
Leading Amnesty International in the 1970s were key figureheads Sean MacBride and Martin Ennals. Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 &ndash 15 January 1988 was a prominent international politician. Martin Ennals (1927 - 1991 was a British Human rights activist. While continuing to work for prisoners of conscience, Amnesty International’s purview widened to include "fair trial" and opposition to long detention without trial (UDHR Article 9), and especially to the torture of prisoners (UDHR Article 5). Amnesty International believed that the reasons underlying torture of prisoners, by governments, were either to obtain information or to quell opposition by the use of terror, or both. Also of concern was the export of more sophisticated torture methods, equipment and teaching to "client states. "
Amnesty International drew together reports from countries where torture allegations seemed most persistent and organized an international conference on torture. It sought to influence public opinion in order to put pressure on national governments by organizing a campaign for the 'Abolition of Torture' which ran for several years.
Amnesty International’s membership increased from 15,000 in 1969 to 200,000 by 1979.  This growth in resources enabled an expansion of its program, ‘outside of the prison walls’, to include work on “disappearances”, the death penalty and the rights of refugees. A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from Public view either by Murder or by simple Sequestration. A new technique, the 'Urgent Action’, aimed at mobilizing the membership into action rapidly was pioneered. The first was issued on March 19, 1973, on behalf of Luiz Basilio Rossi, a Brazilian academic, arrested for political reasons. Events 1279 - A Mongolian victory in the Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar.
At the intergovernmental level Amnesty International pressed for application of the UN’s Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners and of existing humanitarian conventions; to secure ratifications of the two UN Covenants on Human Rights (which came into force in 1976); and was instrumental in obtaining UN Resolution 3059 which formally denounced torture and called on governments to adhere to existing international instruments and provisions forbidding its practice. The Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners were adopted on 30 August 1955 by the United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations Treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in A United Nations resolution (or UN resolution) is a formal text adopted by a United Nations (UN body Consultative status was granted at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in 1972. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the IACHR or in the three other official languages Spanish, French, and Portuguese CIDH
By 1980 Amnesty International, now a Nobel Peace Prize Laureateand a UN Human Rights Prize winner, was drawing more criticism from governments. The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor The United Nations Prizes in the Field of Human Rights were instituted by United Nations General Assembly resolution 2217 in 1966 The USSR alleged that Amnesty International conducted espionage, the Moroccan government denounced it as a defender of lawbreakers, and the Argentine government banned Amnesty International’s 1983 annual report. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 
Throughout the 1980s, Amnesty International continued to campaign for prisoners of conscience and torture. New issues emerged, including extrajudicial killings; military, security and police transfers; political killings; and "disappearances. Extrajudicial punishment is Punishment by the state or some other official authority without the permission of a Court or legal authority "
Towards the end of the decade, the growing numbers worldwide of refugees was a very visible area of Amnesty International’s concern. While many of the world’s refugees of the time had been displaced by war and famine, in adherence to its mandate, Amnesty International concentrated on those forced to flee, because of the human rights violations it was seeking to prevent. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation It argued that rather than focusing on new restrictions on entry for asylum-seekers, governments were to address the human rights violations which were forcing people into exile.
Apart from a second campaign on torture during the first half of the decade, the major campaign of the 1980s was the 'Human Rights Now!' tour which featured many of the famous musicians and bands of the day playing concerts to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the UDHR.
Throughout the 1990s, Amnesty International continued to grow to a membership of over 2. 2 million in over 150 countries and territories, led by Senegalese Secretary General Pierre Sané. Pierre Sané is UNESCO ’s Assistant Director-General for Social and Human Sciences AI continued to work on a wide range of issues and world events. For example, South African groups joined in 1992 and hosted a visit by Pierre Sané to meet with the apartheid government to press for an investigation into allegations of police abuse, an end to arms sales to the Great Lakes region and abolition of the death penalty.
Amnesty International was forced to react to human rights violations occurring in the context of a proliferation of armed conflict in: Angola, East Timor, the Persian Gulf, Rwanda, Somalia and the former Yugoslavia. Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste (officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a country in Southeast Asia. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the The Republic of Rwanda (ruːˈændə or /rəˈwɑːndə/ in English ɾwanda or in Kinyarwanda is a small Landlocked country in the Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian Amnesty International took no position on whether to support or oppose external military interventions in these armed conflicts. It did not (and does not) reject the use of force, even lethal force, or ask those engaged to lay down their arms. Instead, it questioned the motives behind external intervention and selectivity of international action in relation to the strategic interests of those sending troops. It argued that action should be taken in time to prevent human rights problems becoming human rights catastrophes and that both intervention and inaction represented a failure of the international community. The international community is a vague term used in International relations to refer to all the countries of the world or to a group of them
However, Amnesty International was proactive in pushing for recognition of the universality of human rights. The campaign ‘Get Up, Sign Up’ marked 50 years of the UDHR. Thirteen million pledges were collected in support of the Declaration and a music concert was held in Paris on December 10, 1998 (Human Rights Day). Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Human Rights Day' is celebrated annually across the world on 10 December.
In particular, Amnesty International brought attention to violations committed on specific groups including: refugees, racial/ethnic/religious minorities, women and those executed or on Death Row. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race Death row is a term that refers to the section of a Prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. The death penalty report When the state kills(ISBN 0691102619) and the ‘Human Rights are Women’s Rights’ campaign were key actions for the latter two issues and demonstrate that Amnesty International was still very much a reporting and campaigning organization.
At the intergovernmental level, Amnesty International argued in favour of creating a United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (established 1993) and an International Criminal Court (established 2002). The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights ( OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human The International Criminal Court ( ICC or ICCt) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for Genocide, crimes against
After 2000, Amnesty International’s agenda turned to the challenges arising from globalization and the effects of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones The issue of globalization provoked a major shift in Amnesty International policy, as the scope of its work was widened to include economic, social and cultural rights, an area that it had declined to work on in the past. Amnesty International felt this shift was important, not just to give credence to its principle of the indivisibility of rights, but because of the growing power of companies and the undermining of many nation states as a result of globalization.
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the new Amnesty International Secretary General, Irene Khan, reported that a senior government official had said to Amnesty International delegates: "Your role collapsed with the collapse of the Twin Towers in New York". Irene Zubaida Khan, born December 24, 1956 in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is the Secretary General of Amnesty International  In the years following the attacks, some of the gains made by human rights organizations over previous decades were eroded. Amnesty International argued that human rights were the basis for the security of all, not a barrier to it. Criticism came directly from the Bush administration and The Washington Post, when Khan, in 2005, likened the US government’s detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to a Soviet Gulag. The Presidency of George W Bush began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America The Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp is a controversial United States Detention center operated by Joint Task Force Guantanamo since 2002 in Guantanamo The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. 
During the first half of the new decade, Amnesty International turned its attention to violence against women, controls on the world arms trade and concerns surrounding the effectiveness of the UN. Violence against women is a technical term used to collectively refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. The arms industry is a global Industry and Business which Manufactures and sells Weapons and Military technology and equipment. Its membership, close to two million by 2005, continued to work for prisoners of conscience.
Amnesty International reported, concerning the Iraq war, on March 17, 2008 that despite claims the security situation in Iraq has improved in recent months, the human rights situation is disastrous, after the start of the war five years ago in 2003. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. 
|“||Amnesty International’s vision is of a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards. |
In pursuit of this vision, Amnesty International’s mission is to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom from discrimination, within the context of its work to promote all human rights.
—Statute of Amnesty International, 27th International Council meeting, 2005
There are five key areas which Amnesty deals with: Women's Rights, Children's Rights, Ending Torture and Execution, Rights of Refugees and Rights of Prisoners of Conscience. Some specific aims are to abolish the death penalty, end extrajudicial executions and "disappearances", ensure prison conditions meet international human rights standards, ensure prompt and fair trial for all political prisoners, ensure free education to all children worldwide, fight impunity from systems of justice, end the recruitment and use of child soldiers, free all prisoners of conscience, promote economic, social and cultural rights for marginalized communities, protect human rights defenders, promote religious tolerance, stop torture and ill-treatment, stop unlawful killings in armed conflict, and to uphold the rights of refugees, migrants and asylum seekers. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Extrajudicial punishment is Punishment by the state or some other official authority without the permission of a Court or legal authority A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from Public view either by Murder or by simple Sequestration. A political prisoner is someone held in Prison or otherwise detained perhaps under House arrest, for his or her involvement in political activity Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Impunity means "exemption from punishment or loss" In the International law of Human rights, it refers to the failure to bring perpetrators of Human The military use of Children takes three distinct forms children can take direct part in hostilities (child soldiers or they can be used in support roles such as porters spies messengers Prisoner of conscience (POC is a term coined by the human rights group Amnesty International in the early 1960s Human rights defender is a term used to describe people who individually or with others act to promote or protect human rights Religious toleration is the condition of accepting or permitting others' religious beliefs and practices which disagree with one's own Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race This organization helps women all around the world.
Amnesty International targets not only governments, but also non governmental bodies and private individuals (non state actors).
To further these aims, Amnesty International has developed several techniques to publicize information and mobilize public opinion. The organization considers as one of its strengths the publication of impartial and accurate reports. Reports are researched by interviewing victims and officials, observing trials, working with local human rights activists and by monitoring the media. It aims to issue timely press releases and publishes information in newsletters and on web sites. It also sends official missions to countries to make courteous but insistent inquiries.
Campaigns to mobilize public opinion can take the form of individual, country or thematic campaigns. Many techniques are deployed such as direct appeals (for example, letter writing), media and publicity work and public demonstrations. Often fund-raising is integrated with campaigning.
In situations which require immediate attention, Amnesty International calls on existing urgent action networks or crisis response networks; for all other matters, it calls on its membership. It considers the large size of its human resources to be another one of its key strengths.
Amnesty International is largely made up of voluntary members but retains a small number of paid professionals. In countries where Amnesty International has a strong presence, members are organized as 'sections'. Sections coordinate basic Amnesty International activities normally with a significant volume of members, some of whom will form into 'groups', and a professional staff. Each have a board of directors. In 2005 there were 52 sections worldwide. 'Structures' are aspiring sections. They also coordinate basic activities but have a smaller membership and a limited staff. In countries where no section or structure exists, people can become 'international members'. Two other organizational models exist: 'international networks', which promote specific themes or have a specific identity, and 'affiliated groups', which do the same work as section groups, but in isolation.
The organizations outlined above are represented by the International Council (IC) which is led by the IC Chairperson. Members of sections and structures have the right to appoint one or more representatives to the Council according to the size of their membership. The IC may invite representatives from International Networks and other individuals to meetings, but only representatives from sections and structures have voting rights. The function of the IC is to appoint and hold accountable internal governing bodies and to determine the direction of the movement. The IC convenes every two years.
The International Executive Committee (IEC), led by the IEC Chairperson, consists of eight members and the IEC Treasurer. It is elected by, and represents, the IC and meets biannually. The role of the IEC is to take decisions on behalf of Amnesty International, implement the strategy laid out by the IC, and ensure compliance with the organization’s statutes.
The International Secretariat (IS) is responsible for the conduct and daily affairs of Amnesty International under direction from the IEC and IC. It is run by approximately 500 professional staff members and is headed by a Secretary General. The IS operates several work programs; International Law and Organizations; Research; Campaigns; Mobilization; and Communications. Its offices have been located in London since its establishment in the mid-1960s.
Amnesty International is financed largely by fees and donations from its worldwide membership. It does not accept donations from governments or governmental organizations.
Criticism of Amnesty International may be classified into two major categories: accusations of selection bias and accusations of ideological bias. Amnesty International Australia (AI Australia is a part of the Amnesty International network and are part of the global movement defending Human rights and dignity Amnesty International Aotearoa New Zealand (AINZ is a part of the Amnesty International network and works to end Human rights abuses Amnesty International USA (AI USA is a United States organization that works to end Human rights abuses and part is of the Amnesty International network Amnesty International South Africa (AI SA is a South Africa organisation that works to end Human rights abuses and part is of the Amnesty International Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 &ndash 15 January 1988 was a prominent international politician. Thomas Hammarberg (born 1942 in Örnsköldsvik) is a Swedish Diplomat and Human rights activist Ross Daniels was the Australian Labor Party candidate for the Division of Ryan in the Australian federal election in 2007. Peter Benenson ( July 31 1921 &ndash February 25 2005) was an English lawyer and the founder of Human rights group Eric Baker ( 22 September 1920 - July 1976 was one of the founders of the human rights group Amnesty International and the second General secretary Martin Ennals (1927 - 1991 was a British Human rights activist. Thomas Hammarberg (born 1942 in Örnsköldsvik) is a Swedish Diplomat and Human rights activist Ian Martin, from the United Kingdom, is a Human rights Activist who has been involved in a number of human rights organisations Pierre Sané is UNESCO ’s Assistant Director-General for Social and Human Sciences Irene Zubaida Khan, born December 24, 1956 in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is the Secretary General of Amnesty International See also Amnesty International Criticism of Amnesty International may be classified into two major categories Selection bias and ideological Selection bias is a distortion of evidence or data that arises from the way that the data are collected An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics As part of the latter, many governments, including those of Israel, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, China, Vietnam, Russia and the United States, have attacked Amnesty International for what they assert is one-sided reporting or a failure to treat threats to security as a mitigating factor. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The actions of these governments—and of other governments critical of Amnesty International—have been the subject of human rights concerns voiced by Amnesty.