Americanization can refer to the policies of the United States government and public opinion that there is a standard set of cultural values that should be held in common by all citizens. Education was and is viewed as the primary method in the acculturation process. These opinions were harshly applied when it came to Americanization of Native Americans compared to immigrant populations who arrived with their "non-American traditions". Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States
The Americanization policies said that when indigenous people learned American customs and values they would soon merge tribal traditions with European-American culture and peacefully melt into the greater society. For example in the 1800s and early 1900s, traditional religious ceremonies were outlawed and it was mandatory for children to attend English speaking boarding schools where native languages and cultural traditions were forbidden. Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and The Dawes Act of 1887, which allotted tribal lands to individuals and resulted in an estimated total of 93 million acres (6,100 km²) leaving Native American hands, and the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 were also part of these policies. The Dawes Act was enacted on February 8, 1887 and named after its sponsor U The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P
From the moment Christopher Columbus set foot in the West Indies the cultures of Europe and the Pre-Columbian Americans have struggled to coexist. Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Often Europeans took up the role of conquerors, most notably in South America and present day Mexico, where the expeditions of Spanish conquistadors such as Francisco Pizarro (Inca Empire) and Hernán Cortés (Aztec Empire) are known for their unambiguous belief in European superiority. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Francisco Pizarro González 1st Marqués de los Atabillos (c 1471 or 1476 &ndash 26 June 1541 was a Spanish Conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca ( 1485&ndash December 2, Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political
Juan Ponce de León is regarded to have been the first European to reach the lands which would become the United States, reaching present day Florida in 1513. Juan Ponce de León ( IPA: /xwan'ponʒedele'on/ (1460 – July 1521 was a Spanish Conquistador. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the  Further expeditions by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (1528), Hernando de Soto (1538-42) and others further explored Florida and southeastern North America. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca ( Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, ca Hernando de Soto ( Jerez de los Caballeros, Badajoz, Spain, c Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's expedition (1540-1542), which began in New Spain (Mexico), reached as far north as present day Kansas. Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (Born in 1510 &ndash Died on September 22 1554 was a Spanish Conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American " These expeditions invariably led to clashes between the Spaniards and Native Americans and many of them ended with the destruction of the explorers. Yet these expeditions had lasting results. The Europeans made a substantial foothold in Florida. Horses were introduced, which would significantly alter the mode of life of many Native American tribes. Lastly, and most significantly, small pox and other diseases, passed by both men and livestock, were introduced to the Native populations. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Many of these populations were without immunity to the diseases, and by the time European settlement became extensive in the 1600s, large portions of the Native population had been destroyed.
British colonization of North America began with the settlement of St. John's, Newfoundland as early as 1497. British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland before the 1707 Acts of Union created St John's (ˌseɪntˈdʒanz French Saint-Jean) is the provincial capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada and located on the eastern tip Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation It officially became England's first colony in 1583. The abandoned Roanoke Colony (1585/1587) was the only other official colony until the early Seventeenth Century, when a number of new colonies were founded, including Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in the United States. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607
French colonization of North America began in c. French colonization of the Americas began in the 14th century and continued in the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western 1524 when King Francis I sent Giovanni da Verrazzano in search of a northern route to the Pacific Ocean. Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 Giovanni da Verrazzano (c 1485 &ndash c 1528 was an Italian Explorer of North America, in the service of the French crown. After failed attempts in 1564 and 1598 the first successful French colony was Acadia, established in 1604. The Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture ( ACADIA) is a Non-profit organization active in the area of Computer-aided architectural design
The Europeans as a whole seemed to view the land as unoccupied by any meaningful peoples. While some came only to settle and land, others came to "conquer and govern". Regardless, from the first meeting, the governments of Europe dealt with the Native populations as peoples to be subdued and mollified, not as existing entities such as they viewed themselves, and thus they could justify settling in the Natives' lands without permission, using the superiority of their technology to gradually push the existing cultures from any land they desired. 
In this period European powers fought among themselves to acquire cultural and economic control of North America, just as they were doing in Europe. Native American tribes were often used as auxiliaries in the North American armies of England, France and Spain. In order to secure the help of the tribes, the Europeans would offer goods and sign treaties. The treaties usually promised that the European power would honor the tribe's traditional lands and independence. Many Native American tribes took part in King William's War (1689–1697), Dummer's War (c. The first of the French and Indian Wars, King William's War ( 1689 – 1697) was the name used in the English colonies in America to refer to the North Dummer's War (c 1721 - 1725) (also known as Lovewell's War, Father Rale's War, Greylock's War, Three Years War or the 1721-1725), and the French and Indian War (1754–1763). The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War.
Britain, as the dominant power after the French and Indian War, instituted the Royal Proclamation of 1763. The Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain 's acquisition of French territory The document set a boundary separating the Native American country from that of the European community. In part, this justified complete control of lands on the European side, but did not effectively prevent individual Europeans from continuing to migrate westward.
As in the past, military/diplomatic and economic force was applied by Europeans and European governments to secure control of more territories from Native Americans. For further information see European colonization of the Americas. The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort
From the Native American perspective, European control of an area, meant a dramatic change in their lifestyle. Many Native Americans did not survive.
The struggle for empire in North America caused the United States in its earliest years to adopt an Indian policy similar to the one devised by Great Britain in colonial times. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands  They realized that good relations with bordering tribes were important for political and trading reasons, but as had the British, they reserved the right to abandon these good relations to absorb the lands of their enemies and allies alike as the agricultural frontier moved west. The United States continued the use of Native Americans as allies, including during the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies As relations with England and Spain normalized during the early 1800s, the need for such friendly relations ended. It was no longer necessary to woo the tribes to prevent the other powers from using them against the United States. Now, instead of a buffer against other "civilized" foes, the tribes often became viewed as an obstacle in the expansion of the United States.
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 characterized the US government policy of Indian removal, which called for the relocation of Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. The Indian Removal Act, part of a United States government policy known as Indian removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 26 Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to ethnically cleanse Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi While it did not authorize the forced removal of the indigenous tribes, it authorized the President to negotiate land exchange treaties with tribes located in lands of the United States. The Intercourse Law of 1834 prohibited United States citizens from entering tribal lands granted by such treaties without permission, though it was often ignored.
While the Indian Removal Act made the relocation of the tribes voluntary, it was often abused by government officials. The best known example is the Treaty of New Echota. The Treaty of New Echota was a removal treaty signed in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and several members It was negotiated and signed by a small faction of Cherokee tribal members, not the tribal leadership, on December 29, 1835, resulting in the forced relocation of the tribe in 1838. The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact  An estimated 4,000 Cherokees died in the march, now known as the Trail of Tears. The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation of Native Americans from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma in the Western United States The following is a quote from Charles Hicks, a Tsalagi (Cherokee) vice chief on the trail of tears, from August 4, 1838.
In the decades that followed white settlers pushed further into the lands set aside for Native Americans, eventually spanning the United States from Coast to Coast, leaving no tribe untouched by the overpowering influence of Anglo farmers, traders and soldiers.
The Office of Indian Affairs (Bureau of Indian Affairs as of 1947) was established March 11, 1824, as an office of the United States Department of War. History Although the bureau which was called the Office of Indian Affairs was formed in 1824 similar agencies had existed in the U The United States Department of War, sometimes also called the War Office, was the department of the United States government 's executive branch It became responsible for negotiating and holding fulfillment, at least on the Native American part, of treaties. In 1849 the bureau was transferred to the Department of the Interior. The United States Department of the Interior ( DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally
In 1854 Commissioner George W. Manypenny called for a new code of regulations, noting that it was rapidly becoming evident that there was no place in the West where the Indians could be placed with a reasonable hope that they might escape molestation. He also called for The Intercourse Law of 1834 to be revised, as its provisions had been aimed at individual intruders rather than at organized expeditions. Succeeding Commissioner Charles Mix said in 1858 noted that the repeated removal of tribes had prevented them from acquiring a taste for civilization, while in 1862 Secretary of the Interior Caleb B. Smith questioned the wisdom of treating tribes as quasi-independent nations. Caleb Blood Smith ( April 16, 1808 &ndash January 7, 1864) was an American journalist and politician serving in the Cabinet  It was in the era of this changing thought that the policy of Americanization began to grow support and begin to be put into practice.
The movement to reform in Indian administration and assimilate the Indians originated in the pleas of people who lived in close association with the natives and were shocked by the fraudulent and indifferent management of their affairs. Gradually the call for change was taken up by Eastern sentimentalists and reformers.  Many of the reformers were Protestant Christians and considered assimilation necessary to the Christianizing of the Indians. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. In 1865 the government began to make contracts with various missionary societies for the maintenance of Indian schools for teaching agricultural and mechanical arts.
In his State of the Union Address on December 4, 1871 Ulysses Grant stated that "the policy pursued toward the Indians has resulted favorably. Ulysses S Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27 1822 &ndash July 23 1885 was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States . . many tribes of Indians have been induced to settle upon reservations, to cultivate the soil, to perform productive labor of various kinds, and to partially accept civilization. They are being cared for in such a way, it is hoped, as to induce those still pursuing their old habits of life to embrace the only opportunity which is left them to avoid extermination 
Within this brief excerpt of the State of the Union, the "American" view of the Native Americans is evident. However, after decades of persecuting the Native Americans, destroying their villages, wiping out the entire population of the buffalo, and forcing them from their land, Grant proposed a peace policy in this address. Within this policy, land west of Arkansas and Missouri and south of Kansas was given to the Native Americans in 1830 and called "Indian Territory". 
Yet, this policy was not adhered to, as the United States began to confiscate the western portions of the Indian Territory and began to resettle the Native Americans that lived there. In 1889, Congress authorized the opening land seized from the Indian Territory for homestead settlement, and a year later Congress passed an act that officially created the Oklahoma Territory. 
One way in which the United States Government was able to repress the Native Americans was to convert them to Christianity and suppress the practice of the Native religions. The United States used a tactic of fear in order to achieve this, as "spiritual leaders ran the risk of jail sentences of up to 30 years for simply practicing their rituals" . The practice of jailing Native American spiritual leaders did not end until 1978, when the Freedom of Religion Act was passed. The goal of the United States Government was to get Native Americans to completely assimilate to their culture, a practice which was referred to as "making apples", as they would still appear red on the outside, but making them white on the inside 
However, despite the passing of the Freedom of Religion Act in 1973, several practices of Native American religion were still being stifled. For example, the Peyote Indians named their tribe after the peyote cactus, which is central to their religious practices. The peyote cactus was banned by the government, however, due to its powerful hallucinogenic effects, and thus was still outlawed to be used by the Native Americans. It was not until the Native American Free Exercise of Religion Act of 1993 was passed that the Peyote Indians could lawfully use the peyote cactus in their religious celebrations .
An Indian boarding school refers to one of many schools that were established in the United States during the late 19th century to educate Native American youths according to Euro-American standards. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States These schools were primarily run by missionaries. It has been documented that they were traumatic to many of children who attended them, as they were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity instead of their native religions and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Indian identity and adopt European-American culture. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings There are also documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuses occurring at these schools.
Attendance in Indian boarding schools generally grew throughout the first half of the 20th century and doubled in the 1960s (10). Enrollment reached its highest point in the 1970s. In 1973, 60,000 American Indian children are estimated to have been enrolled in an Indian boarding school (10; 11). Several events in the late 1960s and mid-1970s (Kennedy Report, National Study of American Indian Education, Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975) led to more emphasis on community schools. Many large Indian boarding schools closed in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 2007, 9,500 American Indian children lived in an Indian boarding school dormitory (9). This includes 45 on-reservation boarding schools, 7 off-reservation boarding schools and 14 peripheral dormitories (9). From 1879 to the present day, hundreds of thousands of American Indians are estimated to have attended an Indian boarding school (12).
A similar system in Canada was known as the Canadian residential school system. The Canadian residential school system consisted of a number of schools for Aboriginal children operated during the 19th and 20th century by churches of various denominations 
Native American children were often separated from their families and people when they were sent or sometimes taken to boarding schools off the reservations. These schools ranged from those like the federal Carlisle Industrial School, to schools sponsored by religious organizations to some created by non-profits such as the founding of an Indian school in Hanover, New Hampshire in 1769.
The Carlisle Indian Industrial School founded by Richard Henry Pratt in 1879 is one example. Carlisle Indian Industrial School, (1879 - 1918 was an Indian Boarding School in Carlisle Pennsylvania. Richard Henry Pratt (b 1840 Rushford New York; d April 23 1924 San Francisco CA is best known as the founder and longtime superintendent of the influential Carlisle In a speech he gave in 1892, he said "A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him and save the man"
Pratt professed "assimilation through total immersion" and contended that, as slavery had assimilated African Americans, removing students entirely from their cultural surroundings would result in their assimilation. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another In addition to reading, writing, and arithmetic, the Carlisle curriculum constituted of vocational training for boys and domestic science for girls, including chores around the school and producing goods for market. In the summer students were often outsourced to local farms and townspeople to continue their immersion and provide labor at low cost. Carlisle and its curriculum would become the model for the Bureau of Indian Affairs and by 1902 there were twenty-five federally funded non-reservation schools across fifteen states and territories with a total enrollment of over 6,000. History Although the bureau which was called the Office of Indian Affairs was formed in 1824 similar agencies had existed in the U Although federal legislation made education compulsory for Native Americans, removing students from reservations required parent authorization, although coercion and even violence were often used to secure the preset quota of students from any given reservation.
Once the new students arrived at the boarding schools, life altered drastically. They were given new haircuts, uniforms, and even new English names, sometimes based on their own, other times assigned at random. They could no longer speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were expected to convert to Christianity. Life was run by the strict orders of their teachers, and it often included grueling chores and stiff punishments. The following is a quote from Anna Moore of the Phoenix Indian School.
Additionally, disease was widespread due to insufficient funding for meals, overcrowding and overworked students. Death rates for Native American students were six and a half times higher than other ethnic groups. 
The Meriam Report, officially titled "The Problem of Indian Administration", was requested by and submitted February 21, 1928 to Secretary of the Interior Hubert Work. Hubert Work ( July 3 1860 &ndash December 14 1942) was a US administrator and Physician. It recommended the abolition of "The Uniform Course of Study", which taught only white cultural values, that younger children should attend community schools near home, though older children should be able to attend non-reservation schools, and that the Indian Service should provide Native Americans the tools to adapt both in their own traditional communities and American society.
While the concerted effort to assimilate Native Americans into American culture was abandoned officially, integration of Native American tribes and individuals continues to the present day. Often Native Americans are perceived as having been assimilated. However, some Native Americans feel a particular sense of being from another society (see Diaspora and fourth world) or doesn't exactly belong in a primarily "white" European majority society, despite past efforts to socially integrate them. The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic The term Fourth World in academia sometimes refers to a sub-population subjected to social exclusion in global society but since the 1974 publication of The Fourth World An Indian In many studies and statistics they are considered as simply another minority of the general American populace, not as the individual semi-sovereign entities they remain according to the treaties that were signed between tribes and the US government. The following quote from the May 1957 issue of Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, shows this change in attitude.
9. Bureau of Indian Affairs (2008). 2006-2007 School Year Education Directory. Office of Indian Education Programs, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C: Author. Availabe online: http://www.oiep.bia.edu/bie/about_bie/our_programs/pre_kind_op.cfm
10. Colmant, S. A. (2000). U. S. and Canadian Boarding Schools: A Review, Past and Present. Native Americas Journal,17 (4), 24-30.
11. Hammerschlag, C. , Alderfer, C. P. , and Berg, D. , (1973). Indian Education: A Human Systems Analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry.
12. Waxman, S. (2003, June 2). Abuse Charges Hit Reservation. The Washington Post, p. A. 01.