|Nickname(s)||Football, Gridiron football|
|First played||November 6, 1869, Rutgers University vs. Gridiron football is an umbrella term used in some countries outside North America to refer to several codes of Football played primarily in Northern America Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Rutgers The State University of New Jersey (also known as Rutgers University) is the largest institution for higher education in the state of New Jersey Princeton University|
|Team Members||11 at a time|
American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive team sport known for mixing strategy with physical play. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. BALL ( Biochemical Algorithms Library) is a C++ library containing common algorithms used in Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. A football is a Ball used to play one of the various sports known as Football. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Team sport refers to Sports that are practiced between opposing teams where the players interact directly and simultaneously between them to achieve an objective The object of the game is to score points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. A football is a Ball used to play one of the various sports known as Football. The end zone is a term used in both Canadian football and American football. The ball can be advanced by carrying it (a running play) or by throwing it to a teammate (a passing play). Points can be scored in a variety of ways, including carrying the ball over the goal line, catching a pass from beyond the goal line, tackling an opposing ball carrier in his own end zone, or kicking the ball through the goal posts on the opposing side. Placekicker, or simply kicker ( PK or K) is the title of the player in American and Canadian football who is responsible for the The winner is the team with the most points when time expires at the end of the last play.
American football is also played outside the United States. National leagues exist in Germany, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The National Football League ran a developmental league in Europe from 1991–1992 and 1995–2006. NFL Europa was an American football league which operated in Europe from 1991 until 2007.
The history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football. The history of American football, a spectator sport in the United States can be traced to early versions of Rugby football. Rugby football (usually just " rugby " may refer to a number of sports through history descended from a common form of Football developed at Rugby School Both games have their origin in varieties of football played in the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century, in which a ball is kicked at a goal and/or run over a line. Football is the word given to a number of similar Team sports all of which involve (to varying degrees kicking a Ball with the foot in an attempt to score a The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A football is a Ball used to play one of the various sports known as Football. Goal refers to a method of scoring in many sports It can also refer to the physical structure or area of the playing surface in which a score is made
American football resulted from several major divergences from rugby football, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Camp, considered the "Father of American Football". Rugby football (usually just " rugby " may refer to a number of sports through history descended from a common form of Football developed at Rugby School Walter Chauncey Camp ( April 7, 1859 &ndash March 14, 1925) was a sports writer and American football coach known as the "Father Among these important changes were the introduction of the line of scrimmage and of down-and-distance rules. In American and Canadian football a line of scrimmage is an imaginary transverse line crossing the football field across its narrower dimension beyond First Down redirects here For the Prison Break episode see First Down (Prison Break episode. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, gameplay developments by college coaches such as Amos Alonzo Stagg, Knute Rockne, and Glenn "Pop" Warner helped take advantage of the newly introduced forward pass. Amos Alonzo Stagg ( August 16 1862 &ndash March 17 1965) was an American collegiate coach in multiple sports primarily Knute (pronounced "kah-noot" ("noot" is the anglicized nickname Kenneth Rockne ( March 4, 1888 &ndash March 31, Glenn Scobey Warner ( April 5, 1871 &ndash September 7, 1954) was an American football coach also known as Pop Warner. In several forms of Football a forward pass is when the ball is thrown in the direction of the opponent's end line The popularity of collegiate football grew as it became the dominant version of the sport for the first half of the twentieth century. College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, Colleges and military academies Bowl games, a college football tradition, attracted a national audience for collegiate teams. In the United States, a bowl game is traditionally a post-season College football game however the term "bowl" has become synonymous with a major American Bolstered by fierce rivalries, college football still holds widespread appeal in the US. This is a list of rivalry games in College football in the United States. 
The origin of professional football can be traced back to 1892, with William "Pudge" Heffelfinger's $500 contract to play in a game for the Allegheny Athletic Association against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. William "Pudge" Walter Heffelfinger ( December 20, 1867, Minneapolis, Minnesota - April 2, 1954, Blessing In 1920 the American Professional Football Association was formed. This league changed its name to the National Football League (NFL) two years later, and eventually became the major league of American football. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. Primarily a sport of Midwestern, industrial towns in the United States, professional football eventually became a national phenomenon. Football's increasing popularity is usually traced to the 1958 NFL Championship Game, a contest that has been dubbed the "Greatest Game Ever Played". The 1958 National Football League Championship Game was played on December 28, 1958 at Yankee Stadium in New York City. A rival league to the NFL, the American Football League (AFL), began play in 1960; the pressure it put on the senior league led to a merger between the two leagues and the creation of the Super Bowl, which has become the most watched television event in the United States on an annual basis. Note There were three earlier and unrelated major American professional football leagues of the same name One in 1926, one in 1936-1937 and one in 1940-1941 The AFL-NFL merger of 1970 was the merger of the two major professional American football leagues professional American football, the Super Bowl is the Championship game of the National Football League (NFL 
The object of American football is to score more points than the opposing team within the time limit. Parts of this article need to be merged into American Football, and parts of that article need to be merged here
American football is played on a field 360 by 160 feet (109. 7 m × 48. 8 m) wide. The longer boundary lines are sidelines, while the shorter boundary lines are end lines. Near each end of the field is a goal line; they are 100 yards (91. 4 m) apart. A scoring area called an end zone extends 10 yards (9. The end zone is a term used in both Canadian football and American football. 1 m) beyond each goal line to each end line.
Yard lines cross the field every 5 yards (4. 6 m), and are numbered every 10 yards from each goal line to the 50-yard line, or midfield (similar to a typical rugby league field). History See also History of rugby league The grass roots of rugby league can be traced to early football history, through the playing of ball games Two rows of short lines, known as inbounds lines or hash marks, run parallel to the sidelines near the middle of the field. All plays start with the ball on or between the hash marks.
At the back of each end zone are two goalposts (also called uprights) connected by a crossbar 10 feet (3. On the Sporting field goalposts are posts between which players must carry kick or pass a ball or similar object in order to score points or simply a goal. 05 m) from the ground. The posts are, for high skill levels 222 inches (5. 64 m) apart. For lower skill levels, these are widened to 280 inches (7. 11 m).
Each team has 11 players on the field at a time. However, teams may substitute for any or all of their players, if time allows, during the break between plays. As a result, players have very specialized roles, and, sometimes (although rarely) almost all of the (at least) 46 active players on an NFL team will play in any given game. Thus, teams are divided into three separate units: the offense, the defense and the special teams. In American football, each team has 11 players on the field at one time In American football, each team has 11 players on the field at one time In American football, each team has 11 players on the field at one time
Similar to association football, the game begins with a coin toss to determine who will kick off to begin the games and which goal each team will defend. Coin flipping or coin tossing is the practice of throwing a Coin in the air to resolve a Dispute between two parties or otherwise choose between two alternatives The options will be presented again to start the second half; the choices for the first half do not automatically determine the start of the second half. The referee will conduct the coin toss with the captains (or sometimes coaches) of the opposing teams. The team that wins the coin toss has three options:
Whatever the first team chooses, the second team has the option on the other choice (for example, if the first team elects to receive at the start of the game, the second team can decide which goal to defend).
At the start of the second half, the options to kick, receive, or choose a goal to defend are presented to the captains again. The team which did not choose first to start the first half (or which deferred its privilege to choose first) now gets first choice of options. 
A standard football game consists of four 15-minute quarters (12-minute quarters in high-school football and often shorter at lower levels), with a half-time intermission after the second quarter. In some team Sports such as Football (soccer and rugby, Matches are played in two halves The clock stops after certain plays; therefore, a game can last considerably longer (often more than three hours in real time), and if a game is broadcast on television, TV timeouts are taken at certain intervals of the game to broadcast commercials outside of game action. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic A television timeout (or TV timeout) is a break in a television programme to allow Television advertisements to be shown Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand If an NFL game is tied after four quarters, the teams play an additional period lasting up to 15 minutes. In an NFL overtime game, the first team that scores wins, even if the other team does not get a possession; this is referred to as sudden death. Sudden death (or a sudden death round) is a way of providing a winner for a Contest or Game (typically a Sport) which would otherwise In a regular-season NFL game, if neither team scores in overtime, the game is a tie. In an NFL playoff game, additional overtime periods are played, as needed, to determine a winner. College overtime rules are more complicated and are described in Overtime (sport). Overtime is an additional period of play specified under the rules of a Sport in order to bring the game to a decision and avoid declaring the contest a tie or draw
Advancing the ball in American football resembles the six-tackle rule and the play-the-ball in rugby league. History See also History of rugby league The grass roots of rugby league can be traced to early football history, through the playing of ball games The team that takes possession of the ball (the offense) has four attempts, called downs, to advance the ball 10 yards (9. First Down redirects here For the Prison Break episode see First Down (Prison Break episode. 1 m) towards their opponent's (the defense's) end zone. When the offense gains 10 yards, it gets a first down, which means the team has another set of four downs to gain yet another 10 yards or score with. If the offense fails to gain a first down (10 yards) after 4 downs, the other team gets possession of the ball at the spot of the football, beginning with their first down.
Except at the beginning of halves and after scores, the ball is always put into play by a snap. A snap (colloquially called a "hike" "snapback" or "pass from center" starts each American football and Canadian football Offensive players line up facing defensive players at the line of scrimmage (the position on the field where the play begins). In American and Canadian football a line of scrimmage is an imaginary transverse line crossing the football field across its narrower dimension beyond One offensive player, the center, then passes (or "snaps") the ball between his legs to a teammate, usually the quarterback. Center ( C) is a position in American football and Canadian football ( spelled centre in Canadian English) Quarterback ( QB) is a position in American and Canadian football.
Players can then advance the ball in two ways:
A down ends, and the ball becomes dead, after any of the following:
Officials blow a whistle to notify players that the down is over.
Before each down, each team chooses a play, or coordinated movements and actions, that the players should follow on a down. Sometimes, downs themselves are referred to as "plays. "
The offense maintains possession of the ball unless one of the following things occurs:
A team scores points by the following plays:
Each half begins with a kickoff. A kickoff is a method of starting a Drive in American football or Canadian football. Teams also kick off after scoring touchdowns and field goals. The ball is kicked using a kicking tee from the team's own 30-yard (27 m) line in the NFL and college football (as of the 2007 season). The other team's kick returner tries to catch the ball and advance it as far as possible. Where he is stopped is the point where the offense will begin its drive, or series of offensive plays. If the kick returner catches the ball in his own end zone, he can either run with the ball, or elect for a touchback by kneeling in the end zone, in which case the receiving team then starts its offensive drive from its own 20 yard line. In American football, a touchback is a ruling which is made and signaled by the Referee when the ball crosses into or through the end zone not in control of the team A touchback also occurs when the kick goes out-of-bounds in the end zone. In American football, a touchback is a ruling which is made and signaled by the Referee when the ball crosses into or through the end zone not in control of the team A kickoff that goes out-of-bounds anywhere other than the end zone before being touched by the receiving team is considered an illegal procedure penalty, and the ball will be placed where it went out of bounds or 30 yards (27 m) from the kickoff spot, depending on which is more advantageous to the opposite team. Unlike with punts, once a kickoff goes 10 yards, it can be recovered by the kicking team. A team, especially one who is losing, can try to take advantage of this by attempting an onside kick. Onside kick (sometimes onsides kick) is a term used in American and Canadian football for a type of kickoff, and in some circumstances and leagues Punts and turnovers in the end zone can also end in a touchback. In American football, a touchback is a ruling which is made and signaled by the Referee when the ball crosses into or through the end zone not in control of the team
After safeties, the team that gave up the points must free kick the ball to the other team from its own 20 yard line. A safety or safety touch is a type of score in American football and Canadian football and is worth two points (with one very rare exception)
Fouls (a type of rule violation) are punished with penalties against the offending team. Parts of this article need to be merged into American Football, and parts of that article need to be merged here Most penalties result in moving the football towards the offending team's end zone. If the penalty would move the ball more than half the distance towards the offender's end zone, the penalty becomes half the distance to the goal instead of its normal value.
Most penalties result in replaying the down. Some defensive penalties give the offense an automatic first down. Conversely, some offensive penalties result in loss of a down (loss of the right to repeat the down). If a penalty gives the offensive team enough yardage to gain a first down, they get a first down, as usual.
If a foul occurs during a down, an official throws a yellow flag near the spot of the foul. When the down ends, the team that did not commit the foul has the option of accepting the penalty, or declining the penalty and accepting the result of the down.
A few of the most-common fouls include:
Under certain circumstances clipping and blocking in the back are legal.
Variations on these basic rules exist, particularly touch and flag football, which are designed as non-contact or limited-contact alternatives to the relative violence of regular American football. Touch football is a version of American football originally developed by the U Flag football is a version of American football that is popular in North America. Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes In touch and flag football, tackling is not permitted. Offensive players are "tackled" when a defender tags them or removes a flag from their body, respectively. Both of these varieties are played mainly in informal settings such as intramural or youth games. Intramural sports or intramurals are recreational Sports organized within a school Another variation is "wrap", where a player is "tackled" when another player wraps his arms around the ball carrier. Professional, intercollegiate, and varsity-level high school football invariably use the standard tackling rules.
Another variation is with the number of players on the field. In sparsely populated areas, it is not uncommon to find high school football teams playing nine-man football, eight-man football or six-man football. Nine-man football is a type of American football played by high schools that are too small to play the usual eleven-man game Eight-man football is a type of American football, generally played by small High schools Rules and formations vary greatly among states and even among different organizations Six-man football is a variant of high school American football that is played with six players per team instead of 11 Players often play on offense as well as defense. The Arena Football League is a league that plays eight-man football, but also plays indoors and on a much smaller playing surface with rule changes to encourage a much more offensive game. The Arena Football League (AFL was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league.
Another variation often played by American children is called Catch 'n' Run. In this game, the children split into two teams and line up at opposite sides of the playing field. One side throws the ball to the other side. If the opposing team catches the ball, that player tries to run to the throwing teams touchdown without being tagged/tackled. If no one catches the ball or if the player is tagged/tackled, then that team has to throw the ball to the opposing team. this repeats until the game (or recess period) is deemed over.
Most football players have highly specialized roles. At the college and NFL levels, most play only offense or only defense.
At least seven players must line up on the line of scrimmage on every offensive play. The other players may line up anywhere behind the line. The exact number of running backs, wide receivers and tight ends may differ on any given play. For example, if the team needs only 1 yard, it may use three tight ends, two running backs and no wide receivers. On the other hand, if it needs 20 yards, it may replace all of its running backs and tight ends with wide receivers.
In contrast to members of the offense, the rules of professional football (NFL Rulebook) and American college football NCAA Rulebook) do not specify starting position, movement, or coverage zones for members of the defensive team, except that they must be in the defensive zone at the start of play. The positions, movements and responsibilities of all defensive players are assigned by the team by selection of certain coverages, or patterns of placement and assignment of responsibilities. The positional roles are customary. These roles have varied over the history of American football. The following are customary defensive positions used in many coverages in modern American football.
The units of players who handle kicking plays are known as special teams. In American football, each team has 11 players on the field at one time Three important special-teams players are the punter, who handles punts, the placekicker or kicker, who kicks off and attempts field goals and extra points, and the long snapper, who snaps the ball for extra points, field goals, and punts. A punter ( P) in American or Canadian football is a Special teams player who receives the snapped ball directly from the line of scrimmage and Placekicker, or simply kicker ( PK or K) is the title of the player in American and Canadian football who is responsible for the In American football and Canadian football, the term long snapper refers to a player who is a specialized center (though he could also be a tackle guard Also included on special teams are the returners. These players return punts or kickoffs and try to get in good field position. These players can also score touchdowns.
In the NFL, ranges of uniform numbers are (usually) reserved for certain positions:
NCAA and high school rules specify only that offensive linemen must have numbers in the 50-79 range, but the NCAA "strongly recommends" that quarterbacks and running backs have numbers below 50 and wide receivers numbers above 79. In American football, Uniform numbers are more unusual than in any other sport This helps officials as it means that numbers 50 to 79 are ineligible receivers, or players that may never receive a forward pass. In American football and Canadian football, not all players on offense are entitled to receive a forward pass There are no numbering restrictions on defensive players in the NCAA, other than that no two players with the same jersey number can be on the field at the same time.
Because the game stops after every down, giving teams a chance to call a new play, strategy plays a major role in football. American football Strategy is the strategic deployment of players and assignment of tasks to offensive and defensive players of American football Each team has a playbook of dozens to hundreds of plays. Ideally, each play is a scripted, strategically sound team-coordinated endeavor. Some plays are very safe; they are likely to get only a few yards. Other plays have the potential for long gains but at a greater risk of a loss of yardage or a turnover.
Generally speaking, rushing plays are less risky than passing plays. However, there are relatively safe passing plays and risky running plays. To deceive the other team, some passing plays are designed to resemble running plays and vice versa. These are referred to as play-action passes and draws. There are many trick or gadget plays, such as when a team lines up as if it intends to punt and then tries to run or pass for a first down. Such high-risk plays are a great thrill to the fans when they work. However, they can spell disaster if the opposing team realizes the deception and acts accordingly.
The defense also plans plays in response to expectations of what the offense will do. For example, a "blitz" (using linebackers or defensive backs to charge the quarterback) is often attempted when the team on defense expects a pass. A blitz makes downfield passing more difficult but exposes the defense to big gains if the offensive line stems the rush.
Many hours of preparation and strategizing, including film review by both players and coaches, go into the days between football games. This, along with the demanding physicality of football (see below), is why teams typically play at most one game per week.
American football is a collision sport. There a number of issues relating to public awareness and health aspects of American football. To stop the offense from advancing the ball, the defense must tackle the player with the ball by knocking or pulling him down. As such, defensive players must use some form of physical contact to bring the ball-carrier to the ground, within certain rules and guidelines. Tacklers cannot kick or punch the runner. They also cannot grab the face mask of the runner's helmet or lead into a tackle with their own helmet. Despite these and other rules regarding unnecessary roughness, most other forms of tackling are legal. Blockers and defenders trying to evade them also have wide leeway in trying to force their opponents out of the way. Quarterbacks are regularly hit by defenders coming on full speed from outside the quarterback's field of vision. This is commonly known as a blindside.
To compensate for this, players must wear special protective equipment, such as a padded plastic helmet, shoulder pads, hip pads and knee pads. A football helmet is a protective device used primarily in American football and Canadian football, the modern hard plastic version of which was created by Shoulder pads are a piece of protective equipment used in American and Canadian football. These protective pads were introduced decades ago and have improved ever since to help minimize lasting injury to players. Injury or bodily injury is Damage or Harm caused to the Structure or function of the Body caused by an outside agent or An unintended consequence of all the safety equipment has resulted in increasing levels of violence in the game. Unintended consequences are outcomes that are not (or not limited to what the actor intended in a particular situation Players may now hurl themselves at one another at high speeds without a significant chance of injury. The injuries that do result tend to be severe and often season or career-ending and sometimes fatal. In previous years with less padding, tackling more closely resembled tackles in Rugby football. Rugby football (usually just " rugby " may refer to a number of sports through history descended from a common form of Football developed at Rugby School Better helmets have allowed players to use their helmets as weapons. This form of tackling is particularly unwise, due to the great potential for brain or spinal injury. All this has caused the various leagues, especially the NFL, to implement a complicated series of penalties for various types of contact. Most recently, virtually any contact with the helmet of a defensive player on the quarterback, or any contact to the quarterback's head, is now a foul.
Despite protective equipment and rule changes to emphasize safety, injuries remain very common in football. It is increasingly rare, for example, for NFL quarterbacks or running backs (who take the most direct hits) to make it through an entire season without missing some time to injury. Additionally, 28 football players, mostly high schoolers, died from direct football injuries in the years 2000-05 and an additional 68 died indirectly from dehydration or other examples of "non-physical" dangers, according to the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research.  Concussions are common, with about 41,000 suffered every year among high school players according to the Brain Injury Association of Arizona.  In 1981, former U. S. President Ronald Reagan, who played football in high school, commented on the contact of the sport: "[Football] is the last thing left in civilization where men can literally fling themselves bodily at one another in combat and not be at war. "
Extra and optional equipment such as neck rolls, spider pads, rib protectors (referred to as "flak jackets"), and elbow pads help against injury as well, though they do not tend to be used by the majority of players due to their lack of requirement. Elbow pads are protective padded gear worn on the elbows to protect them against Injury during a fall or a strike
The danger of football and the equipment required to reduce it make regulation football impractical for casual play. Flag football and touch football are less violent variants of the game popular among recreational players. Flag football is a version of American football that is popular in North America. Touch football is a version of American football originally developed by the U
Befitting its status as a popular sport, football is played in leagues of different size, age and quality, in all regions of the country. Organized football is played almost exclusively by men and boys, although a few amateur and semi-professional women's leagues have begun play in recent years.
The 32-team National Football League (NFL) is currently the only major professional American football league in North America. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. A sports league is an organization that exists to provide a regulated competition for a number of people to compete in a specific Sport. At least two new professional American Football Leagues are slated to begin playing in 2009, the All-American Football League and the United Football League. The All American Football League is a proposed professional American football league The United Football League is a professional American Football league being organized by William Hambrecht, a Wall Street investor and former minority There are American football leagues located in over 50 countries in the world, although most outside the United States are semi-professional leagues (see List of leagues of American and Canadian football). This is a list of current and defunct leagues of American football and Canadian football. A few of the more popular international leagues are the German Football League (GFL) and the Japanese X-League. The X-League is a semi-professional American football league in Japan. The NFL does not operate any developmental leagues currently since the folding of NFL Europa. NFL Europa was an American football league which operated in Europe from 1991 until 2007. Players unable to make an NFL team sometimes play in other leagues such as the Arena Football League or Canadian Football League, both of which have rules differing somewhat from those of the NFL. The Arena Football League (AFL was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. The Canadian Football League (CFL ( Ligue canadienne de football (LCF in
College football is also popular throughout North America. College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, Colleges and military academies A majority of colleges and universities have football teams, often with dedicated football stadiums. These teams mostly play other similarly sized schools. The largest, most popular collegiate teams routinely fill stadiums larger than 75,000. Four college football stadiums, The University of Michigan's Michigan Stadium, Penn State's Beaver Stadium, The University of Tennessee's Neyland Stadium and Ohio State's Ohio Stadium, seat more than 100,000 fans and usually sell out. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor ( U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a top-ranked Coeducational public research Michigan Stadium, nicknamed The Big House, is the football stadium for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related, land-grant, space grant public research University The University of Tennessee (also known as UT) sometimes called the University of Tennessee Knoxville ( UT Knoxville, or UTK) is the flagship Neyland Stadium is a sports stadium in Knoxville, Tennessee. It serves primarily as the home of the Tennessee Volunteers football team but is also used The Ohio State University ( OSU) is a Coeducational public Research university in the state of Ohio. Ohio Stadium (also known as The Horseshoe, simply The ’Shoe and The House Harley Built) is the home of the Buckeyes football The weekly autumn ritual of college football includes marching bands, cheerleaders, homecoming, parties, the tailgate party; it forms an important part of the culture in much of smalltown America. A marching band is in the broadest terms a group of performers that consist of instrumental Musicians and sometimes dance teams / color guard who generally perform Cheerleading is a Sport that uses organized routines made from elements of Tumbling, Dance, jumps and stunting to direct spectators of events Homecoming, welcoming back of former residents and alumni is a tradition in many universities, Colleges and High schools in North America In North America, a tailgate party is a Social event held on and around the open Tailgate of a vehicle. A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan Football is generally the major source of revenue to the athletic programs of schools, public and private, in the United States.
Most American high schools field football teams. High school football is one of most popular interscholastic sports at High schools in the United States and the second most popular in Canada. High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution High school football is one of most popular interscholastic sports at High schools in the United States and the second most popular in Canada. Schools that are too small to field the minimum number of players play variants of football that specify six, seven, eight or nine players instead of the normal eleven. High school football is popular; some schools regularly fill stadiums holding over 10,000 fans, and can afford artificial playing surfaces.
High school teams generally play only against other teams from their state (notable exceptions include matchups between nearby schools located on opposite sides of a state line and occasional matchups between two nationally-ranked teams for television purposes). A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Still, some private Christian high schools play for national championships through organizations like the Federated Christian Athletic Association.
Football is played recreationally by amateur and youth teams (e. g. , the American Youth Football and Pop Warner little-league programs). American Youth Football (AYF was established in 1996, as an international youth football organization that promotes the development of youth through their association with adult Pop Warner Little Scholars (also known as Pop Warner, Pop Warner Football, and Junior Football Conference) is a Non-profit organization that There are also many "semi-pro" teams in leagues where the players are paid to play but at a small enough salary that they generally must also hold a full-time job.
Due to the speed and violence of the sport, many non-organized football games involve variations of the rules to minimize contact. These include touch football and flag football. Touch football is a version of American football originally developed by the U Flag football is a version of American football that is popular in North America.
Football is an autumn sport. A season typically begins in mid-to-late August and runs through December, into January. The professional playoffs run through January, and the Super Bowl is often played in the first week of February. professional American football, the Super Bowl is the Championship game of the National Football League (NFL The NFL draft is usually held in April, in which eligible college football players are selected by NFL teams, the order of selection determined by the teams' final regular season records. The NFL Draft is an annual Sports draft in which NFL teams select newly-eligible players for their rosters
It is a long-standing tradition in the United States (though not universally observed) that high school football games are played on Friday night, college games on Saturday, and professional games on Sunday. In the 1970s, the NFL began to schedule one game on Monday nights. Monday Night Football ( MNF) is a Live television broadcast of the National Football League. Beginning in 2006, the NFL began scheduling games on Thursday and Saturday nights after the college football regular season concludes in mid-November, aired on the NFL Network. NFL Network is an American television Specialty channel owned and operated by the National Football League (NFL and is also shown in Canada In recent years, nationally televised Thursday night college games have become a weekly fixture on ESPN, and most nights of the week feature at least one college game, though most games are still played on the traditional Saturday. ESPN, originally an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American Cable television network dedicated to
Certain fall and winter holidays—such as the NFL's Thanksgiving Classic and numerous New Year's Day college bowl games—have traditional football games associated with them. Lists of holidays The words holiday or vacation have related meanings in different English-speaking countries and continents but will usually refer to one of The Canadian Football League also holds a Thanksgiving Day Classic on Canadian Thanksgiving. New Year's Day is the first day of the Year. On the modern Gregorian calendar, it is celebrated on January 1, as it was also in ancient Rome (though In the United States, a bowl game is traditionally a post-season College football game however the term "bowl" has become synonymous with a major American
Outside the United States, the sport is referred to as "American football" (or a translation thereof) to differentiate it from other football codes such as association football and rugby football. Football is the word given to a number of similar Team sports all of which involve (to varying degrees kicking a Ball with the foot in an attempt to score a Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Rugby football (usually just " rugby " may refer to a number of sports through history descended from a common form of Football developed at Rugby School In Australia and New Zealand the game is known as Gridiron football, although in the United States the term gridiron refers only to the playing field itself. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Gridiron football is an umbrella term used in some countries outside North America to refer to several codes of Football played primarily in Northern America  In much of the world, the term football is ambiguous and can refer to a number of different codes. The English language word football may mean any one of several Team sports (or the ball used in that respective sport depending on the national or regional
The NFL has attempted to introduce the game to other nations and operated a developmental league, NFL Europa, with teams in five German cities and one in the Netherlands, but this league folded following the 2007 season. NFL Europa was an American football league which operated in Europe from 1991 until 2007. The professional Canadian Football League and collegiate Canadian Interuniversity Sport play under the only slightly different Canadian rules. The Canadian Football League (CFL ( Ligue canadienne de football (LCF in Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS is the national Governing body of University sport in Canada, comprised of the majority of degree granting universities In accordance with the Manual of Style (see) Canadian English is used throughout this article (see Canadian_English#Spelling)
In the UK, 46 teams play in the British American Football League. British American Football League (BAFL is the United Kingdom 's primary American Football league The BAFL is comprised of three levels: The Premier, of which there are 7 teams; BAFL 1, of which there are 12 teams; and BAFL 2, of which there are 27 teams. While the lower level teams have their own championship games during BritBowl Weekend, only Premier league teams face each other in the BritBowl which is it traditionally held in Sheffield's Don Valley Stadium. BritBowl is the Championship game of the British American Football League (BAFL in the United Kingdom. Sheffield ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England The Don Valley Stadium is an athletics Stadium in Sheffield, England.
In Japan, the X-League is a professional league with 60 teams in four divisions, using promotion and relegation. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The X-League is a semi-professional American football league in Japan. In many Sports leagues around the world (with North American and Australian professional leagues being the most notable exceptions promotion and relegation After the post-season playoffs, the X-League champion is determined in the Japan X Bowl. There are also over 200 universities fielding teams, with the national collegiate championship determined by the Koshien Bowl. The Koshien Bowl is the annual Japanese American College football championship game usually played in December at Koshien Stadium. The professional and collegiate champions then face each other in the Rice Bowl to determine the national champion. The Rice Bowl is an annual American Football game held in Japan every January 3d that pits the Japanese college champion and the champion of the corporate X-League
In Germany, the German Football League whose elite division is called bundesliga, has 12 teams partitioned into north and south conferences. The finalists from the playoffs determine the German champion during the German Bowl. The German Bowl, like the NFL Super Bowl, is the final match of the season for the German Football League (GFL
In Hungary, 18 registered teams participate in a the MAFL's two division league structure. The sport has grown significantly since 2004 and with some top Division I teams participating in the CEFL. The Central European Football League (CEFL is a regional American football league that includes clubs from Serbia, Slovenia, Hungary,
The International Federation of American Football is the governing body for American football with 45 member associations from North and South America, Europe, Asia and Oceania. International Federation of American Football (IFAF is the international governing body of American football associations The IFAF also oversees the American Football World Cup, which is held every four years. Japan won the first two World Cups, held in 1999 and 2003. Team USA, which had not participated in the previous World Cups, won the title in 2007.
Major American leagues have also held some regular season games outside of the United States. On October 2, 2005, the Arizona Cardinals and San Francisco 49ers played the first regular season NFL game outside of the United States, in Mexico City's Estadio Azteca, From 2007, the NFL has played or has plans to play at least one regular season game outside of the United States. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The NCAA will also play games outside of the U. The National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA, often pronounced "N-C-Double-A" is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations S. In 2012, The United States Naval Academy will play the University of Notre Dame in Dublin, Ireland. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland.
The Open Directory Project ( ODP) also known as dmoz (from directory