Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service in which participants, called "hams," use various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. Frasier is an American sitcom, a Spin-off of Cheers starring Kelsey Grammer as Ham is an informal term for an Amateur radio operator, and by extension "ham radio" refers to Amateur radio in general A hobby is a spare-time Recreational pursuit Etymology A Hobby horse is a wooden or Wickerwork toy made to be Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by Government to its Citizens, either directly (through the Public sector) or 
Amateur radio operators enjoy personal (and often worldwide) wireless communications with each other and are able to support their communities with emergency and disaster communications if necessary, while increasing their personal knowledge of electronics and radio theory. See also Amateur radio An amateur radio operator is an individual who typically uses equipment at an Amateur radio station to engage in two-way Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or " Wires quot Amateur Radio Emergency Communications ( AREC) formerly the Amateur Radio Emergency Corps, is a service provided by the New Zealand Association of Radio Transmitters Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. An estimated six million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio. 
The term "amateur" is not a reflection on the skills of the participants, which are often quite advanced; rather, "amateur" indicates that amateur radio communications are not allowed to be made for commercial or money-making purposes.
Though its origins can be traced to at least the late 1800s, amateur radio, as practiced today, began in the 1920s. Throughout the history of amateur radio, Amateur radio enthusiasts have made significant contributions to Science, Engineering, Industry, and As with radio in general, the birth of amateur radio was strongly associated with various amateur experimenters and hobbyists. The pre-history and early history of radio is the history of Technology that produced radio instruments that use Radio waves Within the Timeline of Throughout its history, amateur radio enthusiasts have made significant contributions to science, engineering, industry, and social services. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Social work is a discipline involving the application of Social theory and research methods to study and improve the lives of people groups and societies Research by amateur radio operators has founded new industries, built economies, empowered nations, and saved lives in times of emergency. See also Amateur radio An amateur radio operator is an individual who typically uses equipment at an Amateur radio station to engage in two-way
Radio amateurs use various modes of transmission to communicate. SKYWARN is a program of the United States ' National Weather Service (NWS Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth The Internet Radio Linking Project, also called IRLP, is a project that links Amateur radio stations around the world by using Voice over IP (VoIP A radio repeater is a combination of a radio receiver and a radio transmitter that receives a weak or low-level signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power so that Very high frequency (VHF is the Radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with Wavelengths ranging from 1 mm to 1 m or frequencies between 0 Vintage amateur radio is a subset of the Amateur radio hobby considered a form of Nostalgia much like antique car collecting where enthusiasts collect restore This article is about the electronic device not an evacuated pipe used for experiments in Free-fall. Wireless network refers to any type of Computer network that is Wireless, and is commonly associated with a Telecommunications network whose interconnections The following is a list of the modes of communication used by Amateur radio operators Analog Amplitude Modulation (AM Voice transmissions are most common, with some such as frequency modulation (FM) offering high quality audio, and others such as single sideband (SSB) offering more reliable communications when signals are marginal and bandwidth is restricted. Single-sideband modulation ( SSB) is a refinement of Amplitude modulation that more efficiently uses electrical power and bandwidth.
Radiotelegraphy using Morse code is an activity dating to the earliest days of radio. Morse code is a Character encoding for transmitting telegraphic information using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters numerals Technology has moved past the use of telegraphy in nearly all other communications, and a code test is no longer part of most national licensing exams for amateur radio. Many amateur radio operators continue to make use of the mode, particularly on the shortwave bands and for experimental work such as Moonbounce, with its inherent signal-to-noise ratio advantages. Shortwave Radio operates between the frequencies of 3000 KHz (3 Earth-Moon-Earth, also known as moon bounce, is a radio communications technique which relies on the propagation of radio waves from an Earth -based transmitter directed Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is an Electrical engineering concept also used in other fields (such as scientific Measurements Morse, using internationally agreed code groups, also allows communications between amateurs who speak different languages. It is also popular with homebrewers as CW-only transmitters are simpler to construct. Homebrew is an Amateur radio slang term for home-built noncommercial radio equipment A continuous wave or continuous waveform ( CW) is an Electromagnetic wave of constant Amplitude and Frequency; and in Mathematical A similar "legacy" mode popular with home constructors is amplitude modulation, pursued by many vintage amateur radio enthusiasts and aficionados of vacuum tube technology. Amplitude modulation ( AM) is a technique used in electronic communication most commonly for transmitting information via a Radio Carrier wave Vintage amateur radio is a subset of the Amateur radio hobby considered a form of Nostalgia much like antique car collecting where enthusiasts collect restore This article is about the electronic device not an evacuated pipe used for experiments in Free-fall.
For many years, demonstrating a proficiency in Morse code was a requirement to obtain amateur licenses for the high frequency bands (frequencies below 30 MHz), but following changes in international regulations in 2003, countries are no longer required to demand proficiency. High frequency (HF radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz.  As an example, the United States Federal Communications Commission phased out this requirement for all license classes on February 23, 2007. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
Modern personal computers have encouraged the use of digital modes such as radioteletype (RTTY), which previously required cumbersome mechanical equipment. A digital system uses discrete (discontinuous values usually but not always Symbolized Numerically (hence called "digital" to represent information for Radioteletype ( RTTY) is a Telecommunications system consisting of two or more Teleprinters using Radio as the Transmission medium.  Hams led the development of packet radio, which has employed protocols such as TCP/IP since the 1970s. Packet radio is a form of Digital Data transmission used to link computers The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly TCP/IP) is the set of Communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks Specialized digital modes such as PSK31 allow real-time, low-power communications on the shortwave bands. PSK31 or " Phase Shift Keying, 31 Baud " is a Digital radio Echolink using Voice over IP technology has enabled amateurs to communicate through local internet-connected repeaters and radio nodes, while IRLP has allowed the linking of repeaters to provide greater coverage area. EchoLink is a computer program that runs under Microsoft Windows to allow Radio amateurs to communicate with one another using Voice over IP (VoIP technology Voice-over-Internet protocol ( VoIP, vɔɪp is a protocol optimized for the transmission of voice through the Internet The Internet Radio Linking Project, also called IRLP, is a project that links Amateur radio stations around the world by using Voice over IP (VoIP Other modes, such as FSK441 using software such as WSJT, are used for weak signal modes including meteor scatter and moonbounce communications. WSJT is a computer program used for weak- signal Radio communication between Amateur radio operators. Meteor burst communications, or MBC for short is a radio Propagation mode that exploits the ionized trails of Meteors during Atmospheric Earth-Moon-Earth, also known as moon bounce, is a radio communications technique which relies on the propagation of radio waves from an Earth -based transmitter directed
Fast scan amateur television has gained popularity as hobbyists adapt inexpensive consumer video electronics like camcorders and video cards in home computers. Amateur television ( ATV) is the Hobby of transmitting broadcast -quality Video and audio over Radio waves allocated A home computer was a class of Personal computer entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s Because of the wide bandwidth and stable signals required, amateur television is typically found in the 70 cm (420 MHz–450 MHz) frequency range, though there is also limited use on 33 cm (902 MHz–928 MHz), 23 cm (1240 MHz–1300 MHz) and higher. These requirements also effectively limit the signal range to between 20 and 60 miles (30 km–100 km), however, the use of linked repeater systems can allow transmissions across hundreds of miles. An amateur radio repeater is an electronic device that receives a weak or low-level Amateur radio signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power so that the signal 
These repeaters, or automated relay stations, are used on VHF and higher frequencies to increase signal range. Very high frequency (VHF is the Radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Repeaters are usually located on top of a mountain, hill or tall building, and allow operators to communicate over hundreds of square miles using a low power hand-held transceiver. A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak In Architecture, Construction, Engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following Any man-made A transceiver is a device that has both a Transmitter and a receiver which are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing Repeaters can also be linked together by use of other amateur radio bands, landline or the Internet. Amateur radio Frequency allocation is done by national telecommunications authorities A landline, main line or fixed-line is a Telephone line which travels through a solid medium either metal Wire or Optical fibre The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks
Communication satellites called OSCARs (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio) can be accessed, some using a handheld transceiver (HT) with a stock "rubber duck" antenna. This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. OSCAR is an acronym for Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio. A walkie-talkie (more formally known as a handheld transceiver) is a hand-held portable Two-way radio Transceiver. Hams also use the moon and the ionized trails of meteors as reflectors of radio waves.  Hams are also often able to make contact with the International Space Station (ISS), as many astronauts and cosmonauts are licensed as Amateur Radio Operators. An astronaut or cosmonaut (космона́вт) is a person trained 
Amateur radio operators use their amateur radio station to make contacts with individual hams as well as participating in round table discussion groups or "rag chew sessions" on the air. An amateur radio station is a facility equipped for Radiocommunications in the amateur radio service. Some join in regularly scheduled on-air meetings with other amateur radio operators, called "Nets" (as in "networks") which are moderated by a station referred to as "Net Control".  Nets can allow operators to learn procedures for emergencies, be an informal round table or be topical, covering specific interests shared by a group.
In all countries, amateur radio operators are required to pass a licensing exam displaying knowledge and understanding of key concepts. An amateur radio license is a legal document or permit giving official permission to the license holder to operate an Amateur radio station. In response, hams are granted operating privileges in larger segments of the radio frequency spectrum using a wide variety of communication techniques with higher power levels permitted. Radio frequency ( RF) is a Frequency or rate of Oscillation within the range of about 3 Hz to 300 GHz This practice is in contrast to unlicensed personal radio services such as CB radio, Multi-Use Radio Service, or Family Radio Service/PMR446 that require type-approved equipment restricted in frequency range and power. Citizens' Band radio ( CB) is in many countries a system of short-distance simplex radio communications between individuals on a selection of 40 channels within In the United States the Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS is a Two-way radio service consisting of five frequencies in the VHF The Family Radio Service (FRS is an improved Walkie talkie radio system authorized in the United States since 1996 PMR446 (Personal Mobile Radio 446 MHz is a Radio frequency part of the UHF range that is open without licensing for personal usage in most countries of the
In many countries, amateur licensing is a routine civil administrative matter. Amateurs are required to pass an examination to demonstrate technical knowledge, operating competence and awareness of legal and regulatory requirements in order to avoid interference with other amateurs and other radio services. There are often a series of exams available, each progressively more challenging and granting more privileges in terms of frequency availability, power output, permitted experimentation, and in some countries, distinctive callsigns. Some countries such as Great Britain and Australia have begun requiring a practical training course in addition to the written exams in order to obtain a beginner's license, called a Foundation License. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
Amateur radio licensing in the United States serves as an example of the way some countries award different levels of amateur radio licenses based on technical knowledge. In the United States, amateur radio licensing is governed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC Three sequential levels of licensing exams (Technician Class, General Class and Amateur Extra Class) are currently offered, which allow operators who pass them access to larger portions of the Amateur Radio spectrum and more desirable callsigns.
Many people start their involvement in amateur radio by finding a local club. Clubs often provide information about licensing, local operating practices and technical advice. Newcomers also often study independently by purchasing books or other materials, sometimes with the help of a mentor, teacher or friend. Established amateurs who help newcomers are often referred to as "Elmers" within the ham community. In addition, many countries have national amateur radio societies which encourage newcomers and work with government communications regulation authorities for the benefit of all radio amateurs. The oldest of these societies is the Wireless Institute of Australia, formed in 1910; other notable societies are the Radio Society of Great Britain, the American Radio Relay League, Radio Amateurs of Canada, the New Zealand Association of Radio Transmitters and South African Radio League. The Wireless Institute of Australia ( WIA) was formed in 1910 and is the first and oldest national Amateur radio society in the world First founded in 1913 as the London Wireless Club the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB is the UK 's recognised national society for Amateur radio operators The American Radio Relay League (ARRL is the largest membership association of Amateur radio enthusiasts in the USA. Radio Amateurs of Canada ( RAC) known in French as Radio Amateurs du Canada, is a Non-profit organization of Amateur radio enthusiasts The New Zealand Association of Radio Transmitters, or NZART, is a Non-profit organization of Amateur radio enthusiasts in New Zealand. The South African Radio League ( SARL) formerly known as the South African Radio Relay League ( SARRL) is a Non-profit organization representing (See Category:Amateur radio organizations)
Upon licensing, a radio amateur's national government issues a unique callsign to the radio amateur. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. In Broadcasting and Radio communications a call sign (also known as a callsign or call letters, or abbreviated as a call, or otherwise The holder of a callsign uses it on the air to legally identify the operator or station during any and all radio communication. An amateur radio station is a facility equipped for Radiocommunications in the amateur radio service. Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way  In certain jurisdictions, an operator may also select a "vanity" callsign.  Some jurisdictions, such as the U. S. , require that a fee be paid to obtain such a vanity callsign; in others, such as the UK, a fee is not required and the vanity callsign may be selected when the license is applied for.
Callsign structure as prescribed by the ITU, consists of three parts which break down as follows, using the callsign ZS1NAT as an example:
Unlike all other spectrum users, radio amateurs are allowed to build or modify transmitting equipment, and do not need to obtain type-approval for it. Licensed amateurs can also use any frequency in their bands (rather than being allocated fixed frequencies or channels) and can operate medium to high-powered equipment on a wide range of frequencies so long as they meet spurious emission standards. A spurious emission is any Radio frequency not deliberately created or transmitted especially in a device which normally does create other frequencies
As noted, radio amateurs have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum, enabling choice of frequency to enable effective communication whether across a city, a region, a country, a continent or the whole world regardless of season or time day or night. The shortwave bands, or HF, can allow worldwide communication, the VHF and UHF bands offer excellent regional communication, and the broad microwave bands have enough space, or bandwidth, for television (known as SSTV and FSTV) transmissions and high-speed data networks. High frequency (HF radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. Very high frequency (VHF is the Radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with Wavelengths ranging from 1 mm to 1 m or frequencies between 0 Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic SSTV sunset audio -ogg-jpg|thumb|right|A Spectral Analysis of the SSTV audio file later in this page created with Cool Edit 2 Amateur television ( ATV) is the Hobby of transmitting broadcast -quality Video and audio over Radio waves allocated A computer network is a group of interconnected Computers. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics
Although allowable power levels are moderate by commercial standards, they are sufficient to enable global communication. In Physics, power (symbol P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted or the amount of energy required or expended for Power limits vary from country to country and between license classes within a country. For example, the power limits for the highest available license classes in a few selected countries are: 2. 25 kW in Canada, 2 kW in most countries of the former Yugoslavia, 1. The watt (symbol W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one Joule of energy per Second. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian 5 kW in the United States, 1 kW in Belgium and Switzerland, 750 W in Germany, 500 W in Italy, 400 W in Australia, India and the United Kingdom, and 150 W in Oman. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast Lower license classes usually have lower power limits; for example, the lowest license class in the UK has a limit of just 10 W. Amateur radio operators are encouraged both by regulations and tradition of respectful use of the spectrum to use as little power as possible to accomplish the communication.
When traveling abroad, visiting amateur operators must follow the rules of the country in which they wish to operate. Some countries have reciprocal international operating agreements allowing hams from other countries to operate within their borders with just their home country license. Amateur radio is a diverse hobby practiced throughout the world Other host countries require that the visiting ham apply for a formal permit, or even a new host country-issued license, in advance.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) governs the allocation of communications frequencies world-wide, with participation by each nation's communications regulation authority. Amateur radio Frequency allocation is done by national telecommunications authorities National communications regulators have some liberty to restrict access to these frequencies or to award additional allocations as long as radio services in other countries do not suffer interference. In some countries, specific emission types are restricted to certain parts of the radio spectrum, and in most other countries, International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) member societies adopt voluntary plans to ensure the most effective use of spectrum. The International Telecommunication Union uses an internationally agreed system for classifying Radio frequency signals The International Amateur Radio Union ( IARU) is an international confederation of national Amateur radio organisations that allows a forum for common matters
In a few cases, a national telecommunication agency may also allow hams to use frequencies outside of the internationally allocated amateur radio bands. In Trinidad and Tobago, hams are allowed to use a repeater which is located on 148. The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (ˈtrɪnɪdæd ən təˈbeɪgoʊ is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying northeast of the South American 800 MHz. This repeater is used and maintained by the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), but may be used by radio amateurs in times of emergency or during normal times to test their capability and conduct emergency drills. This repeater can also be used by non-ham NEMA staff and REACT members. REACT began as a CB radio Emergency Channel 9 monitoring organization across the United States and Canada in 1962 In Australia and New Zealand ham operators are authorized to use one of the UHF TV channels. In the U. S. , in cases of emergency, amateur radio operators may use any frequency including those of other radio services such as police and fire communications and the Alaska statewide emergency frequency of 5167. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent 5 kHz.
Similarly, amateurs in the United States may apply to be registered with the Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS). The Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS is a United States Department of Defense sponsored program established as a separately managed and operated program by the Army Once approved and trained, these amateurs also operate on US Government Military frequencies to provide contingency communications and morale message traffic support to the military services.
This is a list of Magazines that focus on topics related to Amateur radio. The following is a list of the modes of communication used by Amateur radio operators Analog Amplitude Modulation (AM Amateur radio organizations have been important from the earliest days of radio communications The Open Directory Project ( ODP) also known as dmoz (from directory