|Mainstream popularity||Limited before the success of grunge and Britpop in the 1990s. Post-punk was a popular musical movement in the mid to late 1970s following on the heels of the initial Punk rock explosion of the early 1970s Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The electric bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass; ˈbeɪs as in "base" is a Stringed instrument played primarily with the A drum kit (also drum set or trap set) is a collection of Drums Cymbals and sometimes other Percussion instruments such as cowbells Widespread since then, although many artists remain underground.|
|Britpop – College rock – Dream pop – Gothic rock – Grunge – Indie pop – Indie rock – Noise pop – Paisley Underground – Post-rock – Shoegazing – Twee pop|
|Alternative metal – Psychobilly – Industrial rock – Madchester – Post-punk revival – Riot Grrrl|
|Massachusetts – Seattle, Washington – Illinois – Maryland – Manchester, England|
|Bands – College radio – History – Independent music – Lollapalooza|
Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of rock music that emerged in the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of Britpop is a subgenre of Alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom. College rock was a term used in the United States to describe 1980s Alternative rock before the term "alternative" came into common usage Dream pop is a type of Alternative rock that originated in Britain in the early 1980s when bands like Cocteau Twins, The Chameleons, The Passions This article is about the musical style of gothic rock For the goth scene in general see Goth subculture. "Twee" redirects here For a definition of the word see its entry at wiktionary. Indie rock is genre of Alternative rock that primarily exists in the independent Underground music scene Noise pop is a term used to loosely describe a number of Alternative rock bands that fuse Punk rock 's attitude and anger with the Atonal noise feedback Paisley Underground is a term used to describe a genre of Rock music, based primarily in Los Angeles California, which was at its most popular in the mid-1980s Post-rock is a genre of Alternative rock characterized by the use of Musical instruments commonly associated with Rock music, but using Rhythms Shoegazing (also known as shoegaze or shoegazer) is a genre of Alternative rock that emerged from the United Kingdom in the late 1980s "Twee" redirects here For a definition of the word see its entry at wiktionary. Alternative metal is an eclectic form of Heavy metal music that gained popularity in the early 1990s alongside grunge. Psychobilly is a genre of Rock music that mixes elements of Punk rock, Rockabilly, and other genres Industrial rock is a Musical genre that fuses Industrial music and Punk rock. Madchester was an Alternative rock genre that developed in Manchester, England, towards the end of the 1980s and into the early 1990s The post-punk revival is a movement in Alternative rock of the 2000s where bands draw from of the original sounds and aesthetics of the Post-punk sound of the late Riot grrrl was an underground Feminist punk movement that started in the early 1990s and is often associated with Third-wave feminism (it Massachusetts is a US state in New England. The music of Massachusetts has developed actively since it was first colonized by Britain Seattle, although a relatively new city is a significant center for the Performing arts. Illinois, which includes Chicago, has a wide Musical heritage Maryland is a US state with a musical heritage that dates back to the Native Americans of the region and includes contributions to colonial era music Manchester had an impressive music scene before 1976 with groups like The Hollies, The Bee Gees, Herman's Hermits, Wayne Fontana and The Mindbenders This is a list of Alternative rock artists. This includes artists who have either been very important to the genre or have had a considerable amount of exposure (such as in the Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of Radio station that is run by the students of a college This is a timeline of Alternative rock, from its beginnings in the 1960s to the present In Popular music, independent music, often abbreviated as indie, is a term used to describe independence from major commercial record labels and an autonomous Lollapalooza is an American music festival featuring Alternative rock, hip hop, and Punk rock bands Dance and Comedy performances Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. The term "alternative" was coined in the 1980s to describe punk rock-inspired bands on independent record labels that did not fit into the mainstream genres of the time. An independent record label (or indie record label) is a Record label operating without the funding of or outside the organizations of the Major record labels  As a musical genre, alternative rock consists of various subgenres that have emerged from the independent music scene since the 1980s, such as grunge, Britpop, gothic rock, and indie pop. In Popular music, independent music, often abbreviated as indie, is a term used to describe independence from major commercial record labels and an autonomous Britpop is a subgenre of Alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom. This article is about the musical style of gothic rock For the goth scene in general see Goth subculture. "Twee" redirects here For a definition of the word see its entry at wiktionary. These genres are unified by their collective debt to the style and/or ethos of punk, which laid the groundwork for alternative music in the 1970s. 
Though the genre is considered to be rock, some of its subgenres are influenced by folk music, reggae, electronic music and jazz among other genres. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Reggae is a Music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States At times alternative rock has been used as a catch-all phrase for rock music from underground artists in the 1980s, all music descended from punk rock (including punk itself, New Wave, and post-punk), and, ironically, for rock music in general in the 1990s and 2000s. Underground music refers to a variety of post-1960s rock pop or dance subgenres that developed a Cult following despite their lack of Mainstream appeal visibility New Wave is a Rock music genre that existed during the late 1970s and the 1980s Post-punk was a popular musical movement in the mid to late 1970s following on the heels of the initial Punk rock explosion of the early 1970s
While a few artists like R.E.M. and The Cure achieved commercial success and mainstream critical recognition, many alternative rock artists during the 1980s were cult acts that recorded on independent labels and received their exposure through college radio airplay and word-of-mouth. REM is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, in 1980 by Michael Stipe ( lead vocals) Peter Buck ( Guitar The Cure are an English rock band that formed in Crawley, West Sussex in 1976 With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the early 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became commercially successful. Nirvana was an American rock band that was formed by singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen Washington.
The music now known as alternative rock was known by a variety of terms before "alternative" came into common use. "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. College rock was a term used in the United States to describe 1980s Alternative rock before the term "alternative" came into common usage The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of Radio station that is run by the students of a college In the United Kingdom the term "indie" was (and still is) preferred; by 1985 the term "indie" had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than a simple demarcation of status. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  "Indie rock" was also largely synonymous with the genre in the United States up until the genre's commercial breakthrough in the early 1990s, due to the majority of the bands belonging to independent labels. 
By 1990 the genre was called "alternative rock".  The term "alternative" had originated sometime around the mid-1980s; it was an extension of the phrases "new music" and "post modern", both for the freshness of the music and its tendency to recontextualize the sounds of the past, which were commonly used by music industry of the time to denote cutting edge music.  Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 rock radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving the DJs more freedom in their song selections. See also Frequency modulation, FM band FM broadcasting is a broadcast Technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that The Top Forty or Top 40 is a music industry shorthand for the currently most-popular songs in a particular genre. One former DJ and promoter has said, "Somehow this term 'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music . . . " Thus the original use of the term was often broader than it has come to be understood, encompassing punk rock, New Wave, post-punk, and even pop music, along with the occasional "college"/"indie" rock, all music found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West KROQ-FM is a commercial Radio station located in Los Angeles California, broadcasting on 106  The use of the term "alternative" gained popular exposure during 1991 with the implementation of alternative music categories in the Grammy Awards and the MTV Video Music Awards, as well as the success of Lollapalooza, where festival founder and Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell coined the term "Alternative Nation". The Grammy Awards (originally called the Gramophone Awards)—or Grammys —are presented annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences The MTV Video Music Awards were established in the end of the summer of 1984 by MTV to celebrate the top Music videos of the year Lollapalooza is an American music festival featuring Alternative rock, hip hop, and Punk rock bands Dance and Comedy performances Jane's Addiction is an American Alternative rock band formed in Los Angeles California in 1985 Not to be confused with Pharrell Williams Perry Farrell (born Peretz Bernstein on March 29, 1959) is an American 
Defining music as "alternative" is often difficult because of two often conflicting applications of the word. "Alternative" can describe music that challenges the status quo and that is "fiercely iconoclastic, anticommercial, and antimainstream," but the term is also used in the music industry to denote "the choices available to consumers via record stores, radio, cable television, and the Internet. "
"Alternative rock" is essentially an umbrella term for underground music that has emerged in the wake of the punk rock movement since the mid-1980s. An umbrella term is a word that provides a Superset or grouping of related concepts also called a Hypernym.  Throughout much of its history, alternative rock has been largely defined by its rejection of the commercialism of mainstream culture. Alternative bands during the 1980s generally played in small clubs, recorded for indie labels, and spread their popularity through word of mouth.  As such, there is no set musical style for alternative rock as a whole, although The New York Times in 1989 asserted that the genre is "guitar music first of all, with guitars that blast out power chords, pick out chiming riffs, buzz with fuzztone and squeal in feedback. " Sounds range from the dirty guitars of grunge to the gloomy soundscapes of gothic rock to the guitar pop revivalism of Britpop to the shambling innocence of twee pop. "Twee" redirects here For a definition of the word see its entry at wiktionary. More often than in other rock styles, alternative rock lyrics tend to address topics of social concern, such as drug use, depression, and environmentalism.  This approach to lyrics developed as a reflection of the social and economic strains in the United States and United Kingdom of the 1980s and early 1990s. 
Although alternative artists of the 1980s never generated spectacular album sales, they exerted a considerable influence on later alternative musicians and laid the groundwork for their success.  The popular and commercial success of Nirvana's 1991 album Nevermind took alternative rock into the mainstream, establishing its commercial and cultural viability. Nirvana was an American rock band that was formed by singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen Washington. Nevermind is the second studio album by the American rock band Nirvana, released on September 24 1991  As a result, alternative rock became the most popular form of rock music of the decade and many alternative bands garnered commercial and critical success. However, many of these artists rejected success, for it conflicted with the rebellious, DIY ethic the genre had espoused before mainstream exposure and their ideas of artistic authenticity. The DIY ethic ( Do it yourself ethic refers to the ethic of being self-reliant by completing tasks oneself as opposed to having others who are likely more experienced complete  As many of the genre's key groups broke up or retreated from the limelight, alternative rock declined from mainstream prominence.
In the first decade of the 21st century, mainstream rock has largely moved beyond alternative's 1980s roots and low-fidelity ethos. Today's most popular rock music acts, typified by youth-oriented modern rock groups such as Linkin Park that owe a debt to both metal and grunge, incorporate complex electronic beats and a sophisticated production style. Linkin Park is an American rock band from Agoura Hills, California. Many alternative rock fans do not see these bands—despite their debt to the genre—as alternative, but rather as nu metal acts. Nu metal (sometimes named new metal or nü metal) is a musical genre that emerged in the mid 1990s which fuses influences from grunge and Alternative In 2004, alternative rock received renewed mainstream attention with the popularity of indie rock and post-punk revival artists such as Modest Mouse and Franz Ferdinand, respectively. Modest Mouse are an American Alternative rock band formed in 1993 in Issaquah Washington by singer/lyricist/guitarist Isaac Brock, drummer Franz Ferdinand is a rock band that formed in Glasgow, Scotland in 2001 
In the 1980s, alternative rock in the United States was primarily the domain of college radio stations. Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of Radio station that is run by the students of a college Most commercial stations ignored the genre. On television, MTV would occasionally show alternative videos late at night. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. In 1986, the network began airing the late-night alternative music program 120 Minutes, which would serve as a major outlet for the genre before its commercial breakthrough in the following decade. Ultimately, in the late 1980s, commercial stations such as Boston's WFNX and Los Angeles' KROQ began playing alternative rock, pioneering the modern rock radio format. WFNX is a New England commercial Alternative rock Radio station and Boston's only locally owned radio station Modern rock is a term commonly used to describe a Rock music format found on American commercial Radio.
Early American alternative bands such as R.E.M., The Feelies, and Violent Femmes combined punk influences with folk music and mainstream music influences. REM is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, in 1980 by Michael Stipe ( lead vocals) Peter Buck ( Guitar The Feelies are a rock band from Haledon New Jersey. They formed in 1976 and disbanded in 1992 after having released four albums The Violent Femmes, formed in Milwaukee Wisconsin, in 1980 are an American Alternative rock band noted for laying the groundwork for Folk punk. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous R. E. M. was the most immediately successful; its debut album, Murmur (1983), entered the Top 40 and spawned a number of jangle pop followers. Murmur is the debut album by the American Alternative rock band R Jangle pop is a genre of Alternative rock from the mid-1980s that "marked a return to the chiming guitars and pop melodies of the '60s" bands such as The  One of the many jangle pop scenes of the early 1980s, Los Angeles' Paisley Underground was a 1960s revival, incorporating psychedelia, rich vocal harmonies and the guitar interplay of folk rock as well as punk and underground influences such as The Velvet Underground. Paisley Underground is a term used to describe a genre of Rock music, based primarily in Los Angeles California, which was at its most popular in the mid-1980s This article is about the band For their self-titled album see The Velvet Underground (album; for the book see The Velvet Underground (book 
American indie labels SST Records, Twin/Tone Records, Touch & Go Records, and Dischord Records presided over the shift from the hardcore punk that then dominated the American underground scene to the more diverse styles of alternative rock that were emerging. SST Records is an American Independent record label formed in 1978 in Long Beach California by musician Greg Ginn. Twin/Tone Records (also spelled TwinTone was a Record label based out of Minneapolis Minnesota that operated from 1977 until 1994 and helped Touch and Go Records is an Independent record label based in Chicago, Illinois, USA, which began life in 1979 in East Lansing Dischord Records is a Washington DC -based Independent record label specializing in the independent punk music Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s  Minneapolis bands Hüsker Dü and The Replacements were indicative of this shift. For other uses see Husker Du. Hüsker Dü was an American Alternative rock band formed in Minneapolis-St The Replacements were an American Alternative rock band formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1979 Both started out as punk rock bands, but soon diversified their sounds and became more melodic, culminating in Hüsker Dü's Zen Arcade and The Replacements' Let It Be (both 1984). Zen Arcade is the third Studio album from the American rock band Hüsker Dü, released in July 1984 on SST Records. They were critically acclaimed and drew attention to the burgeoning alternative genre. That year, SST Records also released landmark alternative albums by the Minutemen and the Meat Puppets, who mixed punk with funk and country, respectively. The Minutemen were an American Punk rock band formed in San Pedro, California in 1980 "Meat Puppet" redirects here For other uses see Meat puppet.
R. Kim Althea Gordon (born April 28, 1953) is an American musician vocalist and artist Thurston Joseph Moore (born July 25, 1958 in Coral Gables Florida) is an American Musician best known as a Singer, Sonic Youth is an American Alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981 E. M. and Hüsker Dü set the blueprint for much of the decade's alternative, both sonically and in how they approached their careers.  In the late 1980s, the U. S. underground scene and college radio were dominated by college rock bands like the Pixies, They Might Be Giants, Camper Van Beethoven, Dinosaur Jr, and Throwing Muses as well as post-punk survivors from Britain. Pixies are an American Alternative rock band formed in Boston Massachusetts in 1986 They Might Be Giants (commonly abbreviated to TMBG) is an American Alternative rock band which began as a duo of John Flansburgh and John Camper Van Beethoven is an American Alternative rock group An eclectic band even by the standards of '80s underground music Camper Van Beethoven mixed elements of pop Throwing Muses are an Alternative rock band formed in 1981 in Newport Rhode Island, that toured and recorded extensively until 1997 when its members began concentrating Another major force was the noise rock of Sonic Youth, Big Black, Butthole Surfers, and others. Noise rock (also known as noise punk) describes one variety of Post-punk Rock music that became prominent in the 1980s Sonic Youth is an American Alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981 Big Black was a Noise rock band founded in Chicago Illinois, United States that was active between 1982 and 1987. Butthole Surfers (also referred to as simply "the Buttholes" is an American Alternative rock band formed by Gibby Haynes and Paul Leary By the end of the decade, a number of alternative bands began to sign to major labels. While early major label signings Hüsker Dü and the Replacements had little success, acts who signed with majors in their wake such as R. E. M. and Jane's Addiction achieved gold and platinum records, setting the stage for alternative's later breakthrough.  Some bands such as the Pixies had massive success overseas while they were ignored domestically.  By the start of the 1990s, the music industry was abuzz about alternative rock's commercial possibilities and actively courted alternative bands including Dinosaur Jr, fIREHOSE, and Nirvana. Firehose (stylized as fIREHOSE) was an Alternative rock band consisting of Mike Watt (bass vocals Ed Crawford (guitar vocals 
Grunge was a subgenre of alternative rock created in Seattle, Washington, in the mid-1980s. Grunge was based around a sludgy, murky guitar sound that synthesized heavy metal and punk rock.  In the early 1990s, it launched a large movement in mainstream music. The year 1991 was very significant for alternative rock, especially grunge, with the release of Nirvana's second and most successful album, Nevermind; Pearl Jam's breakthrough debut, Ten; Soundgarden's Badmotorfinger; and Red Hot Chili Peppers' Blood Sugar Sex Magik. Nirvana was an American rock band that was formed by singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen Washington. Nevermind is the second studio album by the American rock band Nirvana, released on September 24 1991 Pearl Jam is an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1990 Ten is the debut album by the American Alternative rock band Pearl Jam, released on August 27 1991 through Epic Records. Badmotorfinger is the third album by the American Alternative rock band Soundgarden, released on October 8 1991 through A&M Records. Red Hot Chili Peppers are Blood Sugar Sex Magik is the fifth studio album by American Alternative rock band Red Hot Chili Peppers, released on September 24 1991 Nirvana's surprise success with Nevermind heralded a "new openness to alternative rock" among commercial radio stations, opening doors for heavier alternative bands in particular.  In the wake of Nevermind, alternative rock "found itself dragged-kicking and screaming [. . . ] into the mainstream" and record companies, confused by the genre's success yet eager to capitalize on it, scrambled to sign bands. 
The explosion of alternative rock was aided by MTV and Lollapalooza, a touring festival of diverse bands that helped expose and popularize alternative groups such as Nine Inch Nails, The Smashing Pumpkins, and Hole. The Smashing Pumpkins are an American Alternative rock band that formed in Chicago, Illinois in 1988 Hole was an American Alternative rock band that formed in Los Angeles in 1989 and disbanded in 2002 The New York Times declared in 1993, "Alternative rock doesn't seem so alternative anymore. Every major label has a handful of guitar-driven bands in shapeless shirts and threadbare jeans, bands with bad posture and good riffs who cultivate the oblique and the evasive, who conceal catchy tunes with noise and hide craftsmanship behind nonchalance. " Alternative bands who were leery of broad commercial success and stayed underground were termed "indie rock" and developed movements such as lo-fi, a genre that espoused a return to the original ethos of alternative music. Lo-fi is an aesthetic in music production which uses Low fidelity recording practices Labels such as Matador Records, Merge Records, and Dischord, and indie rockers like Pavement, Liz Phair, Superchunk, Fugazi, and Sleater-Kinney dominated the American indie scene for most of the 1990s. Matador Records is an Independent record label, famous for a roster of highly-respected Indie rock artists and bands Merge Records is an Independent record label based in Durham North Carolina. Pavement was an American Indie rock band in the 1990s Although they experienced only moderate commercial success they achieved a significant cult Liz Phair (born Elizabeth Clark Phair on April 17, 1967 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA) is an American Superchunk is an Indie rock band from Chapel Hill North Carolina, consisting of singer/guitarist Mac McCaughan, guitarist Jim Wilbur, bassist Fugazi are an American alternative / post-hardcore band that formed in Washington D Sleater-Kinney was an American Indie rock band that existed from 1995 to 2006 
Alternative's mainstream prominence declined due to a number of events, notably the death of Nirvana's Kurt Cobain in 1994 and Pearl Jam's lawsuit against concert venue promoter Ticketmaster, which in effect barred them from playing many major venues around the country. Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20 1967 – c April 5 1994 was an American musician who served as lead singer, Guitarist, and songwriter for the Seattle Ticketmaster is a ticket sales and distribution company based in West Hollywood California, USA, with operations in many countries around the world  A signifier of alternative rock's declining popularity was the hiatus of the Lollapalooza festival after an unsuccessful attempt to find a headliner in 1998. In light of the festival's troubles that year, Spin said, "Lollapalooza is as comatose as alternative rock right now". Spin is a Music Magazine that reports on Music for Life Founded in 1985 by publisher Bob Guccione Jr  By the start of the 21st century, many major alternative bands, including Nirvana, The Smashing Pumpkins, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Rage Against the Machine, and Hole had broken up or were on hiatus. Alice in Chains is an American rock band formed in Seattle Washington in Rage Against the Machine (sometimes shortened to RATM or Rage) is Meanwhile indie rock diversified; along with the more conventional indie rock sounds of Modest Mouse, Bright Eyes, and Death Cab for Cutie, the garage rock revival of The White Stripes and The Strokes and the neo-post-punk sounds of Interpol and The Killers achieved mainstream success. Modest Mouse are an American Alternative rock band formed in 1993 in Issaquah Washington by singer/lyricist/guitarist Isaac Brock, drummer Bright Eyes is an American band consisting of Singer-songwriter / Guitarist Conor Oberst, Multi-instrumentalist / producer Death Cab for Cutie is an American Indie rock band formed in Bellingham, The White Stripes is an American Garage rock band, formed in 1997 in Detroit, Michigan. Interpol is an American Alternative rock band formed in 1997 in New York City. The Killers are an American rock band from Las Vegas Nevada. Formed in 2002 the group consists of Brandon Flowers ( vocals, keyboards Due to the success of these bands, Entertainment Weekly declared in 2004, "After almost a decade of domination by rap-rock and nu-metal bands, mainstream alt-rock is finally good again. Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated as EW) is a Magazine published by Time Inc "
British alternative rock is distinguished from that of the United States by a more pop-oriented focus (marked by an equal emphasis on albums and singles, as well as greater openness to incorporating elements of dance and club culture) and a lyrical emphasis on specifically British concerns. As a result, few British alternative bands have achieved commercial success in the US.  Since the 1980s alternative rock has been played extensively on the radio in the UK, particularly by DJs such as John Peel (who championed alternative music on BBC Radio 1), Richard Skinner, and Annie Nightingale. A disc jockey (also known as DJ or deejay) is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience John Robert Parker Ravenscroft, OBE (30 August 1939 – 25 October 2004 known professionally as John Peel, was an English Disc jockey, radio Annie (formerly known as Anne) Nightingale MBE is a British Radio broadcaster Artists that had cult followings in the United States received greater exposure through British national radio and the weekly press, and many alternative bands had chart success there. 
Gothic rock developed out of late-1970s British post-punk. Most of the first goth bands, including Bauhaus, Siouxsie & the Banshees, and The Cure, are labeled as both post-punk and gothic rock. Bauhaus were an English rock band formed in Northampton in 1978 Siouxsie & the Banshees were a British rock band which formed in 1976 The Cure are an English rock band that formed in Crawley, West Sussex in 1976 With a reputation as the "darkest and gloomiest form of underground rock," gothic rock utilizes a synthesizer-and-guitar based sound drawn from post-punk to construct "foreboding, sorrowful, often epic soundscapes," and the genre's lyrics often address literary romanticism, morbidity, religious symbolism, and supernatural mysticism. " Gothic rock began to develop into its own in the early 1980s with the opening of The Batcave nightclub and the emergence of a goth subculture. The Batcave was a Nightclub in London England at Meard Street Soho. The goth subculture is a contemporary Subculture found in many countries By the mid-1980s, goth bands such as The Sisters of Mercy, The Mission, and Fields of the Nephilim achieved success on the UK pop charts. The Sisters of Mercy are an English Gothic rock band that formed in 1980 The Mission (known as The Mission UK in the United States) were a Gothic rock band formed in 1986 from the splinters of the freshly-dissolved rock band The Sisters Fields of the Nephilim is a Gothic rock band formed in Stevenage, Hertfordshire in 1984. Meanwhile Siouxsie & the Banshees and The Cure moved away from goth, broadening their sound and becoming internationally successful by the start of the 1990s.
British indie rock and indie pop drew from the tradition of Scottish post-punk bands such as Orange Juice and Aztec Camera, utilizing jangly, shambling guitars and clever wordplay. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Orange juice is a Fruit juice obtained by squeezing pressing or otherwise crushing the interior of an orange. Aztec Camera was a Scottish New Wave music band from Glasgow. The most popular and influential band to emerge from this lineage was Manchester's The Smiths. The Smiths were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1982 The band managed to score a number of hits and influence a generation of bands while signed to an independent label, Rough Trade Records. Rough Trade Records began as an Independent record label, based in London, England. Their embrace of the guitar in an era of synthesizers is viewed as signaling the end of the New Wave era in Britain.  After The Smiths broke up in 1987, singer Morrissey embarked on a successful solo career. Steven Patrick Morrissey (ˈmɒɹɪsiː born May 22, 1959) known primarily as Morrissey, is a British Singer and Lyricist Indie rock bands such as The Housemartins and James emerged in their wake. The Housemartins were an English pop band that was active in the 1980s James are an English rock band from Manchester. They formed in 1981 and were active throughout the 80s but most successful during the 90s The C86 cassette, a 1986 NME premium featuring such bands as The Wedding Present, Primal Scream, The Pastels, and the Soup Dragons, was a major influence on the development of indie pop and the British indie scene as a whole. C86 is a cassette compilation released by the British music magazine New Musical Express (NME in 1986, featuring new bands licensed The New Musical Express (better known as the NME) is a Popular music Magazine in the United Kingdom which has been The Wedding Present is a Rock group based in Leeds, England, formed in 1985 from the ashes of the Lost Pandas Primal Scream are a Brit-nominated Scottish Alternative rock group formed in 1982 in Glasgow by Bobby Gillespie ( vocals The Pastels are a group from Glasgow, Scotland, UK. They have been described as an 'almost pop' group The Soup Dragons were a Scottish Alternative rock band of the late 1980s and early 1990s named after a character in the 1970s children's TV 
Other forms of alternative rock developed in the UK during the 1980s. The Jesus and Mary Chain wrapped their pop melodies in walls of guitar noise, while New Order emerged from the demise of post-punk band Joy Division and experimented with techno and house music, forging the alternative dance style. The Jesus and Mary Chain are an Alternative rock band formed in East Kilbride, Scotland in 1984 New Order are an English rock group formed in 1980 by Bernard Sumner ( vocals, Guitars Synthesizers, Peter Hook Joy Division were an English rock band formed in 1976 in Salford, Greater Manchester. Techno is a form of Electronic dance music (EDM that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, USA during the mid to late 1980s House music is a style of Electronic dance music initially popularized in mid-1980s Discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino Alternative dance is a term used for the genre of music combining elements of Dance-pop (or other forms of electronic house or techno) and Alternative The Mary Chain, along with Dinosaur Jr and the dream pop of Cocteau Twins, were the influences for the shoegazing movement of the late 1980s. Dream pop is a type of Alternative rock that originated in Britain in the early 1980s when bands like Cocteau Twins, The Chameleons, The Passions Cocteau Twins were a Scottish Alternative rock band active from 1979 to 1997 Shoegazing (also known as shoegaze or shoegazer) is a genre of Alternative rock that emerged from the United Kingdom in the late 1980s Named for the bandmembers' tendency to stare at their feet onstage, shoegazing acts like My Bloody Valentine, Slowdive, Ride, and Lush created an overwhelmingly loud "wash of sound" that obscured vocals and melodies with long, droning riffs, distortion, and feedback. My Bloody Valentine are an Alternative rock band formed in Dublin Ireland in 1984 and predominantly based in London. Slowdive were a Shoegazing band formed in 1989 lasting until 1995 Ride were a British Shoegazing band The band formed in 1988 in Oxford, England, and officially broke up in 1996 Lush were an English Shoegazing band formed in 1988 and disbanded in 1996  Shoegazing bands dominated the British music press at the end of the decade along with the drug-fueled Madchester scene. Madchester was an Alternative rock genre that developed in Manchester, England, towards the end of the 1980s and into the early 1990s Based around The Haçienda, a nightclub in Manchester owned by New Order and Factory Records, Madchester bands such as The Stone Roses and the Happy Mondays mixed acid house dance rhythms with melodic guitar pop. Fac 51 Haçienda (better known simply as The Haçienda) was a Nightclub and Music venue in Manchester, England. Factory Records was a Manchester based British Independent record label, started in 1978, which featured several prominent musical acts on its The Stone Roses were an English Alternative rock band formed in Manchester in 1984 Happy Mondays are an English Alternative rock band from Salford, Greater Manchester. Acid house is a sub-genre of House music that emphasizes a repetitive hypnotic and trance -like style with samples or spoken lines usually used rather than sung lyrics 
With the decline of the Madchester scene and the unglamorousness of shoegazing, the tide of grunge from America dominated the British alternative scene and music press in the early 1990s.  In contrast, only a few British alternative bands, most notably Radiohead and Bush, were able to make any sort of impression in the United States. Radiohead Bush were a British Post-grunge band formed in London in 1992 As a reaction, a flurry of defiantly British bands emerged that wished to "get rid of grunge" and "declare war on America", taking the public and native music press by storm.  Dubbed "Britpop" by the media, this movement represented by Oasis, Blur, Suede, and Pulp was the British equivalent of the grunge explosion. Oasis are an English rock band that formed in Manchester in 1991 Blur are an English Alternative rock band that formed in London in 1989 Suede (or The London Suede in the United States) were an English rock band of the 1990s and the early 2000s that helped start the Britpop musical Pulp were an English Alternative rock band formed in Sheffield in 1978 by Jarvis Cocker ( vocals Guitar)  Centered on a revitalization of British youth culture celebrated as "Cool Britannia," it propelled alternative rock to the top of the charts in its home country. Cool Britannia is a media term that was used during the mid-to-late 20th century to describe the contemporary Culture of the United Kingdom. In 1995 the Britpop phenomenon culminated in a rivalry between its two chief groups, Oasis and Blur, symbolized by their release of competing singles on the same day. Blur won "The Battle of Britpop", but Oasis's second album, (What's the Story) Morning Glory?, went on to become the third best-selling album in Britain's history. The Battle of Britpop is the unofficial title given to the 1995 singles chart battle between two popular Britpop groups Blur and Oasis  Oasis also had major commercial success overseas.
Britpop faded as Oasis's third album, Be Here Now, received lackluster reviews and Blur began to incorporate influence from American alternative rock.  At the same time Radiohead achieved critical acclaim with its 1997 album OK Computer, which was a marked contrast with the traditionalism of Britpop. OK Computer is the third album by English Alternative rock band Radiohead, released on 16 June 1997 Radiohead, along with post-Britpop groups like Travis and Coldplay, were major forces in British rock in the subsequent years. Travis are a Scottish Alternative rock band from Glasgow, comprising Fran Healy ( lead vocals, Guitar, Piano, Coldplay TalkColdplay#Is_or_Are_dispute_again  Recently British indie rock has experienced a resurgence, spurred in part by the success the Strokes achieved in the UK before their domestic breakthrough. Like modern American indie rock, many British indie bands such as Franz Ferdinand, The Libertines, Bloc Party, and Arctic Monkeys draw influence from post-punk groups such as Joy Division, Wire, and Gang of Four. Franz Ferdinand is a rock band that formed in Glasgow, Scotland in 2001 The Libertines were an English Indie rock band Formed in London in 1997 by frontmen Pete Doherty (vocals/rhythm guitar and Carl Barât (vocals/lead Bloc Party are a British Indie rock band composed of Kele Okereke on vocals and Rhythm guitar, Russell Lissack on Arctic Monkeys are a British Indie band from High Green, a suburb of Sheffield. Wire are an English rock band formed in London in October 1976 (and intermittently active to the present by Colin Newman (vocals guitar Gang of Four are an English Post-punk group from Leeds. Original personnel were singer Jon King, guitarist Andy Gill, bass guitarist
Australia has produced a number of notable alternative bands, including Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, The Go-Betweens, Dead Can Dance, Silverchair, The Vines, and Eskimo Joe. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Arcade Fire (often referred to as The Arcade Fire) is an Indie rock band based in Montreal, Quebec and fronted by the husband and wife duo For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds are an Australian rock band with multinational personnel fronted by Nick Cave. The Go-Betweens were an internationally influential Indie rock band from Australia, formed by guitarists Robert Forster and Grant McLennan in Dead Can Dance is a band comprising Lisa Gerrard ( Contralto) and Brendan Perry ( Baritone) Silverchair is an Australian Alternative rock band. The band formed as Innocent Criminals in Newcastle, New South Wales, in 1992 The Vines are an Australian Garage rock band notable for producing a musical hybrid of '60s rock and '90s alternative music Eskimo Joe is an Australian rock band whose debut album Girl went gold in 2001 Double J, a government-funded radio station in Sydney and the Melbourne-based independent radio station 3RRR broadcast alternative rock throughout the 1980s. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 3RRR (pronounced "Three Triple R" or simply "Triple R" is a popular Australian community radio station, based in Melbourne. In 1990, Double J, now known as Triple J, began broadcasting nationally. Triple J is a nationally-networked government-funded Australian radio station (a division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation) mainly aimed Much like America's Lollapalooza festival, Australia's Big Day Out festival serves as a touring showcase for domestic and foreign alternative artists. The Big Day Out ( BDO) is an annual Music festival that tours Australia and New Zealand which originated in Sydney in 1992 To the east, New Zealand's Dunedin Sound was based around the university city of Dunedin and the Flying Nun Records label. The southern New Zealand university city of Dunedin spawned a style of indie pop music in the early 1980s known as "The Dunedin Sound " Dunedin (dəˈneɪdɪn) Ōtepoti in Maori is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Flying Nun Records is a formerly independent record label in New Zealand. The genre, whose heyday was the mid-1980s, produced bands such as The Bats, The Clean, Straightjacket Fits and The Chills. The Bats are an influential New Zealand rock band formed in 1982 in Christchurch by Paul Kean (bass Malcolm Grant The Clean were an influential first-wave punk band that formed in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1978 Straitjacket Fits formed in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1986 and were a prominent band in the Flying Nun label's second wave of the Dunedin Sound The Chills are a guitar and keyboard-based rock band from Dunedin, New Zealand.
Mainstream alternative rock in Canada ranges from the humorous pop of Barenaked Ladies and Crash Test Dummies to the post-grunge of Our Lady Peace, Matthew Good Band, and I Mother Earth. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Barenaked Ladies (often abbreviated BNL or occasionally BnL) is a Juno -winning and Grammy -nominated Canadian Alternative Crash Test Dummies is a Canadian Folk-rock group from Winnipeg Manitoba, popular in the early 1990s Matthew Frederick Robert Good (born June 29, 1971, Burnaby British Columbia) is a Canadian Rock musician He was the lead Singer I Mother Earth, or IME, was a Canadian Alternative rock band The band was at the peak of its popularity in the mid-to-late 1990s its members have In Montreal, an indie infrastructure developed in the aftermath of economic and social trouble during the 1990s. Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec The city is now home to many indie rock bands such as the Arcade Fire, Godspeed You! Black Emperor, and The Dears. Arcade Fire (often referred to as The Arcade Fire) is an Indie rock band based in Montreal, Quebec and fronted by the husband and wife duo Godspeed You! Black Emperor (formerly punctuated Godspeed You Black Emperor!; also referred to as GY!BE is an avant-garde Canadian Post-rock The Dears are a Canadian Indie rock band from Montreal, Quebec. 
The Sugarcubes were the most successful band to emerge from Iceland. The Sugarcubes ( Sykurmolarnir in Icelandic) were an Icelandic Alternative rock band formed in 1986 and disbanded in 1992 Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland (  After the band's breakup in the early 1990s, vocalist Björk embarked on a solo career that incorporated influences including trip hop, jazz, and electronica in addition to alternative rock. Björk Guðmundsdóttir (born 21 November 1965 is an Icelandic Singer-songwriter, Composer, actress and music producer. Trip hop is a music Genre also known as the Bristol sound or Bristol acid rap. Electronica includes a wide range of contemporary Electronic music designed for a wide range Icelandic indie rock bands include Múm and Sigur Rós. múm (pronounced [muːm], "moom" are an experimental Icelandic musical group whose music is Sigur Rós ( are an Icelandic Post-rock band with melodic classical and minimalist elements Continental Europe has produced numerous alternative styles and bands, from Germany's industrial rock and industrial metal acts such as KMFDM or Rammstein to more idiosyncratic bands like the Netherlands' The Gathering and Italy's Bluvertigo. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Industrial rock is a Musical genre that fuses Industrial music and Punk rock. Industrial metal is a Musical genre that draws from Industrial music and heavy metal. KMFDM are a German Industrial rock band and the brainchild of founding member Sascha Konietzko. Rammstein (ˈʀamʃtaɪ̯n is a German Industrial metal band founded in Berlin, and consisting of Till Lindemann ( lead vocals The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Gathering is a Dutch band which came to fame in the second half of 1990s with vocalist Anneke van Giersbergen. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Bluvertigo is an Italian band formed in 1992. Their first name was "Golden Age" and former members are Morgan (Marco Castoldi Andy (Andrea Fumagalli and Marco
Japan has an active noise rock scene characterized by groups such as Boredoms and Melt-Banana. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Boredoms ( (or more recently V∞redoms) is a Noise rock band from Osaka, Japan. Melt-Banana is a Japanese Noise rock band that is known for playing extremely fast andnoisy music mixed with experimental Electronica that might be described Indie pop band Shonen Knife have been frequently cited as an influence by American alternative artists including Nirvana and Sonic Youth. The all-female musical band Shonen Knife (少年ナイフ Shōnen Naifu; lit
Many bands active in Mexico in the early 1990s can be considered alternative rock, though they are generally grouped in the Rock en español genre. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Rock en Español ( Spanish for Rock in Spanish) refers to the Spanish-language Rock music. Fobia and Café Tacuba are two of the most popular bands. Fobia is a Mexican rock band from Mexico City, whose career started in 1987, a time when there wasn't much promotion of rock music in Mexico Café Tacuba (often stylized as CAFÉ TACVBA) is a Grammy Award and Latin Grammy Award -winning musical group from Naucalpan, Mexico Argentina has many alternative rock bands. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Groups such as El Otro Yo, Jaime sin Tierra, Bicicletas, Babasónicos, Peligrosos Gorriones, and Los Brujos emerged in the 1990s as part of the so-called Nuevo Rock Argentino (New Argentine Rock) movement. El Otro Yo is an Argentine band of Alternative rock and originally of Temperley, Buenos Aires, formed at the beginning of the decade of Babasónicos is an Argentine rock band formed in the early 1990s along with others such as Peligrosos Gorriones and Los Brujos. While alternative rock has not broken into the Argentine mainstream in a broad way, Babasónicos became one of the most popular bands in the country.
Underground pop-influenced alternative rock went mainstream in the Philippines during the 1990s. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Alternative Philippine rock bands include Eraserheads, Yano, Parokya ni Edgar, and Rivermaya. Pinoy Rock, or Filipino Rock, is the brand of Rock music produced in the Philippines or by Filipinos. This article is about the Filipino rock band The Eraserheads For the movie by director David Lynch, see Eraserhead. Yano is a folk / Punk rock band in the Philippines formed in 1993. Parokya ni Edgar is a Filipino band that was formed in 1993 by a group of Ateneo de Manila High School students Rivermaya is an influential rock band in the Philippines founded on 1993.