|Born||Alfred Joseph Hitchcock|
August 13, 1899
|Died||April 29, 1980 (aged 80)|
Bel Air, Los Angeles
The Master of Suspense
|Spouse(s)||Alma Reville (1926-1980)|
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE (August 13, 1899 – April 29, 1980) was an iconic and highly influential British filmmaker and producer, who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Leytonstone is an area of East London and part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Bel Air is a wealthy and prominent faux-gated residential community in the Westside of the city of Los Angeles California, United States. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Alma Lucy Reville Lady Hitchcock ( August 14, 1899, England &ndash July 6, 1982, Bel-Air Los Angeles California The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British Order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) A cultural icon can be an Image, a Symbol, a Logo, Picture, Name, Face, Person, or Building The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. A film producer is a person who creates the conditions for making movies. Suspense is the Feeling of uncertainty and Anxiety about the outcome of certain actions most often referring to an audience's perceptions in a dramatic work The thriller is a broad Genre of Literature, Film, Gaming and Television.
Following a very substantial career in his native United Kingdom in both silent films and talkies, Hitchcock moved to Hollywood and became an American citizen with dual nationality in 1956, thus he also remained a British subject. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image as opposed to a Silent film. Article I section 8 clause 4 of the United States Constitution expressly gives the United States Congress the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings
Hitchcock directed more than fifty feature films in a career which spanned six decades, from the silent film era, through the invention of sound films, and far into the era of colour films. In the Film industry, a feature film is a Film made for initial distribution in theaters and being the "main attraction" of the screening This article discusses the evolution and technology behind color Photographic film, with specific focus on Motion pictures. For a complete list of his films, see Alfred Hitchcock filmography. For more information see the article about Alfred Hitchcock Silent films As a title designer In these early films
Hitchcock was among the most consistently recognizable directors to the general public, and was one of the most successful film directors during his lifetime. He continues to be one of the best known and most popular filmmakers of all time.
Hitchcock became famous for his expert and largely unrivalled control of pace and suspense, and his films draw heavily on both fear and fantasy. Fear is an Emotional response to Threats and Danger. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific Stimulus, such as Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting The films are known for their droll humour and witticisms, and these cinematic works often portray innocent people caught up in circumstances beyond their control or understanding. Droll humor is an often dry witty form of Humor that elicits laughs through amusingly odd sometimes zany behavior or speech
Hitchcock began his directing career in the United Kingdom in 1922. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located From 1939 onward, he worked primarily in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In September, 1940, Hitchcock had purchased a 200-acre (0. 81 km²) mountaintop estate for the sum of $40,000.  Known as the 1870 Cornwall Ranch or "Heart o' the Mountain" which was located at the end of Canham Road. The Ranch was perched high above Scotts Valley, California, and the Hitchcocks resided there from 1940 to 1972. Scotts Valley is a small city in eastern Santa Cruz County, California, United States, about ten miles (16 km south of San Jose and six miles California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The Hitchcocks became close friends with the parents of Joan Fontaine, after she had starred in his film, Rebecca.  Years later, after a break-in at his estate, Hitchcock had replaced all of the accumulated paintings with studio-made copies, and the family had sold the estate in 1974, six years before Hitchcock's death. 
Hitchcock and family had also purchased a second home in late 1942 at 10957 Bellagio Road in Los Angeles, just across from the Bel Air Country Club.  Hitchcock died of renal failure in 1980. Renal failure or kidney 
Rebecca was the only one of Hitchcock's films to win the Academy Award for Best Picture (though the award did not go to Hitchcock), although four other films were also nominated. The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to artists working In 1967 he was awarded the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award for lifetime achievement. The Irving G Thalberg Memorial Award is awarded periodically at the Academy Awards ceremonies to "Creative producers whose bodies of work reflect a consistently high
Hitchcock was born on August 13, 1899, in Leytonstone, London, the second son and youngest of three children of William Hitchcock (1862-1914), a greengrocer and poulterer, and Emma Jane Hitchcock (née Whelan; 1863-1942). Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Leytonstone is an area of East London and part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. A greengrocer is a Retail trader in Fruit and Vegetables that is in green groceries. His family was mostly Roman Catholic, being of Irish extraction.  Hitchcock was sent to the Jesuit Classic school St. Ignatius College in Enfield, London. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order St Ignatius' College is a Catholic Secondary school for boys aged 11-18 located in Enfield, Middlesex.  He often described his childhood as being very lonely and sheltered, which was compounded by his weight issues. 
It is widely known that as a child, Hitchcock's father once sent him to their local police station with a note asking the officer to lock him away for ten minutes as punishment for behaving badly.  This idea of being harshly treated or wrongfully accused is frequently reflected in Hitchcock's films. 
Hitchcock's mother would often make him address her while standing at the foot of her bed, especially if he behaved badly, forcing him to stand there for hours. These experiences of Hitchcock would later be used for the portrayal of the character of Norman Bates in his movie Psycho. Fictional character biography Both the novel and Alfred Hitchcock 's 1960 film adaptation explain that Bates suffered severe emotional Abuse Psycho is a suspense / Horror film directed by auteur Alfred Hitchcock, from the Screenplay by Joseph 
Hitchcock's father died when he was 14. In the same year, he left the Jesuit-run St Ignatius' College in Stamford Hill, his school at the time, to study at the London County Council School of Engineering and Navigation in Poplar, London. St Ignatius' College is a Catholic Secondary school for boys aged 11-18 located in Enfield, Middlesex. Stamford Hill is a place in the north of the London Borough of Hackney, England near the border with Haringey. After graduating, he became a draftsman and advertising designer with a cable company. A technical drawing is a form of graphic communication This type of Drawing is used in the transforming of an idea into physical form Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand 
During this period, Hitchcock became intrigued by photography and started working in film production in London, working as a title-card designer for the London branch of what would become Paramount Pictures. Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and Distribution company, based in Hollywood California.  In 1920, he had received a full-time position at Islington Studios with its American owner, Famous Players-Lasky and their British successor, Gainsborough Pictures, designing the titles for silent movies. Islington is the central district of the London Borough of Islington. Famous Players-Lasky Corporation was an American Motion picture company formed in 1916 from the merger of Famous Players Film Company and the Jesse Gainsborough Pictures was a Film studio based on the south bank of the Regent's Canal, in Poole Street Hoxton in the London Borough of Hackney 
Hitchcock's last work together with Graham Cutts led him to Germany in 1924. The film Die Prinzessin und der Geiger (UK title The Blackguard, 1925), directed by Cutts and co-written by Hitchcock, was produced in the Babelsberg Studios in Berlin. The Babelsberg Studios, located in Potsdam - Babelsberg, Germany, is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Hitchcock had the chance to closely watch F. W. Murnau who was shooting Der letzte Mann (1924). Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau, better known as F W Murnau ( December 28, 1888 &ndash March 11, 1931) was one of the most influential The Last Laugh ( Der letzte Mann) is a German 1924 Silent film directed by German director F He was very impressed with Murnau's work and later used many techniques for the set design in his own productions. In his book-length interview by François Truffaut, Hitchcock/Truffaut (Simon and Schuster, 1967), Hitchcock also said he was influenced by Fritz Lang's film Destiny (1921). François Roland Truffaut ( February 6 1932 – October 21 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking Simon & Schuster Inc, a division of CBS Corporation, is a Publisher founded in New York in 1924 by Richard L Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang ( December 5, 1890 &ndash August 2, 1976) was an Austrian German - American
In 1925, Michael Balcon of Gainsborough Pictures gave Hitchcock an opportunity to direct his first film, The Pleasure Garden made at UFA Studios in Germany. Sir Michael Elias Balcon KBE ( 19 May 1896 &ndash 17 October 1977) was an English Film producer, known for his work The Pleasure Garden is a 1925 Silent film, and the debut feature of Alfred Hitchcock. Universum Film AG, better known as Ufa or UFA, was the principal film studio in Germany, home of the German film industry during the Weimar Republic The commercial failure of this film threatened to derail his promising career.  Hitchcock rebounded in 1926 and made his debut in the thriller genre with the film, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog. The Lodger A Story of the London Fog (often just called The Lodger) is a 1927 Silent film directed by Alfred Hitchcock.  The film was a major commercial and critical success when it was released in January 1927 throughout the United Kingdom. As with many of his earlier works, this film was influenced by Expressionist techniques that Hitchcock had witnessed first-hand in Germany. German Expressionism is the term used to refer to a number of related creative movements which emerged in Germany before the first world war which reached a peak in Berlin This film was the first truly "Hitchcockian" film, incorporating such themes as the "wrong man". 
Following the success of The Lodger, Hitchcock began initial efforts to promote himself in the media, and hired a publicist to imbue his growing reputation as one of the British film industry's rising stars. On December 2, 1926, Hitchcock married his assistant director, Alma Reville at the Brompton Oratory. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Alma Lucy Reville Lady Hitchcock ( August 14, 1899, England &ndash July 6, 1982, Bel-Air Los Angeles California The Church of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, is an oratory Oratory_(worship, popularly but incorrectly known as the Brompton Oratory, is a Their first child, daughter Patricia, was born in 1928. Patricia Hitchcock O'Connell (born July 7, 1928, London, UK) is a British -born American actress and Alma was to become Hitchcock's closest collaborator. She wrote some of his screenplays and (though often uncredited) worked with him on every one of his films.
In 1929, Hitchcock began work on his tenth film Blackmail. Blackmail is a 1929 thriller / Drama film directed by Alfred Hitchcock and starring Anny Ondra, John Longden and Cyril  While the film was still in production, the studio decided to make it one of the UK's first sound pictures. With the climax of the film taking place on the dome of the British Museum, Blackmail began the Hitchcock tradition of using famous landmarks as a backdrop for suspense sequences. The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. In the PBS series The Men Who Made The Movies, Hitchcock had explained how he used early sound recording as a special element of the film, emphasizing the word "knife" in a conversation with the woman suspected of murder. The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the 
In 1933, Hitchcock was once again working for Michael Balcon at Gaumont-British Picture Corporation.  His first film for the company, The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934), was a success and his second, The 39 Steps (1935), is often considered one of the best films from his early period. } The Man Who Knew Too Much is a 1934 suspense Film directed by Alfred Hitchcock and released by Gaumont British. The 39 Steps is a 1935 Film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, based on the adventure Novel The Thirty-nine Steps This film was also one of the first to introduce the concept of the "Macguffin", a plot device around which a whole story seems to revolve, but ultimately has nothing to do with the true meaning or ending of the story. A MacGuffin (sometimes McGuffin) is a Plot device that motivates the characters or advances the story but the details of which are of little or no importance In The 39 Steps, the Macguffin is a stolen set of blueprints. (Hitchcock told French director François Truffaut: "There are two men sitting in a train going to Scotland and one man says to the other, 'Excuse me, sir, but what is that strange parcel you have on the luggage rack above you?' 'Oh,' says the other, 'that's a Macguffin. François Roland Truffaut ( February 6 1932 – October 21 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking ' 'Well,' says the first man, 'what's a Macguffin?' The other answers, 'It's an apparatus for trapping lions in the Scottish Highlands. ' 'But,' says the first man, 'there are no lions in the Scottish Highlands. ' 'Well,' says the other, 'then that's no Macguffin. '")
Hitchcock's next major success was in 1938 with his film The Lady Vanishes, a clever and fast-paced film about the search for a kindly old Englishwoman (Dame May Whitty), who disappears while onboard a train in the fictional country of Vandrika (a thinly-veiled version of Nazi Germany). The Lady Vanishes ( 1938) is a Film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Dame May Whitty, DBE ( 19 June 1865 &ndash 29 May 1948) born Mary Louise Whitty, was an Oscar -nominated Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. 
By 1938, Hitchcock had become known for his famous observation, "Actors are cattle. " He once said that he first made this remark as early as the late 1920s, when he thought about stage actors who were snobbish about motion pictures. However, Michael Redgrave said that Hitchcock had made the statement during the filming of The Lady Vanishes. Sir Michael Scudamore Redgrave CBE ( 20 March, 1908 — 21 March, 1985) was an English actor author director and The Lady Vanishes ( 1938) is a Film directed by Alfred Hitchcock.  The phrase would haunt Hitchcock for years to come and would result in a funny incident during the filming of his 1941 production of Mr. & Mrs. Smith, when Carole Lombard brought some heifers onto the set -- with name tags of Lombard, Robert Montgomery, and Gene Raymond, the stars of the films -- to surprise the director. For other uses see Mr & Mrs Smith Mr & Mrs Smith is a 1941 Screwball comedy film directed by Alfred Carole Lombard ( October 6, 1908 – January 16, 1942) born Jane Alice Peters in Fort Wayne Indiana, was an Oscar-nominated Robert Montgomery ( May 21, 1904 &ndash September 27, 1981) was an American actor and director Gene Raymond ( August 13, 1908 &ndash May 2, 1998) was an American film television and stage actor of the 1930s and 1940s 
At the end of the 1930s, Hitchcock was at the zenith of his artistic talents, and he was in a position to negotiate his own career options when David O. Selznick signed Hitchcock to a seven-year contract that began in March 1939, when the Hitchcocks moved to the United States. David O Selznick, born David Selznick ( May 10, 1902 &ndash June 22, 1965) was one of the iconic Hollywood producers
The suspense and the gallows humour that had become Hitchcock's trademark in film had continued to appear in his productions. Gallows humor is a type of humor that arises from stressful, traumatic or life-threatening situations such as wartime events hostilities mass murder often in circumstances The working arrangements with Selznick, however, were less than optimal. Selznick suffered from perennial money problems, and Hitchcock was often displeased with Selznick's creative control over his films. Consequently, Selznick ended up "loaning" Hitchcock to the larger studios more often than producing Hitchcock's films himself. In addition, Selznick, as well as fellow independent producer Samuel Goldwyn, made only a few films each year, so Selznick did not always have projects for Hitchcock to direct. Samuel Goldwyn ( ca. July 1879 &ndash 31 January 1974) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award -winning producer Remarkably, Goldwyn had also negotiated with Hitchcock on a possible contract, only to be outbid by Selznick. Hitchcock was quickly impressed with the superior resources of the American studios compared to the financial restrictions he had frequently encountered in England. Nevertheless, Hitchcock's fondness for his homeland resulted in numerous American films set in, or filmed in, the United Kingdom, right up to his penultimate film, Frenzy. Frenzy is a 1972 thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, and is the Penultimate feature film of his extensive career 
With the prestigious Selznick picture Rebecca in 1940, Hitchcock made his first American movie, although it was set in England and based on a novel by English author Daphne du Maurier and starred Sir Laurence Olivier and Joan Fontaine. Daphne du Maurier Lady Browning DBE ( 13 May, 1907 – 19 April, 1989) (ˈdæfnɪ du ˈmɒɹieɪ was a British Laurence Kerr Olivier Baron Joan Fontaine (born October 22, 1917) is an Academy Award -winning British Actress in American films This Gothic melodrama explores the fears of a naïve young bride who enters a great English country home and must grapple with the problems of a distant husband, a predatory housekeeper, and the legacy of her husband's late wife, the beautiful, mysterious Rebecca. Gothic fiction (sometimes referred to as Gothic horror) is a genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. Melodrama refers to theatre in which music is used to increase the spectator's emotional response or to suggest character types The film won the Academy Award for Best Picture of 1940. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to artists working  However, the statuette went to Selznick as the film's producer, and the film failed to win the Best Director award for Hitchcock. The Academy Award for Achievement in Directing (Best Director is one of the Awards of Merit presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to
There were additional problems between Selznick and Hitchcock. Selznick was known to impose very restrictive rules upon Hitchcock, thereby hindering his creative control. Hitchcock was then forced to shoot the film as Selznick had wanted, immediately creating friction within their relationship. At the same time, Selznick complained about Hitchcock's "goddamn jigsaw cutting," which meant that the producer did not have nearly the leeway to create his own film as he liked, but had to follow Hitchcock's vision of the finished product.  The film was the third longest of Hitchcock's films at 130 minutes, exceeded only by The Paradine Case at 132 minutes and North by Northwest at 136 minutes. 
Hitchcock's second American film, the European-set thriller Foreign Correspondent (originally titled Personal History), was also nominated for Best Picture during that year. Foreign Correspondent is a thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock which tells the story of an American reporter who tries to expose enemy spies in The movie was filmed in the first year of World War II and was inspired by the rapidly-changing events in Europe, as fictionally-covered by an American newspaper reporter portrayed by a wise-cracking Joel McCrea. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Joel Albert McCrea, (November 5 &ndashOctober 20) was an American actor and Film star whose career spanned 50 years and appearances in over 90 films The film cleverly used actual footage of European scenes and scenes filmed on a Hollywood backlot. Curiously, because of Hollywood's Production Code censorship, the film avoided direct references to Germany and Germans. 
Hitchcock's films during the 1940s were diverse. The movies ranged from the romantic comedy Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941) and the courtroom drama The Paradine Case (1947), to the dark and disturbing Shadow of a Doubt (1943). For other uses see Mr & Mrs Smith Mr & Mrs Smith is a 1941 Screwball comedy film directed by Alfred The Paradine Case ( is a courtroom drama film set in England, directed by Alfred Hitchcock and produced by David O Shadow of a Doubt is a thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock and written by Thornton Wilder, Sally Benson and Alma Reville 
In September of 1940, the Hitchcocks purchased the 200-acre Cornwall Ranch, located near Scotts Valley in the Santa Cruz Mountains in northern California. Scotts Valley is a small city in eastern Santa Cruz County, California, United States, about ten miles (16 km south of San Jose and six miles The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a Mountain range in central California, United States. The Ranch became the primary residence of the Hitchcocks for the rest of their lives, although they kept their Bel Air home. Suspicion (1941) marked Hitchcock's first film as a producer as well as director. Suspicion ( 1941) is a romantic Psychological thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock, and starring Cary Grant and Hitchcock used the north coast of Santa Cruz, California for the English coastline sequence. Santa Cruz is the County seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California, United States.  This film was to be actor Cary Grant's first time working with Hitchcock, and it was one of the few times that Grant would be cast in a sinister role.  Joan Fontaine won Best Actress Oscar and the New York Film Critics Circle Award for her outstanding performance in Suspicion. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. New York Film Critics Circle Awards are given annually to honor excellence in cinema worldwide by an organization of film reviewers from New York City -based publications 
Saboteur (1942) was the first of two films that Hitchcock made for Universal, a studio where he would continue his career during his later years. Saboteur is a 1942 Universal Film directed by Alfred Hitchcock with a screenplay written by Peter Viertel, Joan Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios) a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is a major Global American Hitchcock was then forced to utilize Universal contract players Robert Cummings and Priscilla Lane, both known for their work in comedies and light dramas. Robert Cummings ( June 10, 1908 – December 2, 1990) also known as Bob Cummings, was an American Motion picture The Lane Sisters were four female siblings who first achieved success in the 1930s as a singing act with their popularity leading to a series of successful films Hitchcock made the most of the situation and had received remarkably good performances from the two lead actors. Breaking with Hollywood conventions of the time, Hitchcock did extensive location filming, especially in New York City, and memorably depicted a confrontation between a suspected saboteur (Cummings) and a real saboteur (Norman Lloyd) atop the Statue of Liberty. The City of New York Norman Lloyd (born November 8, 1914) is an American veteran Actor, producer and director with a career in entertainment spanning more than Liberty Enlightening the World (La liberté éclairant le monde commonly known as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté was presented
Shadow of a Doubt (1943), Hitchcock's personal favourite of all his films and the second of the early Universal films, was about young Charlotte "Charlie" Newton (Teresa Wright), who suspects her beloved uncle Charlie Oakley (Joseph Cotten) of being a serial murderer. Shadow of a Doubt is a thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock and written by Thornton Wilder, Sally Benson and Alma Reville Teresa Wright ( October 27, 1918 &ndash March 6, 2005) was an Academy Award -winning American actress. Joseph Cheshire Cotten ( May 15, 1905 – February 6, 1994) was an American Actor of stage and Film In its use of overlapping characters, dialogue, and closeups it has provided a generation of film theorists with psychoanalytic potential, including Jacques Lacan and Slavoj Žižek. Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French ʒak lakɑ̃ ( April 13, 1901 &ndash September 9, 1981) was a French Psychoanalyst Slavoj Žižek (ˈslavoj ˈʒiʒɛk (born 21 March 1949) is a Post-Marxist Sociologist, Philosopher, and Cultural critic The film also harkens back to one of Cotten's best known films, Citizen Kane. Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored  Hitchcock again filmed extensively on location, this time in the Northern California city of Santa Rosa, California, during the summer of 1942. Santa Rosa is the County seat of Sonoma County California, United States The director showcased his own personal fascination with crime and criminals when he had two of his characters discuss various ways of killing people, to the obvious annoyance of Charlotte.
Working at 20th Century Fox, Hitchcock had adapted a script of John Steinbeck's that had chronicled the experiences of the survivors of a German U-boat attack in the film Lifeboat (1944). John Steinbeck III (February 27 1902—December 20 1968 was one of the best-known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century Lifeboat is a 1944 World War II War film, directed by Alfred Hitchcock from a story written by John Steinbeck.  Since the action sequences were confined to the small boat, the film was clearly the most confined of Hitchcock's films. While at Fox, Hitchcock seriously considered directing the film version of A.J. Cronin's novel about a Catholic priest in China, The Keys of the Kingdom, but the plans for this fell through. Archibald Joseph Cronin (19 July 1896–6 January 1981 was The Keys of the Kingdom is a 1941 novel by A J Cronin. Spanning four decades it tells the story of Father Francis Chisholm an unconventional John M. Stahl ended up directing the 1944 film, which was produced by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and starred Gregory Peck, among other luminaries. John Malcolm Stahl ( January 21 1886 – January 12 1950) was an American Film director and producer. Joseph Leo Mankiewicz ( February 11, 1909 – February 5, 1993) was an American Academy Award -winning director Gregory Peck (April 5 1916 &ndash June 12 2003 was an Academy Award -winning and four-time Golden Globe Award-winning American Film 
Returning to England for an extended visit in late 1943 and early 1944, Hitchcock filmed two short films for the Ministry of Information, Bon Voyage and Aventure Malgache. Aventure Malgache is a 1944 French language propaganda Short film made by Alfred Hitchcock for the British Ministry of Information  The films were made for the Free French, were the only ones Hitchcock made in French, and feature typical Hitchcockian touches. The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres FFL) were French fighters in World War II who decided to continue fighting against Axis forces  In the 1990s, the two films were shown by Turner Classic Movies and released on home video. Turner Classic Movies ( TCM) is a cable television channel featuring commercial -free classic movies mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner
In 1945, Hitchcock served as "treatment advisor" (in effect, a film-editor) for a Holocaust documentary produced by the British Army. The film, which recorded the liberation of Concentration Camps, remained unreleased until 1985, when it was completed by PBS Frontline and distributed under the title Memory of the Camps. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial Frontline is a public affairs television program of varying length produced at WGBH in Boston Massachusetts, and distributed through the 
Hitchcock again worked for Selznick when he had directed Spellbound, which explored the then-fashionable subject of psychoanalysis and featured a dream sequence designed by Salvador Dalí. Spellbound ( 1945) is a psychological mystery thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11 1904 &ndash January 23 1989 was a Spanish Catalan Surrealist The dream sequence as it actually appears in the film is considerably shorter than was originally envisioned, which was to be several minutes long, because it proved to be too disturbing for the audience. Some of the memorable and original musical score by Miklos Rozsa was later adapted by the composer into a concert piano concerto. Miklós Rózsa (ˈmikloːʃ ˈroːʒɒ or Miklos Rozsa ( April 18, 1907 - July 27, 1995) was a Hungarian -born Composer
Notorious (1946) followed Spellbound. Notorious ( 1946) is a thriller directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock, and starring Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman as  According to Hitchcock in his book-length interview with Francois Truffaut, Selznick sold the director, the two stars (Grant and Bergman) and the screenplay (by Ben Hecht) to RKO Radio Pictures as a "package" for $500,000 due to cost overruns on Selznick's Duel in the Sun (1946). From this point on, Hitchcock would produce his own films, giving him a far greater degree of freedom to pursue the projects that interested him. Notorious starred Hitchcock regulars Ingrid Bergman and Cary Grant and features a plot about Nazis, uranium, and South America. (ˈbærjman in Swedish but usually ˈbɝgmən in English (August 29 1915 &ndash August 29 1982 was a Swedish three-time Academy Award -winning and two-time Emmy It was a huge box office success and has remained one of Hitchcock's most acclaimed films. His use of uranium as a plot device briefly led to Hitchcock's being under surveillance by the FBI. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the McGilligan wrote that Hitchcock consulted Dr. Robert Millikan of Caltech about the development of an atomic bomb. Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22 1868 – December 19 1953 was an American experimental physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics for his measurement The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private, Coeducational research university located in Pasadena Selznick complained that the notion was "science fiction" only to be confronted by the news stories of the detonation of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in August 1945. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks near the end of World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States at For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. These bombings led to the end of World War II. 
After completing his final film for Selznick, The Paradine Case (a promising courtroom drama that critics found lost momentum because it apparently ran too long and exhausted its resource of ideas), Hitchcock filmed his first color film, Rope, which appeared in 1948. The Paradine Case ( is a courtroom drama film set in England, directed by Alfred Hitchcock and produced by David O Rope ( 1948) is an Alfred Hitchcock classic film notable for its single location edited so as to appear as a single continuous shot taking Here Hitchcock experimented with marshalling suspense in a confined environment, as he had done earlier with Lifeboat (1943). Lifeboat is a 1944 World War II War film, directed by Alfred Hitchcock from a story written by John Steinbeck.  He also experimented with exceptionally long takes — up to ten minutes long (see Themes and devices). Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (13 Featuring James Stewart in the leading role, Rope was the first of four films Stewart would make for Hitchcock. James Maitland Stewart (20 May 1908 – 2 July 1997 popularly known as Jimmy Stewart, was an American Film and stage Actor It was based on the Leopold and Loeb case of the 1920s. Nathan Freudenthal Leopold Jr ( November 19 1904 – August 29 1971) and Richard A Somehow Hitchcock's cameraman managed to move the bulky, heavy Technicolor camera quickly around the set as it followed the continuous action of the long takes. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation
Under Capricorn (1949), set in nineteenth-century Australia, also used the short-lived technique of long takes, but to a more limited extent. Under Capricorn ( 1949) is an Alfred Hitchcock film based on a novel by Helen Simpson, with screenplay written by James Bridie He again used Technicolor in this production, then returned to black and white films for several years. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation For Rope and Under Capricorn, Hitchcock formed a production company with Sidney Bernstein, called Transatlantic Pictures, which became inactive after these two unsuccessful pictures. Transatlantic Pictures was founded by Alfred Hitchcock and longtime associate Sidney Bernstein at the end of World War II. Hitchcock continued to produce his films for the rest of his life.
In 1950, Hitchcock filmed Stage Fright on location in the U. Stage fright or performance anxiety refers to an Anxiety, Fear or persistent Phobia related to Performance in front of K. For the first time, Hitchcock matched one of Warner Brothers' biggest stars, Jane Wyman, with the sultry German actress Marlene Dietrich. Jane Wyman ( January 5, 1917 &ndash September 10, 2007) was an American actress. Marlene Dietrich maɐˈleːnə ˈdiːtrɪç (December 27 &ndashMay 6) was a German -born American Actress, Singer and Entertainer Dietrich's daughter later wrote that Dietrich detested Wyman, although Wyman had just won the Best Actress Oscar for Johnny Belinda. For the 1967 version see Johnny Belinda (1967 film. Johnny Belinda is a 1948 Drama film based on the Hitchcock may have exploited the offscreen animosity between Wyman and Dietrich in this offbeat, behind-the-scenes glimpse of London theatrical personalities, one of whom commits a murder. Hitchcock utilized a number of prominent British actors, including Michael Wilding, Richard Todd, and Alastair Sim. Michael Wilding may refer to Michael Wilding (actor Michael Wilding (writer Richard Todd (born 11 June 1919 is a British Actor, Soldier and film star Acting career Preferring the stage, Sim made his London debut in Othello in 1930 This was Hitchcock's first production for Warner Brothers, which had distributed Rope and Under Capricorn, because Transatlantic Pictures was experiencing financial difficulties. Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and 
With the film, Strangers on a Train (1951), based on the novel by Patricia Highsmith, Hitchcock combined many of the best elements from his preceding British and American films. Strangers on a Train is a Film released in 1951 by Warner Bros Patricia Highsmith ( January 19, 1921 - February 4, 1995) was an American Novelist known for her Psychological thrillers Two men casually meet and speculate on removing people who are causing them difficulty. One of the men, though, takes this banter entirely seriously. With Farley Granger reprising some elements of his role from Rope, Strangers continued the director's interest in the narrative possibilities of blackmail and murder. Farley Granger (born July 1, 1925 in San Jose California) is an American Actor.
MCA head Lew Wasserman, whose client list included James Stewart, Janet Leigh and other actors who would appear in Hitchcock's films, had a significant impact in packaging and marketing Hitchcock's films beginning in the 1950s. MCA Inc (or Music Corporation of America) was an American Corporation in the music and television businesses Lew Wasserman (born Lewis Robert Wasserman, March 22, 1913, Cleveland Ohio - June 3, 2002, Beverly Hills California was a James Maitland Stewart (20 May 1908 – 2 July 1997 popularly known as Jimmy Stewart, was an American Film and stage Actor Janet Leigh (born Jeanette Helen Morrison; July 6, 1927 – October 3, 2004) was an American actress. With Wasserman's help, Hitchcock received tremendous creative freedom from the studios, as well as substantive financial rewards as a result of Paramount's profit-sharing contract.
Three very popular films starring Grace Kelly followed. Grace Patricia Kelly (later Grace Princess of Monaco; November 12 1929 &ndash September 14 1982 was an Academy Award -winning American film and Dial M for Murder (1954) was adapted from the popular stage play by Frederick Knott. Dial M for Murder ( 1954) is a Howcatchem film directed by Alfred Hitchcock starring Grace Kelly, Ray Milland, and Frederick Major Paull Knott ( 28 August 1916 — 17 December 2002) was an English Playwright, best known for writing the This was originally another experimental film, with Hitchcock using the technique of 3D cinematography, although the film was not released in this format at first; it did receive screenings in the early 1980s in 3D form. See also [[stereoscopy]] In film the term 3-D (or 3D) is used to describe any visual presentation system that attempts to maintain or recreate moving images The film also marked a return to Technicolor productions for Hitchcock. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation Hitchcock moved to Paramount Pictures and filmed Rear Window, starring James Stewart and Kelly again, as well as Thelma Ritter and Raymond Burr. Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and Distribution company, based in Hollywood California. Rear Window is a Suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, based on Cornell Woolrich 's Short story It Had to Be Murder Thelma Ritter ( February 14 1902 – February 5 1969) was an American Tony Award -winning character actress Raymond William Stacey Burr ( May 21, 1917 &ndash September 12, 1993) was a Canadian Emmy -winning Actor and Here, the wheelchair-bound Stewart observes the movements of his neighbours across the courtyard and becomes convinced one of them has murdered his wife. Like Lifeboat and Rope, the movie was photographed almost entirely within the confines of a small space: Stewart's tiny studio apartment overlooking the massive courtyard set. Lifeboat is a 1944 World War II War film, directed by Alfred Hitchcock from a story written by John Steinbeck. Rope ( 1948) is an Alfred Hitchcock classic film notable for its single location edited so as to appear as a single continuous shot taking To Catch a Thief, set in the French Riviera, starred Kelly and Cary Grant. To Catch a Thief is a 1955 film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring Cary Grant, Grace Kelly, Jessie Royce Landis and It proved to be Hitchcock's last film with Kelly because she married Prince Rainier of Monaco in 1956 and the residents of her new homeland refused to allow her to make any more films. Rainier III Prince of Monaco (Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi 31 May 1923 &ndash 6 April 2005) styled His Serene Highness For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque
The remake of Hitchcock's own 1934 film, The Man Who Knew Too Much, in 1956 followed, this time starring Stewart and Doris Day, who sang the theme song, "Whatever Will Be, Will Be (Que Sera, Sera)" (which won the Oscar for "Best Music", and became a big hit for Day). The Man Who Knew Too Much ( 1956) is a suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring James Stewart and Doris Day. Doris Mary Anne von Kappelhoff (born April 3, 1922) is an American Singer, actress, and animal welfare advocate known as " Que Sera Sera (Whatever Will Be Will Be " first published in 1956 is a popular Song which was written by the Jay Livingston and
The Wrong Man (1957), Hitchcock's final film for Warner Brothers, was a low-key black and white production based on a real-life case of mistaken identity. The Wrong Man is a 1956 Film by Alfred Hitchcock which stars Henry Fonda and Vera Miles. This was the only film of Hitchcock's to star Henry Fonda. Henry Jaynes Fonda ( May 16, 1905 – August 12, 1982) was an American Academy Award -winning Film and
Vertigo (1958) again starred Stewart, this time with Kim Novak and Barbara Bel Geddes. Vertigo ( is a Psychological thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring James Stewart and Kim Novak and featuring Barbara Kim Novak (born February 13, 1933) is an American actress, who was one of her nation's most popular movie stars in the late 1950s Barbara Bel Geddes ( October 31, 1922 – August 8, 2005) was an Oscar -nominated American Actress, Artist The film was a commercial failure, but has come to be viewed by many as one of Hitchcock's masterpieces; it is now placed highly in the Sight & Sound decade polls. Sight & Sound ( is a British monthly Film Magazine published by the British Film Institute (BFI It was premiered in the San Sebastián International Film Festival, where Hitchcock won a Silver Seashell. The San Sebastián International Film Festival is an annual FIAPF A category Film festival which originated in 1953 and is held in the Spanish city of
By this time, Hitchcock had filmed in many areas of the United States.  He followed Vertigo with three more successful films. All are also recognized as among his very best films: North by Northwest (1959), Psycho (1960)  and The Birds (1963). North by Northwest ( 1959) is a suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring Cary Grant, Eva Marie Saint and Psycho is a suspense / Horror film directed by auteur Alfred Hitchcock, from the Screenplay by Joseph The Birds ( 1963) is a Horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, based on the Short story of the same name by  The latter two films were particularly notable for their unconventional soundtracks, both orchestrated by Bernard Herrmann: the screeching strings played in the murder scene in Psycho exceeded the limits of the time, and The Birds dispensed completely with conventional instruments, instead using an electronically-produced soundtrack and an unaccompanied song by school children (just prior to the infamous attack at the historic Bodega Bay School). Bernard Herrmann ( June 29, 1911 &ndash December 24, 1975) was an American composer noted for his work in Motion pictures.  Also notable was that Santa Cruz was mentioned again as the place where the bird-phenomenon was said to have first occurred.  These films are considered his last great films, after which his career started to lose pace (although some critics such as Robin Wood and Donald Spoto contend that Marnie, from 1964, is first-class Hitchcock, and some have argued that Frenzy is unfairly overlooked). Robin Wood (born Robert Paul Wood on 23 February 1931, in Richmond London, England) is a Canada -based author of several Donald Spoto (born June 28, 1941) is an American Celebrity biographer, Catholic theologian and former monk Marnie is a 1964 Psychological thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock and based on the novel of the same name by Winston Graham Frenzy is a 1972 thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, and is the Penultimate feature film of his extensive career
Failing health took its toll on Hitchcock, reducing his new film production during the last two decades of his life. Hitchcock had filmed two spy thrillers, Torn Curtain with Paul Newman and Julie Andrews and Topaz (based on a Leon Uris novel), which both received mixed reviews. Torn Curtain ( 1966) is a political Thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, featuring his trademark characters and camera techniques Paul Leonard Newman (January 26 1925 &ndash September 26 2008 was an Academy Award Dame Julie Elizabeth Andrews, DBE (born Julia Elizabeth Wells on October 1 1935) is an award-winning English Actress Topaz, director Alfred Hitchcock 's 51st movie, filmed between 1968 and 1969, was adapted from the book Topaz Leon Marcus Uris ( August 3 1924 - June 21 2003) was an American novelist, known for his historical fiction and the deep In 1972, Hitchcock returned to London to film Frenzy, his last major success. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Frenzy is a 1972 thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, and is the Penultimate feature film of his extensive career For the first time, Hitchcock allowed nudity and profane language, which had before been taboo, in one of his films. Biographers have noted that Hitchcock had always pushed the limits of film censorship, often managing to fool Joseph Breen, the longtime head of Hollywood's Production Code. Joseph Breen (born July 5, 1958 in Katonah New York) is an American Soap opera Actor. For the television broadcasting term please see Production code number. Many times Hitchcock slipped in subtle hints of improprieties forbidden by censorship until the mid-1960s. Yet Patrick McGilligan wrote that Breen and others often realized that Hitchcock was inserting such things and were actually amused as well as alarmed by Hitchcock's "inescapable inferences".  Beginning with Torn Curtain, Hitchcock was finally able to blatantly include plot elements previously forbidden in American films and this continued for the remainder of his film career.
Family Plot (1976) was Hitchcock's last film. Family Plot is a 1976 Film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, his final completed film It related the escapades of "Madam" Blanche Tyler played by Barbara Harris, a fraudulent spiritualist, and her taxi driver lover Bruce Dern making a living from her phony powers. Barbara Harris (born July 25, 1935) is an American Tony Award -winning Broadway stage star and Academy Award -nominated motion picture Bruce MacLeish Dern (born June 4, 1936) is an Academy Award -nominated American Screen Actor. William Devane, Karen Black and Cathleen Nesbitt co-starred. William Devane (born September 5, 1937) is an American film and television Actor. Karen Black (born July 1, 1939) is an American actress, Screenwriter, Singer and Songwriter. Cathleen Nesbitt, CBE ( 24 November 1888 &ndash 2 August 1982) was an English actress of Welsh It was the only Hitchcock film scored by John Williams. John Towner Williams (born February 8 1932) is an American Composer, conductor and Pianist.
When Hitchcock saw the Mel Brooks 1977 comedy-spoof of his work, High Anxiety, he enjoyed it, but Brooks initially feared that Hitchcock was not pleased because he walked out of the movie when it was over. Mel Brooks (born Melvin Kaminsky; June 28, 1926) is an American director, Writer, Composer, Lyricist High Anxiety is a 1977 Comedy film produced by directed by and starring Mel Brooks.  Days later, Brooks' fear proved untrue as Hitchcock had sent Brooks a bottle of champagne. 
Near the end of his life, Hitchcock had worked on the script for a projected spy thriller, The Short Night, collaborating with screenwriters James Costigan and Ernest Lehman. The Short Night was a film planned by Alfred Hitchcock as a follow-up to Family Plot (1976 James Costigan ( March 31, 1926 - December 19, 2007) was an American Television Actor and Emmy Award Ernest Lehman ( December 8, 1915 in New York City – July 2 2005 in Los Angeles California) was an American Despite some preliminary work, the story was never filmed. This was due, primarily, to Hitchcock's own failing health and his concerns over the health of his wife, Alma, who had suffered a stroke. The script was eventually published posthumously, in a book on Hitchcock's last years.  
Hitchcock was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in the 1980 New Year's Honours. The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British Order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery achievement or service to the United Kingdom. Although he had adopted American citizenship in 1956, he was entitled to use the title "Sir" because he had remained a British subject. Hitchcock died just four months later, on April 29, before he could be formally invested by Her Majesty The Queen. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans.
Hitchcock died from renal failure in his Bel-Air, Los Angeles home at the age of 80. Renal failure or kidney Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West His wife Alma Reville, and their daughter, Patricia Hitchcock O'Connell, both survived him. Alma Lucy Reville Lady Hitchcock ( August 14, 1899, England &ndash July 6, 1982, Bel-Air Los Angeles California Patricia Hitchcock O'Connell (born July 7, 1928, London, UK) is a British -born American actress and
A funeral service was held at Good Shepherd Catholic Church in Beverly Hills. Hitchcock's body was cremated and his ashes were scattered over the Pacific. Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions 
Many of Hitchcock's films contain cameo appearances by Hitchcock himself: the director would be seen for a brief moment boarding a bus, crossing in front of a building, standing in an apartment across the courtyard, or appearing in a photograph. Alfred Hitchcock 's films show an interesting tendency towards recurring themes and devices such that one can almost feel that he was in some way making the same movie or at least telling Thirty-seven of director Alfred Hitchcock 's 52 surviving major films — his second film The Mountain Eagle is lost — contain a Cameo appearance by Hitchcock A cameo role or cameo appearance (often shortened to just cameo) is a brief appearance of a known person in a work of the Performing arts, such as Thirty-seven of director Alfred Hitchcock 's 52 surviving major films — his second film The Mountain Eagle is lost — contain a Cameo appearance by Hitchcock This playful gesture became one of Hitchcock's signatures. As a recurring theme he would carry a musical instrument—especially memorable was the large double bass case that he wrestles onto the train at the beginning of Strangers on a Train. Strangers on a Train ( 1950) is a Psychological thriller Novel by Patricia Highsmith. 
In Hitchcock's earliest appearances, he would fill in as an obscure extra, standing in a crowd or walking through a scene in a long camera shot (e. g. in his 1927 film The Lodger). The Lodger A Story of the London Fog (often just called The Lodger) is a 1927 Silent film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. He became more prominent in his later appearances, as when he turns to see Jane Wyman's disguise when she passes him on the street in Stage Fright, and in stark silhouette in his final film Family Plot (1976). Jane Wyman ( January 5, 1917 &ndash September 10, 2007) was an American actress. Stage Fright is a 1950 Hitchcock Crime film starring Jane Wyman, Marlene Dietrich, Michael Wilding, and Family Plot is a 1976 Film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, his final completed film
Hitchcock seemed to delight in the technical challenges of filmmaking. In the film Lifeboat, Hitchcock stages the entire action of the movie in a small boat, yet manages to keep the cinematography from monotonous repetition (his trademark cameo appearance was a dilemma, given the limitations of the setting; so Hitchcock appears in a fictitious newspaper ad for a weight loss product). Lifeboat is a 1944 World War II War film, directed by Alfred Hitchcock from a story written by John Steinbeck. Similarly, the entire action in Rear Window either takes place or is seen from a single apartment. Rear Window is a Suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, based on Cornell Woolrich 's Short story It Had to Be Murder
In Spellbound, two unprecedented point-of-view shots were achieved by constructing a large wooden hand (which would appear to belong to the character whose point of view the camera took) and outsized props for it to hold: a bucket-sized glass of milk and a large wooden gun. Spellbound ( 1945) is a psychological mystery thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock. For added novelty and impact, the climactic gunshot was hand-coloured red on some copies of the black-and-white print of the film.
Rope (1948) was another technical challenge: a film that appears to have been shot entirely in a single take. Rope ( 1948) is an Alfred Hitchcock classic film notable for its single location edited so as to appear as a single continuous shot taking The film was actually shot in 10 takes of ranging from four and half to 10 minutes each; 10 minutes being the maximum amount of film that would fit in a single camera reel. Some transitions between reels were hidden by having a dark object fill the entire screen for a moment. Hitchcock used those points to hide the cut, and began the next take with the camera in the same place.
Hitchcock's 1958 film Vertigo contains a camera technique that has been imitated and re-used many times by filmmakers, it has become known as the Hitchcock zoom. The dolly zoom is an unsettling in-camera Special effect that appears to undermine normal Visual perception in Film.
Hitchcock's films sometimes feature characters struggling in their relationships with their mothers. In North by Northwest (1959), Roger Thornhill (Cary Grant's character) is an innocent man ridiculed by his mother for insisting that shadowy, murderous men are after him (in this case, they are). North by Northwest ( 1959) is a suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring Cary Grant, Eva Marie Saint and In The Birds (1963), the Rod Taylor character, an innocent man, finds his world under attack by vicious birds, and struggles to free himself of a clinging mother (Jessica Tandy). The Birds ( 1963) is a Horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, based on the Short story of the same name by Rodney Sturt Taylor (born January 11, 1930) is an Australian -born Film and Television Actor. Jessie Alice Tandy ( June 7, 1909 &ndash September 11, 1994) was a British - American stage and film actress The killer in Frenzy (1972) has a loathing of women but idolizes his mother. Frenzy is a 1972 thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, and is the Penultimate feature film of his extensive career The villain Bruno in Strangers on a Train hates his father, but has an incredibly close relationship with his mother (played by Marion Lorne). Marion Lorne MacDougall ( August 12, 1883 - May 9, 1968) was an American Emmy Award -winning Character actress. Sebastian (Claude Rains) in Notorious has a clearly conflictual relationship with his mother, who is (correctly) suspicious of his new bride Alicia Huberman (Ingrid Bergman). William Claude Rains (10 November &ndash30 May) was an English award-winning Actor and Film star whose career spanned 47 years Notorious ( 1946) is a thriller directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock, and starring Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman as (ˈbærjman in Swedish but usually ˈbɝgmən in English (August 29 1915 &ndash August 29 1982 was a Swedish three-time Academy Award -winning and two-time Emmy And, of course, Norman Bates' troubles with his mother in Psycho are infamous. Psycho is a suspense / Horror film directed by auteur Alfred Hitchcock, from the Screenplay by Joseph
Hitchcock heroines tend to be lovely, cool blondes who seem proper at first but, when aroused by passion or danger, respond in a more sensual, animal, or even criminal way. As noted, the famous victims in The Lodger are all blondes. In The 39 Steps, Hitchcock's glamorous blonde star, Madeleine Carroll, is put in handcuffs. The 39 Steps is a 1935 Film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, based on the adventure Novel The Thirty-nine Steps Madeleine Carroll ( February 26, 1906 &ndash October 2, 1987) was a British actress, immensely popular in the 1930s In Marnie (1964), the title character (played by Tippi Hedren) is a kleptomaniac. Marnie is a 1964 Psychological thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock and based on the novel of the same name by Winston Graham Nathalie Kay 'Tippi' Hedren (born January 19, 1930) is an American actress with a career spanning six decades Kleptomania ( Greek: κλέπτειν, kleptein "to steal" μανία, " Mania " is the condition of not being able In To Catch a Thief (1955), Francie (Grace Kelly) offers to help a man she believes is a cat burglar. To Catch a Thief is a 1955 film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring Cary Grant, Grace Kelly, Jessie Royce Landis and Grace Patricia Kelly (later Grace Princess of Monaco; November 12 1929 &ndash September 14 1982 was an Academy Award -winning American film and In Rear Window, Lisa (Grace Kelly again) risks her life by breaking into Lars Thorwald's apartment. Rear Window is a Suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, based on Cornell Woolrich 's Short story It Had to Be Murder And, most notoriously, in Psycho, Janet Leigh's unfortunate character steals $40,000 and is murdered by a reclusive lunatic. Janet Leigh (born Jeanette Helen Morrison; July 6, 1927 – October 3, 2004) was an American actress. Hitchcock's last blonde heroine was - years after Dany Robin and her "daughter" Claude Jade in Topaz - Barbara Harris as a phony psychic turned amateur sleuth in his final film, 1976's Family Plot. Dany Robin dæni ʁɔbɑ̃(born '''Danielle Robin''' ([[14 April] 1927 - 25 May, 1995) was a French actress (Leading Lady in the 1950s and the Claude Jade, byname of Claude Marcelle Jorré ( 8 October 1948 - 1 December 2006) was a French actress, best known Topaz, director Alfred Hitchcock 's 51st movie, filmed between 1968 and 1969, was adapted from the book Topaz Barbara Harris (born July 25, 1935) is an American Tony Award -winning Broadway stage star and Academy Award -nominated motion picture Family Plot is a 1976 Film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, his final completed film In the same film, the diamond smuggler played by Karen Black could also fit that role, as she wears a long blonde wig in various scenes and becomes increasingly uncomfortable about her line of work. Karen Black (born July 1, 1939) is an American actress, Screenwriter, Singer and Songwriter.
Hitchcock saw that reliance on actors and actresses was a holdover from the theater tradition. He was a pioneer in using camera movement, camera set ups and montage to explore the outer reaches of cinematic art.
Most critics and Hitchcock scholars, including Donald Spoto and Roger Ebert, agree that Vertigo represents the director's most personal and revealing film, dealing with the obsessions of a man who crafts a woman into the woman he desires. Vertigo ( is a Psychological thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring James Stewart and Kim Novak and featuring Barbara Vertigo explores more frankly and at greater length his interest in the relation between sex and death than any other film in his filmography.
Hitchcock often said that his personal favorite film was Shadow of a Doubt. Shadow of a Doubt is a thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock and written by Thornton Wilder, Sally Benson and Alma Reville 
Hitchcock once commented, "The writer and I plan out the entire script down to the smallest detail, and when we're finished all that's left to do is to shoot the film. Actually, it's only when one enters the studio that one enters the area of compromise. Really, the novelist has the best casting since he doesn't have to cope with the actors and all the rest. " In an interview with Roger Ebert in 1969, Hitchcock further elaborates,
Hitchcock's films were strongly believed to have been extensively storyboarded to the finest detail by the majority of commentators over the years. He was reported to have never even bothered looking through the viewfinder, since he didn't need to do so, though in publicity photos he was shown doing so. He also used this as an excuse to never have to change his films from his initial vision. If a studio asked him to change a film, he would claim that it was already shot in a single way, and that there were no alternate takes to consider.
However, this view of Hitchcock as a director who relied more on pre-production than on the actual production itself, has been challenged by the book, Hitchcock At Work, written by Bill Krohn, the American correspondent of Cahiers du Cinema. Krohn after investigating several script revisions, notes to other production personnel written by or to Hitchcock alongside inspection of storyboards and other production material has observed that Hitchcock's work often deviated from how the screenplay was written or how the film was originally envisioned. He noted that the myth of storyboards in relation to Hitchcock, often regurgitated by generations of commentators on his movies was to a great degree perpetuated by Hitchcock himself or the publicity arm of the studios. A great example would be the famous cropduster sequence of North by Northwest which wasn't storyboarded at all. After the scene was filmed, the publicity department asked Hitchcock to make storyboards to promote the film and Hitchcock in turn hired an artist to match the scenes in detail.
Even on the occasions when storyboards were made, the scene which was shot did differ from it significantly. Krohn's extensive analysis of the production of Hitchcock classics like Notorious reveals that Hitchcock was flexible enough to change a film's conception during its making. Another example is the American remake of The Man Who Knew Too Much which Krohn notes went into production without a complete script which moreover went over schedule, something which as Krohn notes was not an uncommon occurrence on many of Hitchcock's films including Strangers on a Train and Topaz. Strangers on a Train ( 1950) is a Psychological thriller Novel by Patricia Highsmith. Topaz is a Silicate mineral of Aluminium and Fluorine with the Chemical formula Al 2 Si[[oxygen O]]4( While Hitchcock did do a great deal of preparation for all his movies, he was fully cognizant that the actual film-making process often deviated from the best laid plans and was flexible to adapt to the changes and needs of production as his films weren't free from the normal hassles and routines that face many other film productions.
Krohn's work also sheds light on Hithcock's practice of generally shooting in chronological order. A practice which he notes often sent many of his films overbudget and overschedule and more importantly differed from the standard operating procedure of Hollywood in the Studio System Era. Equally important is Hitchcock's tendency of shooting alternate takes of scenes. This differed from coverage in that the films weren't necessarily shot from varying angles so as to give the editor options to shape the film how he/she chooses(often under the producer's aegis). Rather they represented Hitchcock's tendency of giving himself options in the editing room where he would provide advise to his editors after viewing a rough cut of the work so as to give him space for other possibilities in the editing room. According to Krohn, this and numerous other information revealed through his research of Hitchcock's personal papers, script revisions and the like refute the notion of Hitchcock as a director who was always in control of his films, whose vision of his films did not change during production, which Krohn notes has remained the central long-standing myth of Alfred Hitchcock.
Similarly, much of Hitchcock's hatred of actors has been exaggerated. Hitchcock simply did not tolerate the method approach as he believed that actors should only concentrate on their performances and leave work on script and character to the directors and screenwriters. Method acting is an Acting technique in which Actors try to replicate real life emotional conditions under which the character operates in an effort to create a life-like In a Sight and Sound interview, he stated that, ' the method actor is OK in the theatre because he has a free space to move about. Sight & Sound ( is a British monthly Film Magazine published by the British Film Institute (BFI But when it comes to cutting the face and what he sees and so forth, there must be some discipline'.  During the making of Lifeboat, Walter Slezak, who played the German character, stated that Hitchcock knew the mechanics of acting better than anyone he knew. Walter Slezak ( May 3, 1902 – April 21, 1983) was an Austrian Actor. Several critics have observed that despite his reputation as a man who disliked actors, several actors who worked with him gave fine, often brilliant performances and these performances contribute to the film's success.
Regarding Hitchcock's sometimes less than pleasant relationship with actors, there was a persistent rumor that he had said that actors were cattle. Hitchcock later denied this, typically tongue-in-cheek, clarifying that he had only said that actors should be treated like cattle. Tongue-in-cheek is a term used to refer to humor in which a statement or an entire fictional work is not meant to be taken seriously but its lack of seriousness is subtle Carole Lombard, tweaking Hitchcock and drumming up a little publicity, brought some cows along with her when she reported to the set of Mr. and Mrs. Smith. Carole Lombard ( October 6, 1908 – January 16, 1942) born Jane Alice Peters in Fort Wayne Indiana, was an Oscar-nominated For other uses see Mr & Mrs Smith Mr & Mrs Smith is a 1941 Screwball comedy film directed by Alfred  For Hitchcock, the actors, like the props, were part of the film's setting.
In the late 1950s, French New Wave critics, especially Éric Rohmer, Claude Chabrol and François Truffaut, were among the first to see and promote Hitchcock's films as artistic works. "Nouvelle Vague" redirects here For the music group of the same name see Nouvelle Vague (band. Éric Rohmer (born Jean-Marie Maurice Scherer, 4 April 1920 Tulle, France) is a French Film director and Screenwriter. Claude Chabrol (klod ʃaˈbʁɔl in French (born 24 June 1930 Paris) is a French film director and has become well-known since his first film François Roland Truffaut ( February 6 1932 – October 21 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking Hitchcock was one of the first directors to whom they applied their auteur theory, which stresses the artistic authority of the director in the film-making process.
|“||The length of a film should be directly related to the endurance of the human bladder.||”|
— Alfred Hitchcock
Hitchcock's innovations and vision have influenced a great number of filmmakers, producers, and actors. A film producer is a person who creates the conditions for making movies. An actor, actress, player or thespian (see terminology) is a person who Acts in a Dramatic production and who works His influence helped start a trend for film directors to control artistic aspects of their movies without answering to the movie's producer. A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences awarded Hitchcock the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, in 1967. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences ( AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization ostensibly dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of Motion The Irving G Thalberg Memorial Award is awarded periodically at the Academy Awards ceremonies to "Creative producers whose bodies of work reflect a consistently high His other Oscar nominations were:
Rebecca, which Hitchcock directed, won the 1940 Best Picture Oscar for its producer David O. Selznick. The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to artists working David O Selznick, born David Selznick ( May 10, 1902 &ndash June 22, 1965) was one of the iconic Hollywood producers In addition to Rebecca and Suspicion, two other films Hitchcock directed, Foreign Correspondent and Spellbound, were nominated for Best Picture.
Hitchcock is considered the Best Film Director of all time by The Screen Directory.  Hitchcock was knighted in 1980.
Sixteen films directed by Hitchcock earned Oscar nominations, though only six of those films earned Hitchcock himself a nomination. The total number of Oscar nominations (including winners) earned by films he directed is fifty. Four of those films earned Best Picture nominations.
Along with Walt Disney, Hitchcock was one of the first prominent motion picture producers to fully envision just how popular the medium of television would become. Walter Elias Disney (December 5 1901 – December 15 1966 was a multiple Academy Award -winning American Film producer, director, Screenwriter From 1955 to 1965, Hitchcock was the host and producer of a long-running television series entitled Alfred Hitchcock Presents. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Alfred Hitchcock Presents is an Anthology Television series hosted by Alfred Hitchcock.  While his films had made Hitchcock's name strongly associated with suspense, the TV series made Hitchcock a celebrity himself. His irony-tinged voice, image, and mannerisms became instantly recognizable and were often the subject of parody. Irony is a literary or Rhetorical device, in which there is an incongruity or Discordance between what one says or does and what one means or
The title-theme of the show pictured a minimalist caricature of Hitchcock's profile (he drew it himself; it is composed of only nine lines) which his real silhouette then filled. His introductions before the stories in his program always included some sort of wry humor, such as the description of a recent multi-person execution hampered by having only one electric chair, while two are now shown with a sign "Two chairs--no waiting!" He directed a few episodes of the TV series himself, and he upset a number of movie production companies when he insisted on using his TV production crew to produce his motion picture Psycho. In the late 1980s, a new version of Alfred Hitchcock Presents was produced for television, making use of Hitchcock's original introductions in a colorised form. Film colorization is any process that involves adding Color to Black and white, sepia or monochrome moving-picture images
"Hitch" used a curious little tune by the French composer Charles Gounod (1818-1893), the composer of the 1859 opera Faust, as the theme "song" for his television programs, after it was suggested to him by composer Bernard Herrmann. Biography Gounod was born in Paris, the son of a pianist mother and a draftsman father Faust or Faustus ( Latin for "auspicious" or "lucky" is the protagonist of a classic German Legend in which he makes Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops Orchestra included the piece, Funeral March of a Marionette, in one of their extended play 45 rpm discs for RCA Victor during the 1950s. Arthur Fiedler should not be confused with Arthur Fielder, a Kent Fast bowler of the 1900s The Boston Pops Orchestra was founded in 1885 as a subsection of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO founded four years earlier RCA Records (originally The Victor Talking Machine Company, then RCA Victor is one of the flagship labels of Sony Music Entertainment.
Hitchcock appears as a character in the popular juvenile detective book series, Alfred Hitchcock and the Three Investigators. The Three Investigators was an American juvenile Detective Book series first published as " Alfred Hitchcock and the Three Investigators The long-running detective series was created by Robert Arthur, who wrote the first several books, although other authors took over after he left the series. For the film producer see Robert Arthur. Robert Jay Arthur Jr The Three Investigators -- Jupiter Jones, Bob Andrews and Peter Crenshaw -- were amateur detectives, slightly younger than the Hardy Boys. The Hardy Boys is a Juvenile detective/adventure series chronicling the Fictional adventures of Teenage brothers Frank and In the introduction to each book, "Alfred Hitchcock" introduces the mystery, and he sometimes refers a case to the boys to solve. At the end of each book, the boys report to Hitchcock, and sometimes give him a memento of their case.
When the real Hitchcock died, the fictional Hitchcock in the Three Investigators books was replaced by a retired detective named Hector Sebastian. At this time, the series title was changed from Alfred Hitchcock and the Three Investigators to The Three Investigators.
At the height of Hitchcock's success, he was also asked to introduce a set of books with his name attached. The series was a collection of short stories by popular short-story writers, primarily focused on suspense and thrillers. These titles included Alfred Hitchcock's Anthology, Alfred Hitchcock Presents: Stories to be Read with the Door Locked, Alfred Hitchcock's Monster Museum, Alfred Hitchcock's Supernatural Tales of Terror and Suspense, Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbinders in Suspense, Alfred Hitchcock's Witch's Brew, Alfred Hitchcock's Ghostly Gallery, Alfred Hitchcock's A Hangman's Dozen and Alfred Hitchcock's Haunted Houseful. Alfred Hitchcock's Anthology was a Seasonally printed collection of Suspenseful and |thrilling Short stories from Alfred Hitchcock's Hitchcock himself was not actually involved in the reading, reviewing, editing or selection of the short stories; in fact, even his introductions were ghost-written. The entire extent of his involvement with the project was to lend his name and collect a check.
Some notable writers whose works were used in the collection, include Shirley Jackson (Strangers in Town, The Lottery), T.H. White (The Once and Future King), Robert Bloch, H. G. Wells (The War of the Worlds), Robert Louis Stevenson, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Mark Twain and the creator of The Three Investigators, Robert Arthur. Shirley Jackson ( December 14, 1916, San Francisco California - August 8, 1965, Bennington Vermont) was an influential " The Lottery " is a Short story by Shirley Jackson, first published in the June 26, 1948 issue of The New Yorker Terence Hanbury White ( 29 May 1906 &ndash 17 January 1964) was an English Author best known for his sequence of Arthurian The Once and Future King is an Arthurian Fantasy novel written by T Robert Albert Bloch (April 5 1917 Chicago – September 23 1994 Los Angeles) was a prolific American Writer, primarily of crime Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political The War of the Worlds (1898 by H G Wells, is an early Science fiction Novel which describes an invasion of England by Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850–3 December 1894 was a Scottish novelist poet and travel writer, and a representative of Neo-romanticism in Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930 was an Anglo-Scottish Author most noted for his stories about the Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30 1835 – April 21 1910 better known by the Pen name Mark Twain, was an American Humorist, satirist The Three Investigators was an American juvenile Detective Book series first published as " Alfred Hitchcock and the Three Investigators For the film producer see Robert Arthur. Robert Jay Arthur Jr
Hitchcock also wrote a mystery story for Look magazine in 1943, "The Murder of Monty Woolley. Look was a bi-weekly, general-interest Magazine published in Des Moines, Iowa from 1937 to 1971 with more of an emphasis on Monty Woolley ( August 17, 1888 - May 6, 1963) was an American Actor. " This was a sequence of captioned photographs inviting the reader to inspect the pictures for clues to the murderer's identity; Hitchcock cast the performers as themselves: Woolley, Doris Merrick, and make-up man Guy Pearce, whom Hitchcock identified, in the last photo, as the murderer. The article was reprinted in Games Magazine in November/December 1980. This article is about a US puzzle magazine For the UK computer and video games magazine see GamesTM.
Hitchcock had a dislike of egg yolk. For more information see the article about Alfred Hitchcock Silent films As a title designer In these early films In most Birds and Reptiles an egg ( Latin ovum) is the Zygote, resulting from Fertilization of the Ovum. He once said:
Biographer Patrick McGilligan confirmed Hitchcock's avoidance of eggs, while noting that the director had actually tried them as a young man, then discovered he didn't like them. He was especially annoyed by poached eggs. A poached egg is an egg that has been cooked by poaching. No oil or fat is used in its preparation His daughter Patricia, however, stated that "He loved soufflés. "
Hitchcock also had a serious fear of the police, which was the reason he said he never learned to drive. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force His reasoning was that if one never drove, then one would never have an opportunity to be pulled over by the police and issued a ticket. However, Patrick McGilligan wrote that "though Hitchcock pooh-poohed driving, insisting to interviewers that he didn't even know how, he often chauffeured his daughter to school at Marymount [a private academy for girls], and for a long time drove her to Sunday Mass. " His fear of the police can be attributed to a circumstance encountered by Hitchcock in his youth, which he told a number of interviewers and mentioned in the PBS documentary The Men Who Made the Movies. In an attempt to punish Hitchcock for an instance of misbehavior, Alfred's father detailed in writing that the young Hitchcock had engaged in some form of childish mischief. Hitchcock's father then handed the description to Alfred, sending him to the local police station to demonstrate his wrongdoing. In response to the written notice, the on-duty police officer immediately brought Hitchcock to an empty cell and locked him there for a full 10 minutes, citing the justification for this action as a means to reprimand the young boy. Undoubtedly, history has recorded this incident as scarring. This perhaps influenced his signature theme in his movies where an innocent person would become entangled in the web of another guilty person's behaviour. This can be noted in many of his films, and a possible reason would be due to his hatred for authority, and his siding with the innocent. He also manages to convey this message to his audience in order to allow them to take his (the innocent) side. 
|NAME||Hitchcock, Alfred Joseph|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||British film director and film producer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||13 August 1899|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||London, UK|
|DATE OF DEATH||29 April 1980|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Los Angeles, U.S.A.|
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. A film producer is a person who creates the conditions for making movies. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The United States of America —commonly referred to as the