September 11, 1789 – January 31, 1795
|Preceded by||(New office)|
|Succeeded by||Oliver Wolcott, Jr.|
1788 – 1789
1787 – 1787
1782 – 1783
|Born||January 11, 1755 or 1757|
Nevis, Caribbean (now Saint Kitts and Nevis)
|Died||July 12, 1804 (aged 47 or 49)|
New York City, New York
|Spouse||Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton|
|Profession||Cabinet officer, military officer, lawyer, financier, political theorist|
|Religion||Episcopalian at his death|
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757 – July 12, 1804) was the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, a Founding Father, economist, and political philosopher. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Oliver Wolcott Jr ( January 11, 1760 June 1, 1833) was United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1795 to 1800 and governor A delegate is a member of a group representing an organization (e New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was the governing body of the United States of America from March 1, A delegate is a member of a group representing an organization (e New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Philadelphia Convention (now also known as the Constitutional Convention, the Federal Convention, or the " Grand Convention at Philadelphia A delegate is a member of a group representing an organization (e New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was the governing body of the United States of America from March 1, Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1755 ( MDCCLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Year 1757 ( MDCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a NEVIS, or New Exhaust Valve & Intake System, is a type of Internal combustion engine developed by Cesare Bortone in cooperation with the University The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis (also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis) located in the Leeward Islands, is a federal two-island Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The City of New York New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816 with remnants lasting into the 1820s Elizabeth Hamilton (née Schuyler ( August 9 1757 – November 9 1854) was the wife of Alexander Hamilton, the founder of the The United States Cabinet (usually simplified as "the Cabinet" is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the Executive branch of the Federal government An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person Financier (fɨˈnænsiɚ or finãˈsje in French is a term for a person who handles large sums of Money, usually involving money lending, financing This is a list of political philosophers, including some who may be better known for their work in other areas of philosophy The Episcopal Church is the official name of the Province of the Anglican Communion in the United States. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1755 ( MDCCLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Year 1757 ( MDCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until The Founding Fathers of the United States are the Political leaders who signed the Declaration of Independence or otherwise participated in the An economist is an expert in the Social science of Economics. Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights He led calls for the Philadelphia Convention, was one of America's first Constitutional lawyers, and cowrote the Federalist Papers, a primary source for Constitutional interpretation. The Philadelphia Convention (now also known as the Constitutional Convention, the Federal Convention, or the " Grand Convention at Philadelphia Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic Laws of nation states and other political organizations The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution. Judicial interpretation is a theory or mode of thought that explains how the Judiciary should interpret the Law, particularly Constitutional documents
Born in Nevis and educated in New England, Hamilton volunteered for the Revolutionary War militia and was chosen artillery captain. NEVIS, or New Exhaust Valve & Intake System, is a type of Internal combustion engine developed by Cesare Bortone in cooperation with the University History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" He became senior aide-de-camp and confidant to General George Washington, and led three battalions at the Siege of Yorktown. An aide-de-camp ( French for camp assistant) is a personal assistant secretary or Adjutant to a person of high rank usually a senior military officer George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the The Siege of Yorktown or Battle of Yorktown in 1781 was a decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington He was elected to the Continental Congress, but resigned to practice law and to found the Bank of New York. The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the The Bank of New York, abbrieviated BNY, was a global Financial services company that existed until its merger with the Mellon Financial Corporation He served in the New York Legislature, later returned to Congress, and was the only New York signer at the Philadelphia Convention. The New York Legislature is the state legislature of the US state of New York. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous As Washington's Treasury Secretary, he influenced formative government policy widely. An admirer of British political systems, Hamilton emphasized strong central government and Implied Powers, under which the new U.S. Congress funded the national debt, assumed state debts, created a national bank, and established an import tariff and whiskey tax. The Necessary-and-Proper Clause (also known as the Elastic Clause, the Basket Clause, the Coefficient Clause, and the Sweeping Clause) is the The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) is Money (or credit) owed by any level of government either Central government The First Bank of the United States was a Bank chartered by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791. Tariffs in American history have played different roles in trade policy and the Economic history of the United States. The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the
By 1792, a Hamilton coalition and a Jefferson-Madison coalition had arisen (the formative Federalist and Democratic-Republican Parties), which differed strongly over Hamilton's domestic fiscal goals and his foreign policy of extensive trade and friendly relations with Britain. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816 with remnants lasting into the 1820s Exposed in an affair with Maria Reynolds, Hamilton resigned from the Treasury in 1795 to return to Constitutional law and advocacy of strong federalism. Maria Reynolds (born Maria Lewis, 1768 – 1832? is best known as the mistress of Alexander Hamilton and wife of James Reynolds, and she played a central In 1798, the Quasi-War with France led Hamilton to argue for, organize, and become de facto commander of a national army. The Quasi-War was an Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800
Hamilton's opposition to fellow Federalist John Adams contributed to the success of Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr in the uniquely deadlocked election of 1800. John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836 the US politician In the United States Presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800” Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated President John Adams With his party's defeat, Hamilton's nationalist and industrializing ideas lost their former national prominence. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one In 1801, Hamilton founded the New York Post as the Federalist broadsheet New-York Evening Post. The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually  His intense rivalry with Vice President Burr eventually resulted in a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded, dying the following day. After the War of 1812, Hamilton's former opponents, including Madison and Albert Gallatin, revived some of his federalizing programs, such as a second national bank, national infrastructure, tariffs, and a standing army and navy. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29 1761 &ndash August 12 1849 was a Swiss-American Ethnologist, linguist, politician, Diplomat The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816 five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society such as Roads Water supply, Wastewater, Power grids A standing army is an Army composed of full time career Soldiers who 'stand over' in other words who do not disband during times of peace Hamilton's federalist and business-oriented economic visions for the country continue to influence party platforms to this day.
By his own account, Hamilton was born in Charlestown, the capital of Nevis in the West Indies, out of wedlock to Rachel Faucett Lavien, of part French Huguenot descent, and James A. Charlestown is the capital of the island of Nevis, in the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Leeward Islands, West Indies. NEVIS, or New Exhaust Valve & Intake System, is a type of Internal combustion engine developed by Cesare Bortone in cooperation with the University The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth Hamilton, fourth son of Scottish laird Alexander Hamilton of Grange, Ayrshire. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. A Laird (Lord is a Hereditary title for the owner of a landed estate in Scotland. Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir ʃir̴əxg̊ iɲiɾʲˈaːɾʲ is a Registration county, and former administrative county in south-west Scotland, He was born on January 11 in either 1755 or 1757; most historians now say 1755, although disagreement remains. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1755 ( MDCCLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Year 1757 ( MDCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a  A young Hamilton claimed 1757 as his birth year when he first arrived in New England; but he is also recorded in probate papers, shortly after his mother's death, as being 13 years old, indicating 1755. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Explanations for this discrepancy include that he may have been trying to appear younger than his college classmates or to avoid standing out as older, or that the probate document may be wrong or he may have been passing as 13 to be more employable after his mother's death.  He was often approximate about his age in later life.
Hamilton's mother had been separated previously from Johann Michael Lavien of St. Croix; to escape an unhappy marriage, Rachel left her husband and first son for St. Kitts in 1750, where she met James. Saint Kitts (also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island ( Saint-Christophe in French) is an Island in the West Indies  They moved together to Rachel's birthplace of Nevis, where she had inherited property from her father.  Their two sons were James, Jr. , and Alexander. Because Hamilton's parents were not legally married, the Church of England denied him membership or education in the church school. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Instead, he received "individual tutoring" and classes in a private Jewish school. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************  Hamilton supplemented his education with a family library of thirty-four books, including Greek and Roman classics.
A 1765 business assignment led Hamilton's father to move the family to Christiansted, St. Christiansted is a town on Saint Croix, one of the main islands composing the United States Virgin Islands, an unincorporated territory of the United States Croix; he then abandoned Rachel and the two sons. Rachel supported the family by keeping a small store in Christiansted. She contracted a severe fever and died on February 19, 1768, leaving Hamilton effectively orphaned. Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum Year 1768 ( MDCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a These consequences may have had severe emotional consequences for him, even by the standards of an eighteenth-century childhood.  In probate court, Hamilton's half-brother obtained the few valuables Rachel had owned, including some household silver. Many items were auctioned off, but a family friend purchased the family books and returned them to the studious young Hamilton.  (Years later Hamilton received his half-brother's death notice and a small amount of money. )
Hamilton then became a clerk at a local import-export firm, Beekman and Cruger, which traded with New England; he was left in charge of the firm for five months in 1771, while the owner was at sea. He was adopted briefly by a cousin, Peter Lytton, but when Lytton committed suicide, Hamilton was split from his older brother James.  James apprenticed with a local carpenter, while Hamilton was adopted by Nevis merchant Thomas Stevens. Some evidence suggests Stevens may have been Hamilton's biological father: his son, Edward Stevens, became a close friend of Hamilton; the two boys looked much alike, were both fluent in French, and shared similar interests. 
Hamilton continued clerking, remained an avid reader, developed an interest in writing, and began to long for a life off his small island. A letter of Hamilton's was first published in the Royal Danish-American Gazette, describing a hurricane that had devastated Christiansted on August 30, 1772. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Year 1772 ( MDCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The impressed community began a collection for a subscription fund to educate the young Hamilton in New England. He arrived at a grammar school in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, in the autumn of 1772. A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States.
In 1773, Hamilton attended a college-preparatory program with Francis Barber at Elizabethtown, New Jersey. There he came under the influence of a leading intellectual and revolutionary, William Livingston. William Livingston ( November 30, 1723 July 25, 1790) served as the Governor of New Jersey (1776–1790 during the American Revolutionary  Hamilton may have applied to the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) but been refused the opportunity for accelerated study. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey.  In the end, Hamilton decided to attend King's College (now Columbia University) in New York City. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. The City of New York While studying at King's College, Hamilton and several classmates formed a small literary and debating group that was a forerunner of Columbia's Philolexian Society. The Philolexian Society of Columbia University is one of the oldest collegiate literary societies in the United States and the oldest student group at Columbia 
When Church of England clergyman Samuel Seabury published a series of pamphlets promoting the Tory cause the following year, Hamilton struck back with his first political writings, A Full Vindication of the measures of Congress, and The Farmer Refuted. The Right Reverend Samuel Seabury ( November 30, 1729 &ndash February 25, 1796) was the first American Episcopal In the political tradition of some English-speaking countries, the term Tory has referred to a variety of political parties and Creeds since it was He published two additional pieces attacking the Quebec Act, as well as fourteen anonymous installments of "The Monitor" for Holt's New York Journal. The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo Although Hamilton was a supporter of the Revolutionary cause at this pre-war stage, he did not approve of mob reprisals against those who were not. One generally accepted account details how Hamilton saved King's College president and Tory sympathizer Myles Cooper from an angry mob by speaking to the crowd long enough for Cooper to escape the dangerous situation. Myles Cooper (1735 – 1785 was a figure in colonial New York. Ochlocracy ( Greek: οχλοκρατία or okhlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people 
In 1775, after the first engagement of American troops with the British in Boston, Hamilton joined a New York volunteer militia company called the Hearts of Oak, (which included other King's College students). The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 Background Prior to 1775 the British had imposed taxes onto the Americans which they did not take kindly to The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service The Hearts of Oak (originally "The Corsicans" were a volunteer Militia in the British colonial Province of New York as part of the He drilled with the company before classes in the graveyard of nearby St. Paul's Chapel. A company is a Military unit, typically consisting of 75-200 Soldiers Most companies are formed of three to five Platoons although the exact number may vary St Paul's Chapel, at 209 Broadway, is an Episcopal Chapel located on Church Street between Fulton and Vesey Streets opposite the east side of the Hamilton studied military history and tactics on his own, and achieved the rank of lieutenant. Military history is a Humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating Lieutenant (abbreviated Lt or Lieut) is a Military, Naval, Paramilitary, Fire service, Emergency medical services Under fire from the HMS Asia, he led a successful raid for British cannon in the Battery, the capture of which resulted in the Hearts of Oak becoming an artillery company thereafter. A raid can refer to either a military tactic, or a larger Grand Tactical or Operational warfare mission which require the execution of a plan where Battery Park is a 25-acre (10 hectare public park located at the Battery the southern tip of the New York City borough of Manhattan, facing Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine Through his connections with influential New York patriots like Alexander McDougall and John Jay, he raised the New York Provincial Company of Artillery of sixty men in 1776, and was elected captain. The Province of New York (1664-1776 (Provincie New York resulted from the capture of the Dutch Republic colony of Provincie Nieuw-Nederland by the Alexander McDougall (about 1731&ndash1786 was an American seaman merchant a Sons of Liberty leader from New York City before and during the American Revolution John Jay (December 12 1745 – May 17 1829 was an American Politician, Statesman, revolutionary, Diplomat, a Supreme Court During the American Revolutionary War, the New York Provincial Company of Artillery was created by the New York Provincial Congress in 1776 to defend See " Captain " for other versions of this rank In the uniformed services of the United States, captain is a federal It took part in the campaign of 1776 around New York City, particularly at the Battle of White Plains; at the Battle of Trenton, it was stationed at the high point of town, the meeting of the present Warren and Broad Streets, to keep the Hessians pinned in the Trenton Barracks. The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of battles in the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir William Howe The City of New York Prelude At the end of September 1776 Washington's army held only a small position on the northern tip of Manhattan Island Background In the time before the battle American morale was low 
Hamilton was invited to become an aide to Nathaniel Greene and other generals; however, he declined these invitations in the hopes of obtaining a place on Washington's staff. Nathaniel Greene may refer to Nathanael Greene (1742&ndash1786 famous American Revolutionary War general Nathaniel Greene (journalist Hamilton did receive such an invitation, and joined as Washington's aide in March 1777 with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies Hamilton served for four years, in effect, as Washington's Chief of Staff. The chief of staff is the chief aide to the Commander of larger military Formations and Units It is sometimes the case that the chief of staff is more directly  He handled the "letters to Congress, state governors, and the most powerful generals in the Continental Army. " He drafted many of Washington's orders and letters at the latter's direction, and was eventually allowed to "issue orders from Washington over his own signature. " Hamilton was involved in a wide variety of high-level duties, including: intelligence, diplomacy, and negotiation with general officers as Washington's emissary. Military intelligence (abbreviated MI int Commonwealth, or intel Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states  The important duties with which he was entrusted attest to Washington's deep confidence in his abilities and character, then and afterward. At the points in their relationship where there was little personal attachment, there was still always a reciprocal confidence and respect.
During the war Hamilton became close friends with several fellow officers, including John Laurens and the Marquis de Lafayette. John Laurens ( October 28, 1754 - August 27, 1782) was an American Jonathan Katz argues that Hamilton's letters to Laurens reveal at least a homosocial attachment and perhaps, in coded allusions to Greek history and mythology, a relationship modern readers would label homosexual. Ron Chernow implies this in discussing Laurens; Thomas Flexner portrays a similar homosocial relationship with Lafayette. These biographers may well be over-reading the literary conventions of the late eighteenth century, an age of sentiment. The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of Sentiment 
In spring 1779, Hamilton asked his friend John Laurens to find him a wife in South Carolina: [Mitchell vol 1 p 199]:
"She must be young—handsome (I lay most stress upon a good shape) Sensible (a little learning will do) —well bred. . . chaste and tender (I am an enthusiast in my notions of fidelity and fondness); of some good nature—a great deal of generosity (she must neither love money nor scolding, for I dislike equally a termagant and an economist)—In politics, I am indifferent what side she may be of—I think I have arguments that will safely convert her to mine—As to religion a moderate stock will satisfy me—She must believe in God and hate a saint. But as to fortune, the larger stock of that the better. "
Hamilton found his own bride on December 14, 1780 when he married Elizabeth Schuyler, daughter of General Philip Schuyler, and thus joined one of the richest and most political families in the state of New York. Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 1780 ( MDCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Elizabeth Hamilton (née Schuyler ( August 9 1757 – November 9 1854) was the wife of Alexander Hamilton, the founder of the Philip John Schuyler ( November 20[[ 733]] - November 18[[ 804]] was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from The marriage took place at Schuyler Mansion in Albany, New York. Schuyler Mansion is a historic house at 32 Catherine Street in Albany New York, United States. Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County.
Hamilton grew extremely close to Eliza's sister, Angelica Church, who was married to John Barker Church, a Member of Parliament in Great Britain. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament.  Some historians argue that the two may have had an affair, although, due to extensive editing of much Hamilton-Church correspondence by Hamilton's later descendants, it is impossible to know for sure. 
While on Washington's staff, Hamilton had long been seeking a command position in an active combat situation. As the war drew ever nearer to a close, he knew that opportunities for military glory were slipping away. In February 1781, Hamilton was mildly reprimand by Washington and used it as the excuse for resigning his staff position. Immediately following his resignation from Washington's staff, Hamilton began to angle Washington and others incessantly for a field command. This continued until early July of 1781, when Hamilton submitted a letter to Washington with his commission enclosed, "thus tacitly threatening to resign if he didn't get his desired command. An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority "
On July 31, 1781, Washington relented, and Hamilton was given command of a New York light infantry battalion. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 1781 ( MDCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a Skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of Infantry, harassing In the planning for the assault on Yorktown, Hamilton was given command of three battalions which were to fight in conjunction with French troops in taking Redoubts #9 and #10 of the British fortifications at Yorktown. The Siege of Yorktown or Battle of Yorktown in 1781 was a decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington A battalion is a Military unit of around 500-1500 men usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel A redoubt is a Fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort usually relying on earthworks though others Hamilton and his battalions fought bravely and took Redoubt #10 with bayonets, as planned. A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a Knife - Dagger - or spike-shaped Weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle The French also fought bravely, took heavy casualties, and successfully took Redoubt #9. A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident injury or trauma. This action forced the British surrender at Yorktown of an entire army, effectively ending the British effort to reclaim the Thirteen Colonies. Surrender is when Soldiers, nations or other combatants stop fighting and become Prisoners of war, either as The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the 
While on Washington's staff, Hamilton became frustrated with the decentralized nature of the wartime Continental Congress, particularly its dependence upon the states for financial support: it had no power to collect taxes, or to demand money from the states; this had caused serious problems in Army supplies and pay. Congress had given up printing unsupported paper money back in September 1779; it obtained what money it had from subsidies from the King of France, aid requested from the several states (which were often unable or unwilling to contribute), and loans from Europe against these uncertain revenues.  After Yorktown, Hamilton resigned his commission. An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority He was elected to the Congress of the Confederation as a New York representative beginning on November 1782; he supported such Congressmen as superintendent of finance Robert Morris, his assistant Gouverneur Morris (no relation), James Wilson, and James Madison, who had already been trying to provide the Congress with an independent source of revenue it lacked under the Articles of Confederation. The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was the governing body of the United States of America from March 1, Robert Morris Jr (ˈmɒrɨs ( January 20, 1734 – May 9, 1806) was an American merchant and a signer to the United States Gouverneur Morris ( January 31, 1752 November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the James Wilson ( September 14, 1742 August 21, 1798) was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, twice elected to the Continental James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, also the Articles of Confederation was the governing Constitution of the alliance of thirteen independent and
An amendment to the Articles had been proposed by Thomas Burke, in February 1781, to give Congress the power to collect a 5% impost or duty on all imports, but this required ratification by all states; securing its passage as law proved impossible after it was rejected by Rhode Island in November 1782. Thomas Burke or Tom Burke is a name shared by the following individuals Public officials Thomas Burke (North Carolina (ca Madison joined Hamilton in convincing Congress to send a delegation to persuade Rhode Island to change its mind. Their report recommending the delegation also argued that the federal government needed not just some level of financial autonomy, but also the ability to make laws that supersede those of the individual states. Hamilton transmitted a letter arguing that Congress already had the power to tax, since it had the power to fix the sums due from the several states; but Virginia's rescission of its own ratification ended Rhode Island negotiations. 
While Hamilton was in Congress, discontented soldiers began to be a danger to the young United States. Most of the army was then posted at Newburgh, New York. The army was paying for much of their own supplies, and they had not been paid in eight months. Furthermore, the Continental officers had been promised, in May 1778, after Valley Forge, a pension of half their pay when they were discharged. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania was the site of the camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777&ndash1778 in the American Revolutionary War.  It was at this time that a group of officers organized under the leadership of General Henry Knox sent a delegation to lobby Congress, led by Capt. Henry Knox ( July 25, 1750 &ndash October 25, 1806) was an American Bookseller from Boston who became the chief Alexander MacDougall (see above). The officers had three demands: the Army's pay, their own pensions, and commutation of those pensions into a lump-sum payment.
Several Congressmen, including Hamilton and the Morrises, attempted to use this Newburgh conspiracy as leverage to secure independent support for funding for the federal government in Congress and from the states. The Newburgh Conspiracy was a plot hatched in 1783 near the end of the American Revolutionary War resulting from the fact that many of the officers and men of the  In Congressional debate, Hamilton suggested using the Army's claims to garner support from the states for the proposed national funding system.  The Morrises and Hamilton encouraged MacDougall and Knox to continue an aggressive approach, threatening unknown consequences if their demands were not granted, and resolving to defy civil authority, at least by not disbanding if the army were not satisfied; meanwhile, the Congressmen defeated proposals which would have resolved the crisis without establishing general federal taxation: that the states assume the debt to the army, or that an impost be established dedicated to the sole purpose of paying that debt. Hamilton urged Washington to use surrogates to press Congress for funding.  Washington wrote Hamilton back, and warned of the dangers of using the army as leverage to gain support for the national funding plan.  On March 15, Washington defused the Newburgh situation by giving a speech to the officers. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus,  Congress ordered the Army officially disbanded in April 1783. In the same month, Congress passed a new measure for a twenty-five year impost, which Hamilton voted against, and which again required the consent of all the states; it also approved a commutation of the officers' pensions to five years of full pay. Rhode Island again opposed these provisions, and Hamilton's robust assertions of national prerogatives in his previous letter offended many.  The Continental Congress was never able to secure full ratification for back pay, pensions, or their own independent sources of funding.
In June 1783, a different group of disgruntled soldiers from Lancaster, Pennsylvania sent Congress a petition demanding their back pay. When they began to march toward Philadelphia, Congress charged Hamilton and two others to intercept the mob.  Hamilton requested militia from Pennsylvania's Supreme Executive Council, but was turned down. Hamilton instructed Assistant Secretary of War William Jackson to intercept the men. Jackson was unsuccessful. The mob arrived in Philadelphia, and proceeded to harangue Congress for their pay. The President of Congress, John Dickinson, feared the Pennsylvania state militia was unreliable, and refused their help. Hamilton argued that Congress ought to adjourn to Princeton, New Jersey. Congress agreed, and relocated there. 
Frustrated with the weakness of the central government, Hamilton drafted a call to revise the Articles of Confederation while in Princeton. This resolution contained many features of the future U. S. Constitution, including a strong federal government with the ability to collect taxes and raise an army. It also included the separation of powers into the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches. 
Hamilton resigned from Congress, and in July, 1783, was admitted to the New York Bar after several months of self-directed education.  He soon began a law practice in New York City. The City of New York He specialized in defending Tories and British subjects, as in Rutgers v. In the political tradition of some English-speaking countries, the term Tory has referred to a variety of political parties and Creeds since it was Waddington, in which he defeated a claim for damages done to a brewery by the Englishmen who held it during the military occupation of New York. He pleaded that the Mayor's Court should interpret state law to be consistent with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which had ended the Revolutionary War. The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally 
In 1784, he founded the Bank of New York, now the oldest ongoing banking organization in the United States. The Bank of New York, abbrieviated BNY, was a global Financial services company that existed until its merger with the Mellon Financial Corporation Hamilton was one of the men who restored King's College as Columbia College, which had been suspended since the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and severely damaged during the War. History Columbia College was founded as King’s College by royal charter of King George II of England in the Background On March 17 1776 the British fleet retreated to Halifax Nova Scotia to refit after the end of the year-long Siege of Boston. His public career resumed when he attended the Annapolis Convention as a delegate in 1786. The Annapolis Convention was a meeting at Annapolis Maryland of 12 delegates from five states ( New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania While there, he drafted its resolution for a Constitutional convention, and in doing so brought his longtime desire to have a more powerful, more financially independent federal government one step closer to reality.
In 1787, Hamilton served as assemblyman from New York County in the New York State Legislature and was the first delegate chosen to the Constitutional Convention. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York The New York Legislature is the state legislature of the US state of New York. The Philadelphia Convention (now also known as the Constitutional Convention, the Federal Convention, or the " Grand Convention at Philadelphia In spite of the fact that Hamilton had been a leader in calling for a new Constitutional Convention, his direct influence at the Convention itself was quite limited. Governor George Clinton's faction in the New York legislature had chosen New York's other two delegates, John Lansing and Robert Yates, and both of them opposed Hamilton's goal of a strong national government. This page is for the US Vice President For others of that name see George Clinton. John Ten Eyck Lansing Jr ( January 30, 1754 Albany New York - vanished December 12, 1829 New York City) was an Robert Yates may refer to Robert Yates (NASCAR, NASCAR team owner Robert Yates Racing, the team he owns Thus, while the other two members of the New York delegation were present, they decided New York's vote; and when they left the convention in protest, Hamilton remained with no vote (two representatives were required for any state to cast a vote).
Early in the Convention he made a speech proposing what many considered a very monarchical government for the United States. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Though regarded as one of his most eloquent speeches, it had little effect upon the deliberations of the convention. He proposed, to have an elected President and elected Senators who would serve for life contingent upon "good behavior", and subject to removal for corruption or abuse. The Philadelphia Convention (now also known as the Constitutional Convention, the Federal Convention, or the " Grand Convention at Philadelphia Hamilton's plan attempted to incorporate the "liberties of a republic" while "guarding against both anarchy and tyranny" Yet, his plan was probably the least trusting in the wisdom of the people. The deliberations of the convention were intended to be secret, so as to promote a free and vigorous flow of ideas during the Convention. Yet, some notes were kept, and due to Hamilton's argument for lifelong terms, and his proposal of measures that seemed, to some contemporaries, too reminiscent of previous monarchist forms of government, Hamilton acquired the bad reputation in some circles of being a monarchist sympathizer.
During the convention, Hamilton constructed a draft for the Constitution on the basis of the convention debates that he never actually presented. This draft had most of the features of the actual Constitution, down to such details as the three-fifths clause. The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which In this draft, the Senate was to be elected in proportion to population, being two-fifths the size of the House, and the President and Senators were to be elected through complex multi-stage elections, in which chosen electors would elect smaller bodies of electors; they would hold office for life, but were removable for misconduct. The President would have an absolute veto. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. The Supreme Court was to have immediate jurisdiction over all law suits involving the United States, and State governors were to be appointed by the federal government. A supreme court, also called a court of last resort or high court, is in some Jurisdictions the highest judicial body within that jurisdiction's In law a lawsuit is a civil action brought before a Court in which the party commencing the action the Plaintiff, seeks a legal or equitable remedy 
At the end of the Convention, Hamilton was still not content with the final form of the Constitution, but signed off on it anyway as a vast improvement over the Articles of Confederation, and urged his fellow delegates to do so also.  Since the other two members of the New York delegation, Lansing and Yates, had already withdrawn, Hamilton is the only New York signatory to the United States Constitution. He then took a highly active part in the successful campaign for the document's ratification in New York (1788), which was a crucial step in its national ratification. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Hamilton recruited John Jay and James Madison to write a defense of the proposed Constitution, now known as The Federalist Papers, and made the largest contribution to that effort, writing 51 of 85 essays published (Madison wrote 29, Jay only five). The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution. Hamilton's essays and arguments were influential in New York State, and elsewhere, during the debates over ratification. The Federalist Papers are more often cited than any other primary source by jurists, lawyers, historians and political scientists as the major contemporary interpretation of the Constitution.
In 1788, Hamilton served yet another term in what proved to be the last time the Continental Congress met under the Articles of Confederation. The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, also the Articles of Confederation was the governing Constitution of the alliance of thirteen independent and
President George Washington appointed Hamilton as the first Secretary of the Treasury on September 11, 1789; he left office on the last day of January 1795; much of the structure of the Government of the United States was worked out in those five years, beginning with the structure and function of the Cabinet itself. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Forrest McDonald argues that Hamilton saw his office, like the British Chancellor of the Exchequer as that of a Prime Minister; Hamilton would oversee his colleagues under the elective reign of George Washington. Forrest McDonald (born January 7, 1927) is an American Historian who has written extensively on the early national period on Republicanism The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all Economic and Financial Washington did request Hamilton's advice and assistance on matters outside the purview of the Treasury Department. The United States Department of the Treasury is a Cabinet department and the Treasury of the United States government.
Within one year, Hamilton submitted five reports:
In the Report on Public Credit, the Secretary made a controversial proposal that would have the federal government assume state debts incurred during the Revolution. This would, in effect, give the federal government much more power by placing the country's most serious financial obligation in the hands of the federal, rather than the state governments.
The primary criticism of the plan was spearheaded by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Representative James Madison. The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding Some states, like Jefferson's Virginia, had paid almost half of their debts, and that their taxpayers should not be assessed again to bail out the less provident. They further argued that the plan passed beyond the scope of the new Constitutional government.
Madison objected to Hamilton's proposal to cut the rate of interest and postpone payments on federal debt, as not being payment in full; he also objected to the speculative profits being made. Much of the national debt had been bonds issued to Continental veterans, in place of wages which the Continental Congress did not have the money to pay; as these continued to go unpaid, many of these bonds had been pawned for a small fraction of their value. Madison proposed to pay in full, but to divide payment between the original recipient and the present possessor. Others, like Samuel Livermore of New Hampshire, wished to curb speculation, and save taxation, by paying only part of the bond. This article is about the New Hampshire lawyer and politician for the New Orleans lawyer and legal scholar see Samuel Livermore (legal writer. The disagreements between Madison and Hamilton extended to other proposals Hamilton made to Congress, and drew in Jefferson when he returned from France. Hamilton's supporters became known as Federalists and Jefferson's as Republicans. As Madison put it:
Hamilton eventually secured passage of his assumption plan by striking a deal with Jefferson and Madison. According to the terms, Hamilton was to use his influence to place the permanent national capital on the Potomac River, and Jefferson and Madison were to encourage their friends to back Hamilton's assumption plan. The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States. In the end, Hamilton's assumption, together with his proposals for funding the debt, overcame legislative opposition and narrowly passed the House on July 26, 1790. Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
Hamilton helped found the United States Mint; the first national bank; a "System of Cutters", forming the Revenue Cutter Service, now known as the United States Coast Guard, and an elaborate system of duties, tariffs, and excises. The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its Trade and Commerce. The First Bank of the United States was a Bank chartered by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791. The United States Revenue Cutter Service was established by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1790 as an armed Maritime law enforcement The complete Hamiltonian program replaced the chaotic financial system of the confederation era, in five years, with a modern apparatus which gave the new government financial stability, and gave investors sufficient confidence to invest in government bonds.
One of the principal sources of revenue Hamilton prevailed upon Congress to approve was an excise tax on whiskey. Excise or Excise tax (sometimes called an excise duty) is a type of Tax charged on goods produced within the country (as opposed to Customs duties Whisky (uisge-beatha or whiskey (uisce beatha or fuisce) refers to a broad category of Alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented Strong opposition to the whiskey tax by cottage producers in remote, rural regions erupted into the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794; in Western Pennsylvania and western Virginia, whiskey was commonly made (and used as a form of currency) by most of the community. The putting-out system was a means of subcontracting work It was also known as the workshop system. The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the Western Pennsylvania consists of the western third of the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state In response to the rebellion—believing compliance with the laws was vital to the establishment of federal authority—he accompanied to the rebellion's site President Washington, General Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, and more federal troops than were ever assembled in one place during the War for Independence. Henry Lee III called "Light Horse Harry", ( January 29 1756 – March 25 1818) was a Cavalry officer in This overwhelming display of force intimidated the leaders of the insurrection, ending the rebellion virtually without bloodshed. 
Hamilton's next report was his "Report on Manufactures. " Congress shelved the report without much debate, except for Madison's objection to Hamilton's formulation of the General Welfare clause, which Hamilton construed liberally as a legal basis for his extensive programs. It has been often quoted by protectionists since. For the protectionist Australian political party from the 1880s to 1909 see Protectionist Party 
In 1791, while still Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton worked in a private capacity to help found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures, a private corporation that would use the power of the falls to operate mills. The Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures ( SU Although the company did not succeed in its original purpose, it leased the land around the falls to other mill ventures and continued to operate for over a century and a half.
During Hamilton's tenure as Treasury Secretary, political factions began to emerge. A Congressional caucus, led by James Madison and William Giles, began as an opposition group to Hamilton's financial programs; Jefferson joined this group when he returned from France in October. William Giles may refer to Bill Giles, meteorologist Bill Giles (baseball Bill Giles (football coach Hamilton and his allies began to call themselves Federalists. The opposition group, now referred to as the Democratic-Republican Party, was then known by several names, including Republicans, republicans, Jeffersonians, and Democrats.
The Federalists assembled a nationwide coalition in order to garner support for the Administration, including the expansive financial programs Hamilton had made Administration policy; the Democratic-Republicans built their own national coalition to oppose these Federalist programs. Both sides were gained the support of local political factions; each side developed its own partisan newspapers. Noah Webster, John Fenno, and eventually William Cobbett were prominent editors for the Federalists. Noah Webster (October 16 1758 &ndash May 28 1843 was an American Lexicographer, textbook author Spelling reformer word enthusiast and editor John Fenno (Aug 12 1751 ( OS) - Sept 14 1798 was a Federalist Party editor and major figure in the History of American newspapers. William Cobbett ( 9 March 1763 &ndash 18 June 1835) was an English political pamphleter Farmer and prolific Benjamin Franklin Bache and Philip Freneau edited major publications for the Democratic-Republicans. Benjamin Franklin Bache (1801-1881 a great-grandson of the Revolutionary War statesman and author Benjamin Franklin, was a surgeon in the United States Navy before and during Newspapers of both parties were characterized by frequent personal attacks and information of questionable veracity.
In 1801, Hamilton established a daily newspaper, the New-York Evening Post under editor William Coleman. William Coleman may refer to William Coffin Coleman (1870 - 1957 US businessman and founder of the Coleman Company William D It is the oldest continually published daily newspaper in the U. S. , and is now known as the New York Post. The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually 
When France and England went to war in January 1793, all four members of the Cabinet were consulted on what to do (they unanimously agreed to remain neutral); and both Hamilton and Jefferson were major architects in working out the specific provisions which maintained and enforced that neutrality. 
During Hamilton's last year in office, policy toward Britain became a major point of contention between the two parties. Hamilton and the Federalists wished for more trade with Britain, which would provide more revenue from tariffs; the Democratic Republicans preferred an embargo to compel England to respect the rights of the United States and give up the forts which they still held on American soil, contrary to the Treaty of Paris. The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally 
In order to avoid war, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay, late in 1794, to negotiate with the British; Hamilton helped to draw up his instructions. John Jay (December 12 1745 – May 17 1829 was an American Politician, Statesman, revolutionary, Diplomat, a Supreme Court The result was Jay's Treaty, which, as the State Department says, "addressed few U. The Jay Treaty, also known as the Treaty of London of 1794, between the United States and Great Britain averted war solved many issues left over from S. interests, and ultimately granted Britain additional rights. " The treaty was extremely unpopular, and the Democratic-Republicans opposed it for its failure to redress previous grievances, and for its failure to address British violations of American neutrality during the war.
Several European nations had formed a League of Armed Neutrality against incursions on their neutral rights; the Cabinet was also consulted on whether we should join it, and had decided not to, but had kept that decision secret. League of Armed Neutrality refers to one of two alliances of minor European Naval powers ( 1780 - 1783 and 1800 - 1801 Jay, in London, threatened to join the League if our rights were not respected; but this was ignored because Hamilton had revealed this decision in private to George Hammond, the British Minister to the United States, without telling Jay—or anyone else; it was unknown until Hammond's dispatches were read in the 1920s. This "amazing revelation" may have had limited effect on the negotiations; Jay did threaten to join the League at one point, but the British had other reasons not to view the League as a serious threat. 
In 1791, Hamilton became sexually involved in an affair with Maria Reynolds that badly damaged his reputation. Maria Reynolds (born Maria Lewis, 1768 – 1832? is best known as the mistress of Alexander Hamilton and wife of James Reynolds, and she played a central Reynolds' husband, James, blackmailed Hamilton for money, threatening to inform Hamilton's wife Elizabeth. Blackmail is the crime of threatening to reveal substantially true information about a person to the public a family member or associates unless a demand made upon the When James Reynolds was arrested for counterfeiting, he contacted several prominent members of the Democratic-Republican Party, most notably James Monroe and Aaron Burr, touting that he could expose a top level official for corruption. James Monroe (April 28 1758 – July 4 1831 was the fifth President of the United States (1817–1825 This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836 the US politician When they visited Hamilton with their suspicions (expecting that James Reynolds could implicate Hamilton in an abuse of his position in Washington's Cabinet), Hamilton insisted he was innocent of any misconduct in public office and admitted to the affair with Maria Reynolds. When rumors began spreading, Hamilton published a confession of his affair, shocking his family and supporters by not merely confessing but also by narrating the affair in detail, thus injuring Hamilton's reputation for the rest of his life.
At first Hamilton accused Monroe of making his affair public, and challenged him to a duel. Aaron Burr stepped in and persuaded Hamilton that Monroe was innocent of the accusation. His well-known vitriolic temper led Hamilton to challenge several others to duels in his career.
Hamilton resigned as Secretary of the Treasury while this affair was still being investigated; he submitted his resignation on December 1, 1794, effective on January 31, 1795. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a 
Hamilton's resignation as Secretary of the Treasury in 1795 did not remove him from public life. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until With the resumption of his law practice, he remained close to Washington as an adviser and friend. Hamilton influenced Washington in the composition of his Farewell Address; Washington and members of his Cabinet often consulted with him. George Washington's Farewell Address was written to the people of the United States at the end of his second term as President of the United States
In the election of 1796, under the Constitution as it stood then, each of the presidential Electors had two votes, which they were to cast for different men. An electoral college is a set of many electors who are empowered to elect a candidate to a particular Office. The one with most votes to be President, the second Vice President. This system was not designed for parties, which had been thought disreputable and factious. The Federalists planned to deal with this by having all their Electors vote for John Adams, the Vice-President, and all but a few for Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina, then on his way home from a successful embassage to Spain. John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. Thomas Pinckney ( October 23, 1750 November 2, 1828) was an early American statesman diplomat and veteran of both the American Revolutionary South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. Jefferson chose Aaron Burr as his vice presidential running mate.
Hamilton, however, disliked Adams and saw an opportunity. He urged all the Northern Electors to vote for Adams and Pinckney, lest Jefferson get in. He cooperated with Edward Rutledge to have South Carolina's Electors vote for Jefferson and Pinckney. Edward Rutledge (November 23 1749 January 23 1800 South Carolina statesman was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and later governor of South Carolina If all this worked, Pinckney would have more votes than Adams. Pinckney would be President, and Adams would remain Vice President. It did not. The Federalists found out about it (even the French minister to the United States knew), and Northern Federalists voted for Adams but not for Pinckney, in sufficient numbers that Pinckney came in third and Jefferson became Vice President.  Adams resented this, since he rightly felt his service to the nation was much more extensive than Pinckney's.  Adams also resented Hamilton's influence with Washington and considered him overambitious and scandalous in his private life; Hamilton compared Adams unfavorably with Washington and thought him too emotionally unstable to be President.
During the Quasi-War of 1798–1800, and with Washington's strong endorsement, Adams reluctantly appointed Hamilton a major general of the army (essentially placing him in command since Washington could not leave Mt. The Quasi-War was an Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800 Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries Vernon). If full scale war broke out with France, Hamilton argued that the army should conquer the North American colonies of France's ally, Spain, bordering the United States. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
To fund this army, Hamilton had been writing incessantly to Oliver Wolcott, his successor at the Treasury, William Loughton Smith, of the House Ways and Means Committee, and Senator Theodore Sedgwick, of Massachusetts. Oliver Wolcott ( December 1, 1726 December 1, 1797) was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence William Loughton Smith (1758&ndash December 19, 1812) was an American lawyer from Charleston South Carolina. Theodore Sedgwick ( May 9, 1746 - January 24, 1813) a Delegate, a Representative, and a United States Senator He directed them to pass a direct tax to fund the war. Smith was to resign in July of 1797, as Hamilton scolded him for slowness, and told Wolcott to tax houses instead of land. 
The eventual program included a Stamp Act, like that of the British before the Revolution, and an array of taxes on land, houses, and slaves, calculated at different rates in different states, and requiring difficult and intricate assessment of houses. A stamp act is a law enacted by a government that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents This provoked resistance in south-eastern Pennsylania, led primarily by men, such as John Fries, who had marched with Washington against the Whiskey Rebellion. John Fries's Rebellion, also called the House Tax Rebellion, the Home Tax Rebellion or the Hot-Water Rebellion because hot water was used to drive 
Hamilton aided in all areas of the Army's development, and officially served as the Senior Officer of the United States Army as a Major General from December 14, 1799 to June 15, 1800. Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1903 there was generally a single senior-most officer in the army Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 1799 ( MDCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. The army was to guard against invasion from France. Hamilton also suggested that its strategy should involve marching into the possessions of Spain, then allied with France, and potentially even taking Louisiana and Mexico. Louisiana Territory was a historic Organized territory of the United States from July 4, 1805 until December 11, 1812. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. His correspondence further suggests that when he returned in military glory, he dreamed of setting up a properly energetic government, without any Jeffersonians. Adams, however, derailed all plans for war by opening negotiations with France.  Adams had also held it right to retain Washington's cabinet, except for cause; he found, in 1800 (after Washington's death), that they were obeying Hamilton rather than himself and fired several of them. 
In the 1800 election, Hamilton worked to defeat not only the rival Democratic-Republican candidates, but also his party's own nominee, John Adams. In New York, which Burr had won for Jefferson in May, Hamilton proposed a rerun of the election under different rules with carefully drawn districts, each choosing an Elector, so that the Federalists would split the electoral vote of New York. John Jay, a Federalist, who had given up the Supreme Court to be Governor of New York, wrote on the back of the letter the words "Proposing a measure for party purposes which it would not become me to adopt", and declined to reply. 
John Adams was running this time with Pinckney's elder brother Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Charles Cotesworth (CC Pinckney ( February 25, 1746 August 16, 1825) was an early American Statesman and a constitutional delegate On the other hand, Hamilton toured New England, again urging Northern Electors to hold firm for this Pinckney, in the renewed hope to make Pinckney President; and he again intrigued in South Carolina. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the This time, the important reaction was from the Jeffersonian Electors, all of whom voted both for Jefferson and Burr to ensure that no such deal would result in electing a Federalist. (Burr had received only one vote from Virginia in 1796. )
In September, Hamilton wrote a pamphlet (Letter from Alexander Hamilton, Concerning the Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq. President of the United States) which was highly critical of Adams, although it closed with a tepid endorsement. He mailed this to two hundred leading Federalists; when a copy fell into Democratic-Republican hands, they printed it. This hurt Adams's 1800 reelection campaign and split the Federalist Party, virtually assuring the victory of the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Jefferson, in the election of 1800, and destroyed Hamilton's position among the Federalists. In the United States Presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800” Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated President John Adams 
On the Federalist side, Governor Arthur Fenner of Rhode Island denounced these "jockeying tricks" to make Pinckney President, and one Rhode Island Elector voted for Adams and Jay. Arthur Fenner ( December 10, 1745 – October 15, 1805) served as the governor of Rhode Island from 1790 until his death in 1805 and The result was that Jefferson and Burr tied for first and second; and Pinckney came in fourth. 
So Jefferson had beaten Adams, but both he and his running mate, Aaron Burr, received 73 votes in the Electoral College. With Jefferson and Burr tied, the United States House of Representatives had to choose between the two men. (As a result of this election, the Twelfth Amendment was proposed and ratified, adopting the method under which presidential elections are held today. The Twelfth Amendment ( Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure by which the President and Vice President are ) Several Federalists who opposed Jefferson supported Burr, but Hamilton reluctantly threw his weight behind Jefferson, causing one Federalist congressman to abstain from voting after 36 tied ballots. This ensured that Jefferson was elected President rather than Burr. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Even though Hamilton did not like Jefferson and disagreed with him on many issues, he was quoted as saying, "At least Jefferson was honest. " Burr then became Vice President of the United States. The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death When it became clear that he would not be asked to run again with Jefferson, Burr sought the New York governorship in 1804 with Federalist support, against the Jeffersonian Morgan Lewis, but was defeated by forces including Hamilton. People named Morgan Lewis include Morgan Lewis (governor, a Governor of New York State U 
Soon after the gubernatorial election in New York—in which Morgan Lewis, greatly assisted by Hamilton, defeated Aaron Burr—the Albany Register published Charles D. Morgan Lewis ( October 16, 1754 - April 7, 1844) was an American lawyer politician and military commander This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836 the US politician Cooper's letter, citing Hamilton's opposition to Burr and alleging that Hamilton expressed "a still more despicable opinion" of the vice president at an upstate New York dinner party.  Burr, sensing an attack on his honor, and surely still stung by the political defeat, demanded an apology. Hamilton refused on the grounds that he could not recall the instance.
Following an exchange of three testy letters, and despite the attempts of friends to avert a confrontation, a duel was nevertheless scheduled for July 11, 1804, along the west bank of the Hudson River on a rocky ledge in Weehawken, New Jersey, a common dueling site at which, three years earlier, Hamilton's eldest son, Philip, had been killed. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami Weehawken is a township in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.
At dawn, the duel began, and Vice President Aaron Burr shot Hamilton. Hamilton's shot broke a tree branch directly above Burr's head. A letter that he wrote the night before the duel states, "I have resolved, if our interview [duel] is conducted in the usual manner, and it pleases God to give me the opportunity, to reserve and throw away my first fire, and I have thoughts even of reserving my second fire", which asserts an intention to miss Burr. The circumstances of the duel, and Hamilton's actual intentions, are still disputed. Neither of the seconds, Pendleton or Van Ness, could determine who fired first. Soon after, they measured and triangulated the shooting (both men were the same height), but could not determine from which angle Hamilton fired. Burr's shot, however, hit Hamilton in the lower abdomen above the right hip. The bullet ricocheted off Hamilton's second or third false rib, fracturing it and caused considerable damage to his internal organs, particularly his liver and diaphragm before becoming lodged in his first or second lumbar vertebra. The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals For other types of diaphragm see Diaphragm. In the Anatomy of Mammals the thoracic diaphragm is a sheet of Muscle The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the Vertebral column, and are characterized by the absence of the Foramen transversarium within
If a duelist decided not to aim at his opponent there was a well-known procedure, available to everyone involved, for doing so. Hamilton did not follow this procedure (If so, Burr might have followed suit, and death may have been avoided). It was a matter of honor among gentlemen to follow these rules. Because of the high incidence of septicemia and death resulting from torso wounds, a high percentage of duels employed this procedure of throwing away fire. Sepsis is a serious medical condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a Systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS caused  Years later, when told that Hamilton may have misled him at the duel, the ever-laconic Burr replied, "Contemptible, if true. "
Hamilton was ferried back to New York. After final visits from his family and friends and considerable suffering, Hamilton died on the following afternoon, July 12, 1804. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Gouverneur Morris, a political ally of Hamilton's, gave the eulogy at his funeral and secretly established a fund to support his widow and children. Gouverneur Morris ( January 31, 1752 November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Hamilton was buried in the Trinity Churchyard Cemetery in Manhattan. Trinity Church Cemetery consists of three separate burial grounds associated with Trinity Church in Manhattan, New York, USA. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York
From the start, Hamilton set a precedent as a Cabinet member by formulating federal programs, writing them in the form of reports, pushing for their approval by appearing in person to argue them on the floor of the United States Congress, and then implementing them. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Hamilton and the other Cabinet members were vital to Washington, as there was no president before him (under the Constitution) to set precedents for him to follow in national situations such as seditions, foreign affairs, etc.
Another of Hamilton's legacies was his pro-federal interpretation of the U. S. Constitution. Though the Constitution was drafted in a way that was somewhat ambiguous as to the balance of power between national and state governments, Hamilton consistently took the side of greater federal power at the expense of states. Thus, as Secretary of the Treasury, he established—against the intense opposition of Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson—the country's first national bank. Hamilton justified the creation of this bank, and other increased federal powers, on Congress's constitutional powers to issue currency, to regulate interstate commerce, and anything else that would be "necessary and proper. " Jefferson, on the other hand, took a stricter view of the Constitution: parsing the text carefully, he found no specific authorization for a national bank. This controversy was eventually settled by the Supreme Court of the United States in McCulloch v. Maryland, which in essence adopted Hamilton's view, granting the federal government broad freedom to select the best means to execute its constitutionally enumerated powers, specifically the doctrine of implied powers. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. McCulloch v Maryland,, was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. "Implied powers"are those powers authorized by a legal document which while not stated are deemed to be implied by powers expressly stated
Hamilton's policies as Secretary of the Treasury have had an immeasurable effect on the United States Government and still continue to influence it. In 1962 during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the U.S. Navy was still using inter-ship communication protocols written by Hamilton for the original U. The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba during the Cold War. S. Coast Guard. His constitutional interpretation, specifically of the necessary-and-proper clause, set precedents for federal authority that are still used by the courts and are considered an authority on constitutional interpretation. The Necessary-and-Proper Clause (also known as the Elastic Clause, the Basket Clause, the Coefficient Clause, and the Sweeping Clause) is the The prominent French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand once said "I consider Napoleon, Fox, and Hamilton the three greatest men of our epoch, and if I were forced to decide between the three, I would give without hesitation the first place to Hamilton. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord 1st Sovereign Prince of Beneventum (2 February 1754 17 May 1838 the Prince of Diplomats, was a French He divined Europe. "
Opinions of Hamilton have run the gamut: both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson viewed him as unprincipled and dangerously aristocratic. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations He was sufficiently admired by the time of the American Civil War that his portrait began to appear on US currency, and now appears on the $10 bill; after the Civil War, a time of high tariffs, he was highly praised. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The United States ten-dollar bill ($10 is a denomination of United States currency.  Herbert Croly, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Theodore Roosevelt directed attention to him at the end of the nineteenth century in the interest of an active federal government, whether or not supported by tariffs. Herbert David Croly ( January 23, 1869 - May 17, 1930) was an American liberal political Author. This article is about Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924 a US politician in the early twentieth century Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T Several 19th and 20th Century Republicans entered politics by writing laudatory biographies of Hamilton. 
Hamilton's portrait began to appear during the American Civil War on the $2, $5, $10, and $50 notes. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South His face continues to appear on the front of the ten dollar bill. Hamilton also appears on the $500 Series EE Savings Bond. The source of the face on the $10 bill is John Trumbull's 1805 portrait of Hamilton that belongs to the portrait collection of New York City Hall. John Trumbull ( June 6, 1756 &ndash November 10, 1843) was an American artist during the period of the American Revolutionary New York City Hall is located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center section of Lower Manhattan between Broadway, Park Row and 
On the south side of the Treasury Building in Washington, D.C. is a statue of Hamilton. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
Hamilton's upper Manhattan home is preserved as Hamilton Grange National Memorial, and currently includes a statue at the entrance. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York Hamilton Grange National Memorial is a National Park Service site in St The historic structure, already removed from its original location many years ago, is being moved again - from its current position sandwiched between two masonry buildings, to a spot in a nearby park on land that was once part of the Hamilton estate.  It is expected to re-open to the public in 2009.
Multiple towns throughout the United States have been named after Hamilton.
Hamilton's widow, Elizabeth (known as Eliza or Betsy), survived him for fifty years, until 1854; Hamilton had referred to her as "best of wives and best of women. " An extremely religious woman, Eliza spent much of her life working to help widows and orphans. After Hamilton's death, Eliza sold the country house, the Grange she and Hamilton built together 1800 to 1802; and she co-founded New York's first private orphanage, the New York Orphan Asylum Society. Hamilton Grange National Memorial is a National Park Service site in St Despite the Reynolds affair, Alexander and Eliza were very close, and as a widow she always strove to guard his reputation and enhance his standing in American history.
Hamilton and Elizabeth had eight children, including two named Phillip. The elder Philip, Hamilton's first child (born January 22, 1782), was killed in 1801 in a duel with George I. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1782 ( MDCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Eacker, whom he had publicly insulted in a Manhattan theater. The second Philip, Hamilton's last child, born on June 2, 1802, after the first Philip was killed. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Their remaining children's names were: Angelica, born September 25, 1784; Alexander, born May 16, 1796; James Alexander (April 14, 1788 - September 1878); John Church, born August 22, 1792; William Stephen, born August 4, 1797; and Eliza, born November 26, 1799. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Year 1784 ( MDCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1796 ( MDCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 70 - The Destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 43 BC - The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian" later "Caesar Augustus" Year 1799 ( MDCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
Modern scholarly views on Hamilton's attitude to slavery have been described as viewing Hamilton as anything from a "steadfast abolitionist" to a "hypocrite"; one middle view is that he was deeply ambivalent. 
Hamilton's first polemic against King George's ministers contains a paragraph which speaks of the evils which "slavery" to the British would bring upon the Americans. One biographer sees this as an attack on actual slavery; such hostility was quite common in 1776. 
During the Revolutionary War, there was a series of proposals to arm slaves, free them, and compensate their masters.  Freeing any enlisted slaves had also become customary by then both for the British, who did not compensate their American masters, and for the Continental Army; some states were to require it before the end of the war.  In 1779, Hamilton's friend John Laurens suggested such a unit be formed under his command, to relieve besieged Charleston, South Carolina; Hamilton wrote a letter to the Continental Congress to create up to four battalions of slaves for combat duty, and free them. John Laurens ( October 28, 1754 - August 27, 1782) was an American Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. Congress recommended that South Carolina (and Georgia) acquire up to three thousand slaves, if they saw fit; they did not, even though the South Carolina governor and Congressional delegation had supported the plan in Philadelphia. 
Hamilton argued that blacks' natural faculties were as good as those of free whites, and he forestalled objections by citing Frederick the Great and others as praising obedience and lack of cultivation in soldiers; he also argued that if the Americans did not do this, the British would (as they had elsewhere). Frederick II (Friedrich II January 24 1712 August 17 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740&ndash1786 from the One of his biographers has cited this incident as evidence that Hamilton and Laurens saw the Revolution and the struggle against slavery as inseparable.  Hamilton later attacked his political opponents as demanding freedom for themselves and refusing to allow it to blacks. 
In January 1785, he attended the second meeting of the New York Manumission Society (NYMS). The New York Manumission Society was an early American organization founded in 1785 to promote the abolition of the Slavery of African descendants within John Jay was president and Hamilton was secretary; he later became president. John Jay (December 12 1745 – May 17 1829 was an American Politician, Statesman, revolutionary, Diplomat, a Supreme Court  He was also a member of the committee of the society which put a bill through the New York Legislature banning the export of slaves from New York; three months later, Hamilton returned a fugitive slave to Henry Laurens of South Carolina. Henry Laurens (March 6 1724 December 8 1792 was an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary 
Hamilton never supported forced emigration for freed slaves; it has been argued from this that he would be comfortable with a multiracial society, and this distinguished him from his contemporaries.  In international affairs, he supported Toussaint L'Ouverture's black government in Haiti after the revolt that overthrew French control, as he had supported aid to the slaveowners in 1791—both measures hurt France. François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole:  He may have owned household slaves himself (the evidence for this is indirect; one biographer interprets it as referring to paid employees, and he did buy and sell them on behalf of others. He supported a gag rule to keep divisive discussions of slavery out of Congress, and he supported the compromise by which the United States could not abolish the slave trade for twenty years. A gag rule is a rule that limits or forbids the raising consideration or discussion of a particular topic by members of a legislative or decision-making body  When the Quakers of New York petitioned the First Congress (under the Constitution) for the abolition of the slave trade, and Benjamin Franklin and the Pennsylvania Abolition Society petitioned for the abolition of slavery, the NYMS did not act. The First United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government consisting of the United States Senate and the 
Alexander Hamilton is sometimes considered the "patron-saint" of the American School of economic philosophy that, according to one historian, dominated economic policy after 1861. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members See also American System (economic plan. The American School, also known as " National System " represents three different yet  He firmly supported government intervention in favor of business, after the manner of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, as early as the fall of 1781. Jean-Baptiste Colbert ( August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under 
Hamilton opposed the British ideas of free trade which he believed skewed benefits to colonial/imperial powers, in favor of U. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions S. protectionism which he believed would help develop the fledgling nation's emerging economy. For the protectionist Australian political party from the 1880s to 1909 see Protectionist Party Henry C. Carey was inspired by his writings. Henry Charles Carey ( December 15, 1793 - October 13, 1879) a leading 19th century Economist of the American School Some say he influenced the ideas and work of German Friedrich List. Friedrich List ( August 6, 1789 – November 30, 1846) was a leading 19th Century German and American Economist who developed
In his early life, he was an orthodox and conventional, though not deeply pious, Presbyterian. From 1777 to 1792, he appears to have been completely indifferent, and made jokes about God at the Constitutional Convention. During the French Revolution, he had an "opportunistic religiosity," using Christianity for political ends and insisting that Christianity and Jefferson's democracy were incompatible. After his misfortunes of 1801, he asserted the truth of the Christian revelation. He proposed a Christian Constitutional Society in 1802, to take hold of "some strong feeling of the mind" to elect "fit men" to office; but Hamilton now wrote also of "Christian welfare societies" for the poor. He was not a member of any denomination, but led his family in the Episcopal service the Sunday before the duel. After he was shot, Hamilton requested communion first from Benjamin Moore, the Episcopal Bishop of New York, who initially declined to administer the Sacrament chiefly because he did not wish to sanction the practice of dueling. Benjamin Moore (1748 &ndash 1816 was the second Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of New York. The Episcopal Diocese of New York is a Diocese of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, encompassing the Boroughs of Manhattan Hamilton then requested communion from Presbyterian pastor John Mason, who declined on the grounds that Presbyterians did not reserve the Sacrament. John Mason may refer to John Mason (announcer, sports announcer for the Detroit Pistons basketball team John Mason (artist (b In Christian practice during the Liturgy of the Eucharist the elements of Bread and Wine become the Body and Blood After Hamilton spoke of his belief in God's mercy, and of his desire to renounce dueling, Bishop Moore reversed his decision, and administered communion to Hamilton. 
Alexander Hamilton served as one of the first trustees of the Hamilton-Oneida Academy when the school opened in 1793. Hamilton College is a private independent liberal arts college located in Clinton, New York. When the academy received a college charter in 1812 the school was formally renamed Hamilton College. Hamilton College is a private independent liberal arts college located in Clinton, New York. There is a prominent statue of Alexander Hamilton in front of the school's chapel (commonly referred to as the "Al-Ham" statue) and the Burke Library has an extensive collection of Hamilton's personal documents.
Columbia College, Hamilton's alma mater, whose students formed his militia artillery company and fired some of the first shots against the British, has official memorials to Hamilton. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. The college's main classroom building for the humanities is Hamilton Hall, and a large statue of Hamilton stands in front of it. The university press has published his complete works in a multivolume letterpress edition. Letterpress printing is a term for Printing text with Movable type, in which the raised surface of the type is Inked and then pressed against a smooth
The main administration building of the Coast Guard Academy is named Hamilton Hall to commemorate Hamilton's creation of the United States Revenue Cutter Service, one of the entities that was combined to form the United States Coast Guard. The United States Coast Guard Academy ( USCGA) is the Military academy of the United States Coast Guard. The United States Revenue Cutter Service was established by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1790 as an armed Maritime law enforcement
|United States Secretary of the Treasury|
Oliver Wolcott, Jr.
|Senior Officer of the United States Army|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Founding Fathers of the United States|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 11, 1755 or 1757|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Nevis, Caribbean|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 12, 1804|
|PLACE OF DEATH||New York City, New York, United States|