Born Alessandro Volta Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta(1745-1827) February 18, 1745 Como, Duchy of Milan March 5, 1827 (aged 82)Como, Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Physicist Invention of the electric cell (battery= two or more cells

Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (February 18, 1745March 5, 1827) was a Lombard [1][2] physicist known especially for the development of the first electric cell in 1800. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Year 1745 ( MDCCXLV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Como is a City in Lombardy, Italy, north of Milan. Situated at the southern tip of the south-west arm of Lake Como, it The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1394 to 1797 Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Como is a City in Lombardy, Italy, north of Milan. Situated at the southern tip of the south-west arm of Lake Como, it The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto Lombardo-Venezianisches Königreich was a kingdom in northern Italy, and part of the Austrian Empire. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Year 1745 ( MDCCXLV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy

## Life

Alessandro Volta, a Lombard [1][2] physicist, is known best for his pioneering work in electricity. Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Volta was born in Como and educated in the public schools there. Como is a City in Lombardy, Italy, north of Milan. Situated at the southern tip of the south-west arm of Lake Como, it In 1775 he became professor of physics at the Royal School in Como; in the following year, he perfected the electrophorus, an instrument that produced charges of static electricity. An electrophorus is a capacitive generator used to produce Electrostatic charge via the process of Electrostatic induction.

In 1776-77 he applied himself to chemistry, studying atmospheric electricity and devising experiments such as the ignition of gases by an electric spark in a closed vessel. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties In 1779 he became professor of physics at the University of Pavia, a chair he occupied for 25 years. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. The University of Pavia ( Italian: Università degli Studi di Pavia, UNIPV is a university located in Pavia, Lombardy, Italy. By 1800 he had developed the so-called voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery, which produced a steady stream of electricity. Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday.

In honor of his work in the field of electricity, Napoleon made him a count in 1810. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. A museum in Como, the Voltian Temple, has been erected in his honor and exhibits some of the original instruments he used to conduct experiments. Near Lake Como stands the Villa Olmo, which houses the Voltian Foundation, an organization which promotes scientific activities. Lake Como ( Lago di Como in Italian, also known as Lario; Lach de Comm in Insubric; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a Volta carried out his juvenile studies and made his first inventions in Como.

## Inventions and discoveries

In 1775, Volta improved and popularized the electrophorus, a device that produces a static electric charge. An electrophorus is a capacitive generator used to produce Electrostatic charge via the process of Electrostatic induction. His promotion of it was so extensive that he is often credited with its invention, although it had actually been invented in 1764 by Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke[3] In 1776-77 he studied the chemistry of gases, discovered methane, and devised experiments such as the ignition of gases by an electric spark in a closed vessel. Johan Carl Wilcke was a Swedish Physicist. Wilcke was born in Wismar, son of a clergyman who in 1739 was appointed second pastor of the German Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Volta also studied what we now call capacitance, developing separate means to study both electrical potential V and charge Q, and discovering that for a given object they are proportional. This may be called Volta's Law of Capacitance, and likely for this work the unit of electrical potential has been named the volt. Capacitance is a measure of the amount of Electric charge stored (or separated for a given Electric potential. The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force. In 1779 he became professor of experimental physics at the University of Pavia, a chair he occupied for almost 40 years. Pavia (pronounced Pavìa,) the ancient Ticinum, is a town and Comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south In 1794, Volta married the daughter of Count Ludovico Peregrini, Teresa, with whom he raised three sons.

Around 1791 he began to study the "animal electricity" noted by Galvani when two different metals were connected in series with the frog's leg and to one another. Luigi Galvani was an Italian Physician and Physicist who lived and died in Bologna. He realized that the frog's leg served as both a conductor of electricity (we would now call it an electrolyte) and as a detector of electricity. An electrolyte is any substance containing free Ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium He replaced the frog's leg by brine-soaked paper, and detected the flow of electricity by other means familiar to him from his previous studies of electricity. In this way he discovered the electrochemical series, and the law that the electromotive force (emf) of a galvanic cell, consisting of a pair of metal electrodes separated by electrolyte, is the difference of their two electrode potentials. The Standard electrode potentials are Electrode potentials of Half cells at equilibrium Electromotive force ( emf, \mathcal{E} is a term used to characterize electrical devices such as Voltaic cells thermoelectric devices electrical The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two different metals connected by a Salt bridge or a porous disk between the individual half-cells An electrode is an Electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e That is, if the electrodes have emfs $\mathcal{E}_{1,2}$, then the net emf is $\mathcal{E}_{2}-\mathcal{E}_{1}$. (Thus, two identical electrodes and a common electrolyte give zero net emf. ) This may be called Volta's Law of the electrochemical series.

In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Luigi Galvani, he invented the voltaic pile, an early electric battery, which produced a steady electric current. Luigi Galvani was an Italian Physician and Physicist who lived and died in Bologna. A voltaic pile is a set of individual Voltaic cells placed in series In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver. Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Initially he experimented with individual cells in series, each cell being a wine goblet filled with brine into which the two dissimilar electrodes were dipped. Brine (lat saltus) is Water saturated or nearly saturated with Salt (NaCl The electric pile replaced the goblets with cardboard soaked in brine. (The number of cells, and thus the voltage it could produce, was limited by the pressure, exerted by the upper cells, that would squeeze all of the brine out of the cardboard of the bottom cell. )

In announcing his discovery of the pile, Volta paid tribute to the influences of William Nicholson, Tiberius Cavallo and Abraham Bennet. William Nicholson (1753&mdash May 21, 1815) was a renowned English chemist who was also a writer on natural philosophy and chemistry as well as a translator Tiberius Cavallo (also Tiberio was a Anglo - Italian physicist and natural philosopher Abraham Bennet FRS ( baptised 20 December 1749 - buried 9 May 1799 was an English Clergyman and Physicist, the inventor of the Gold-leaf [4]

## The Voltaic battery

The battery made by Volta is credited as the first electrochemical cell. It consists of two electrodes: one made of zinc, the other of copper. Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 The electrolyte is sulfuric acid or a brine mixture of salt and water. An electrolyte is any substance containing free Ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. The electrolyte exists in the form 2H+ and SO4 2-. The zinc, which is higher than both copper and hydrogen in the electrochemical series, reacts with the negatively charged sulphate. ( SO4 ) The positively charged hydrogen bubbles start depositing around the copper and take away some of its electrons. The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J This makes the zinc rod the negative electrode and the copper rod the positive electrode.

We now have 2 terminals, and the current will flow if we connect them. The reactions in this cell are as follows:

zincZn --> Zn2+ + 2e-
sulfuric acid2H+ +  2e- -->   H2

The copper does not react, functioning as an electrode for the reaction.

However, this cell also has some disadvantages. It is unsafe to handle, as sulfuric acid, even if dilute, is dangerous. Also, the power of the cell diminishes over time because the hydrogen gas is not released, accumulating instead on the surface of the electrode and forming a barrier between the metal and the electrolyte solution. So it is not durable, and therefore, not a suitable choice.

## Honors

In honor of his work in the field of electricity, Napoleon made him a count in 1810; in 1815 the Emperor of Austria named him a professor of philosophy at Padua. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin Francis II (Franz II Heiliger Römischer Kaiser ( 12 February 1768 &ndash 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy.

Volta presenting his "Voltaic Pile" to Napoleon

Before 1796, Lombardy was ruled by Austria. Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the From 1796 to 1815, Lombardy came under Napoleon's rule. After 1815, Lombardy was once again under Austrian rule. Thus Volta was once a subject of the Emperor of Austria, later a subject of Napoleon and then later a subject of the Emperor of Austria again. [1]

Tempio Voltiano, Como

He was a long-time correspondent of the Royal Society and was made a fellow (FRS). The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 He received the Society's 1794 Copley Medal. The Copley Medal is a scientific award for distinguished achievement in any field of Science established by the Royal Society of London in 1731 He published his invention of the Voltaic pile battery in 1800 in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. A voltaic pile is a set of individual Voltaic cells placed in series He was in correspondence with scientists in Austria, which ruled Lombardy in his day, and in France. His 1800 paper was written in French.

Volta is buried in the city of Como. Como is a City in Lombardy, Italy, north of Milan. Situated at the southern tip of the south-west arm of Lake Como, it At the Tempio Voltiano near Lake Como there is a museum devoted to explaining his work. Lake Como ( Lago di Como in Italian, also known as Lario; Lach de Comm in Insubric; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a Count Volta's original instruments and papers are on display there. The building, along with his portrait, appeared on Italian 10. 000 lira banknote, before the introduction of the euro. The lira (plural lire) was the Currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e

In 1881 an important electrical unit, the volt(V), was named in his honor. SI derived units are part of the SI system of measurement units and are derived from the seven SI base units They are derived from SI basic units/defined The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force. There have also been innovations and discoveries named after Alessandro Volta including the Toyota Alessandro Volta, the Volta Crater on the Moon and in 2006 a technology company named their loan origination platform Volta. The Toyota Alessandro Volta is a Concept car developed in the collaboration of the Japanese manufacturer Toyota and the Italian design company Volta is a lunar crater near the northwest limb of the Moon. It is located south-southeast of Xenophanes crater, and due north of the smaller

## Retirement

Volta entered retirement in Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.

## Son

Volta's sons

1. Christian Volta [1765-1839]
2. Alezandro Volta [1767-1844]
3. Louis Volta [1768-1845]
4. Johann Volta [1771-1850]
5. Magdalena Volta [1773-1854]
6. Alessandro Volta Junior [1776-1855]