Alnus serrulata (Tag Alder)
Male catkins on right,
mature female catkins left
Johnsonville, South Carolina
About 20-30 species, see text. Johnsonville is a city in Florence County, South Carolina, United States. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group Dicotyledons, or "dicots", is a name for a group of Flowering plants whose Seed typically has two embryonic leaves or Cotyledons There The Fagales are an order of Flowering plants including some of the best known Trees The order name is derived from Genus Fagus Betulaceae, or the Birch Family, includes six genera of Deciduous nut -bearing Trees and Shrubs including the Birches Philip Miller ( 1691 - 18 December 1771) was a botanist of Scottish descent
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family (Family Betulaceae). A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group Birch is the name of any Tree of the genus Betula ( Bé-tu-la) in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the Betulaceae, or the Birch Family, includes six genera of Deciduous nut -bearing Trees and Shrubs including the Birches The genus comprises about 30 species of monoecious trees and shrubs, few reaching large size, distributed throughout the North Temperate zone, and in the New World also along the Andes southwards to Chile. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of Sexual reproduction systems found across the Plant kingdom A tree is a perennial Woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or A shrub or Bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of Woody plant, distinguished from a Tree The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the
Alder leaves are deciduous (not evergreen), alternate, simple, and serrated. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including In Botany, an Evergreen plant is a plant having leaves all year round The flowers are catkins with elongate male catkins on the same plant as shorter female catkins, often before leaves appear; they are mainly wind-pollinated, but also visited by bees to a small extent. A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also A catkin or ament is a slim cylindrical flower cluster with inconspicuous or no petals usually Wind - pollinated ( anemophilous) but sometimes Bees are flying Insects closely related to Wasps and Ants Bees are a Monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea They differ from the birches (Betula, the other genus in the family) in that the female catkins are woody and do not disintegrate at maturity, opening to release the seeds in a similar manner to many conifer cones. Birch is the name of any Tree of the genus Betula ( Bé-tu-la) in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the A cone (in formal botanical usage Strobilus, plural strobili is an organ on Plants in the division Pinophyta ( Conifers
The best-known species in Europe is the Common or Black Alder (A. glutinosa), native to most of Europe and widely introduced elsewhere. The largest species is Red Alder (A. Alnus rubra ( red alder) is a Deciduous Tree native to western North America. rubra), reaching 35 m (the tallest is 32 m) on the west coast of North America, with Black Alder and Italian Alder (A. Alnus cordata ( Italian Alder) is an Alder native to southern Italy (including Sardinia) and Corsica. cordata) both reaching about 30 m. By contrast, the widespread Green Alder (A. Alnus viridis ( Green Alder) is an Alder with a wide range across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere. viridis) is rarely more than a 5 m shrub.
Alders establish symbioses with the nitrogen-fixing Actinobacteria Frankiella alni. Johnsonville is a city in Florence County, South Carolina, United States. This article is about the biological phenomenon for other uses see Symbiosis (disambiguation The term symbiosis (from the Greek Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Actinobacteria or actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C ratio. This bacteria converts atmospheric nitrogen into soil-soluble nitrates which can be utilised by the alder, and favorably enhances the soil fertility generally. In Inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of Nitric acid with an Ion composed of one Nitrogen and three Oxygen atoms Alders benefit other plants growing near them by taking nitrogen out of the air and depositing it in the soil in usable form; fallen alder leaves make very rich compost. Compost (ˈkɒmpɒst or US /ˈkɒmpoʊst/ also known as brown manure is the aerobically decomposed remnants of Organic matter.
Alders are sturdy and fast-growing, even in acidic and damaged sites such as burned areas and mining sites. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Italian Alder is particularly useful on dry, infertile sites. Alders can be used as a producer of simple bio-mass, growing quickly in harsh environments.
Alder catkins are one of the first sources of pollen for bee species, especially honeybees, which use it for spring buildup. Bees are flying Insects closely related to Wasps and Ants Bees are a Monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea This article refers collectively to all true honey bees for the "common" domesticated honey bee see European honey bee Honey bees Alders are also used as a food plant by some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species, see list of Lepidoptera that feed on alders. Lepidoptera is an order of Insect that includes Moths and butterflies. A butterfly is an Insect of the order Lepidoptera. Like all Lepidoptera butterflies are notable for their unusual life cycle with a A moth is an Insect closely related to the Butterfly, both being of the order Lepidoptera. Alders ( Alnus spp) are used as food plants by the Larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species Monophagous Alders are also grown in gardens, and are sometimes made into bonsai. Bonsai (盆栽 literally "potted plant" is the art of Aesthetic miniaturization of Trees by growing them in containers
Alder lumber is an important fast growing renewable resource used in a wide range of applications including furniture, cabinets, panel systems and special products. Alder has a fine close-grained structure and is easily stained and finished. Part of the popularity of Alder lumber is due to the unusually wide range of grades that are available. Each grade is optimized for a functional and/or economic aspect of a product, with visible surfaces, structural components and hidden parts typically using different grades. The grade spectrum, grade photos, technical definitions and an analysis of the features that make up the various grades can be found at the Alder Lumber Gradessites noted in the References and External Links section below. These sites also provide a good look at the process of optimizing Alder Lumber Productionas part of the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI).
Alder is popular as a material for electric guitar bodies. An electric guitar is a type of Guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into an electrical current which is made louder It is used by many guitar makers, notably the Fender Guitar Company, who use it on top quality instruments such as the Stratocaster and Jaguar. Fender Musical Instruments Corporation of Quincy Illinois is a manufacturer of stringed instruments such as solid-body Electric guitars including the The Fender Stratocaster, often referred to as the Strat, is a model of Electric guitar designed by Leo Fender, George Fullerton and Freddie Tavares The Fender Jaguar is an Electric guitar which was introduced in 1962 Alder provides a brighter tone than other woods (such as mahogany), and as alder is not a particularly dense wood it provides a resonant, well-rounded tone with excellent sustain.
Alder is a preferred wood for charcoal making, formerly used in the manufacture of gunpowder, or for smelting metal ores, now used primarily for cooking. Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of Extractive metallurgy. The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across An ore is a volume of rock containing components or Minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining Cooking is the process of preparing Food by applying Heat, selecting measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible The wood is also traditionally used for smoking fish and meat, though this usage has often been replaced by other woods such as oak and hickory. Smoking is the process of flavoring, Cooking, or preserving Food by exposing it to the Smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Trees in the genus Carya (from Ancient Greek κάρυον " Nut " are commonly known as Hickory.
An exception is the smoked Pacific salmon industry in the Pacific Northwest, where alder smoking is essentially universal. Oncorhynchus is a Genus of in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific Salmons and Pacific Trouts The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean This is partly due to indigenous traditions of food preservation in the area, and partly because oak, hickory, mesquite and other woods favored for smoking elsewhere are not locally available in any large quantities. Mesquite (from Nahuatl mizquitl) is a leguminous plant of the Prosopis genus found in Northern Mexico and the United Species used for Pacific salmon smoking are Red alder A. Alnus rubra ( red alder) is a Deciduous Tree native to western North America. rubra and to a lesser extent Sitka alder A. Alnus viridis ( Green Alder) is an Alder with a wide range across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere. viridis ssp. sinuata.
Alders are also exceptionally good windbreakers and are planted on the west coast of Scotland to shelter gardens. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. 
Alders have root nodules which contain Frankia sps. This article refers to the bacteria Frankia was also one of the names of the Frankish Empire. , actinomycete filamentous nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Actinobacteria or actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C ratio. These nodules are found on the roots and may be as large as a human fist, with many small lobes and light brown in appearance.
The common name alder is derived from an old Germanic root. The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. Also found to be the translation of the Old French "verne" for alder or copse of alders. The botanic name Alnus is the equivalent Latin name. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Both the Latin and the Germanic words derive from the Proto-Indo-European root el-, meaning "red" or "brown", which is also a root for the English words elk and another tree: elm, a tree distantly related to the alders.
Alder catkins are edible and high in protein. Although they are reported to have a bitter and unpleasant taste, they are best remembered for survival purposes. Native Americans used Red Alder bark (Alnus rubra) to treat poison oak, insect bites, and skin irritations. Alnus rubra ( red alder) is a Deciduous Tree native to western North America. Blackfeet Indians used an infusion made from the bark of Red Alder to treat lymphatic disorders and tuberculosis. Recent clinical studies have verified that red alder contains betulin and lupeol, compounds shown to be effective against a variety of tumors. Betulin (lup-20(29-ene-3β28-diol is an abundant naturally occurring Triterpene. 
The genus is divided into three subgenera:
Subgenus Alnus. Trees. Shoot buds stalked. Male and female catkins produced in autumn (fall) but staying closed over winter, pollinating in late winter or early spring. About 15-25 species, including:
Subgenus Clethropsis. Trees or shrubs. Shoot buds stalked. Male and female catkins produced in autumn (fall) and expanding and pollinating then. Three species:
Subgenus Alnobetula. Shrubs. Shoot buds not stalked. Male and female catkins produced in late spring (after leaves appear) and expanding and pollinating then. One to four species: