Albert (German: Albrecht; Latin: Albertus; 16 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia, which was the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. The grand master (Hochmeister Magister generalis is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom The Duchy of Prussia or Ducal Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen Prūsijos kunigaikštystė Prusy Książęce was a Duchy in the eastern part of Prussia from
Because Albert was a member of the Brandenburg-Ansbach branch of the House of Hohenzollern, it had been hoped that his election as Grand Master would reverse the decline of the Teutonic Knights since 1410; Duke Frederick of Saxony of the House of Wettin had been elected for the same reason. The Principality of Ansbach (Fürstentum Ansbach or Brandenburg-Ansbach was a Reichsfrei Principality in the Holy Roman Empire centered Duke Frederick of Saxony ( 26 October 1474 &ndash 14 December 1510) also known as Friedrich von Sachsen or Friedrich von Wettin The House of Wettin was a dynasty of German Counts Dukes prince-electors (Kurfürsten and kings that ruled the area of today's Instead, Albert's secularization of the Prussian territories of the Order eventually led to the inheritance of the Duchy of Prussia by the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Secularization or secularisation generally refers to the process of transformation by which a Society migrates from close identification with religious institutions Prussia is a historical region in Central Europe extending from the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea to the Masurian Lake District. The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg was a major Principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806
Albert's titles (on his proclamation of 1561 in Königsberg) were: Albert the Elder, Margrave of Brandenburg in Prussia, Stettin in Pomerania, Duke of the Kashubians, and Wends, Burgrave of Nuremberg, and Count of Rügen etc. Königsberg (Karaliaučius Low German: Königsbarg; Królewiec see also other names) was until 1946 the name of Kaliningrad. Kashubians/Kashubs/Kaszubians (Kaszëbi Kaszubi also called Kassubians or Cassubians, are a West Slavic Ethnic group of north-central List of Burgraves of Nuremberg House of Raabs 1105 –ca 1137 Gottfried II von Raabs (??–ca Rügen (ˈʁyːgən or Rugia is Germany 's largest Island. It is located in the Baltic Sea off the coast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Albert was born in Ansbach in Franconia as the third son of Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. Ansbach, or Anspach, originally Onolzbach, is a town in Bavaria, Germany. Franconia (Franken is a historic region of Germany comprising the northern parts of the modern state of Bavaria and the area to its immediate west Friedrich Margrave of Ansbach and Bayreuth, known as Friedrich I or Friedrich V ( 8 May 1460 - 4 April 1536) was born at His mother was Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, and his wife Elisabeth of Austria. Casimir IV Jagiellon (Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis Kazimir Jahajłavič 30 November 1427 &ndash The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state created by the accession of Wladislaus II Jagiełło, Grand Duke of Lithuania, to Biography Elisabeth was the daughter of Albert II of Germany (1397-1439 and his wife Elisabeth (1409-42 heiress of Bohemia. He was raised for a career in the Church and spent some time at the court of Hermann IV of Hesse, Elector of Cologne, who appointed him canon of the Cologne Cathedral. The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln or Kurköln) was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire and existed from the 10th to the early 19th Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom officially de Hohe Domkirche St
Turning to a more active life, Albert accompanied Emperor Maximilian I to Italy in 1508, and after his return spent some time in the Kingdom of Hungary. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946
Duke Frederick of Saxony, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, died in December 1510. Duke Frederick of Saxony ( 26 October 1474 &ndash 14 December 1510) also known as Friedrich von Sachsen or Friedrich von Wettin The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. Albert was chosen as his successor early in 1511 in the hope that his relationship to his maternal uncle, Sigismund I the Old, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, would facilitate a settlement of the disputes over eastern Prussia, which had been held by the Order under Polish suzerainty since the Second Peace of Thorn (1466). Sigismund I the Old (Zygmunt I Stary Žygimantas II Senasis 1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548) of the Jagiellon dynasty reigned as Suzerainty (ˈsjuːzərənti RP or /ˈsjuːzəreɪnti/ RP) (/ˈsuːzərənti/ GA) is a situation in which a Region or people is a The Second Peace of Thorn of 1466 (Zweiter Friede von Thorn Drugi Pokój Toruński was a Peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń on
The new Grand Master, aware of his duties to the empire and to the papacy, refused to submit to the crown of Poland. As war over the Order's existence appeared inevitable, Albert made strenuous efforts to secure allies and carried on protracted negotiations with Emperor Maximilian I. The ill-feeling, influenced by the ravages of members of the Order in Poland, culminated in a war which began in December 1519 and devastated Prussia. Albert was granted a four-year truce early in 1521.
The dispute was referred to Emperor Charles V and other princes, but as no settlement was reached Albert continued his efforts to obtain help in view of a renewal of the war. Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was For this purpose he visited the Diet of Nuremberg in 1522, where he made the acquaintance of the reformer Andreas Osiander, by whose influence Albert was won over to Protestantism. The Diet of Nuremberg is often called the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Andreas Osiander ( 19 December, 1498 &ndash 17 October 1552) was a German Lutheran theologian. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.
The Grand Master then journeyed to Wittenberg, where he was advised by Martin Luther to abandon the rules of his Order, to marry, and to convert Prussia into a hereditary duchy for himself. Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a Town in Germany in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, on the Elbe Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer This proposal, which was understandably appealing to Albert, had already been discussed by some of his relatives; but it was necessary to proceed cautiously, and he assured Pope Adrian VI that he was anxious to reform the Order and punish the knights who had adopted Lutheran doctrines. Pope Adrian VI ( Utrecht, March 2, 1459 &ndash September 14, 1523) born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Luther for his part did not stop at the suggestion, but in order to facilitate the change made special efforts to spread his teaching among the Prussians, while Albert's brother, Margrave George of Brandenburg-Ansbach, laid the scheme before their uncle, Sigismund I the Old of Poland. George the Pious (Georg der Fromme 4 March 1484 &ndash 27 December 1543) was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach from the Sigismund I the Old (Zygmunt I Stary Žygimantas II Senasis 1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548) of the Jagiellon dynasty reigned as
After some delay Sigismund assented to the offer, with the provision that Prussia should be treated as a Polish fiefdom; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty concluded at Kraków, Albert pledged a personal oath to Sigismund I and was invested with the duchy for himself and his heirs on February 10, 1525. The Prussian Homage or Tribute (Preußische Huldigung hołd pruski was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish Fief The Duchy of Prussia or Ducal Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen Prūsijos kunigaikštystė Prusy Książęce was a Duchy in the eastern part of Prussia from Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing Sigismund I the Old (Zygmunt I Stary Žygimantas II Senasis 1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548) of the Jagiellon dynasty reigned as History painting, as formulated in 1667 by André Félibien, a historiographer architect and theoretician of French Classicism, was in the Hierarchy Jan Matejko ( (also known as Jan Mateyko; June 24 1838 Free City of Kraków; - November 1 1893 Kraków) was a Polish painter Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Treaty of Kraków was signed on 8 April 1525 between Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. The Prussian Homage or Tribute (Preußische Huldigung hołd pruski was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish Fief Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead
The Estates of the land then met at Königsberg and took the oath of allegiance to the new duke, who used his full powers to promote the doctrines of Luther. The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages Königsberg (Karaliaučius Low German: Königsbarg; Królewiec see also other names) was until 1946 the name of Kaliningrad. This transition did not, however, take place without protest. Summoned before the imperial court of justice, Albert refused to appear and was proscribed, while the Order elected a new Grand Master, Walter von Cronberg, who received Prussia as a fief at the imperial Diet of Augsburg. Walter von Cronberg (1477 or 1479 &ndash 4 April 1545) was the 38th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1527-43 The Diet of Augsburg were the meetings of the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire in the German city of Augsburg. As the German princes were experiencing the tumult of the Reformation, the Peasants' War, and the wars against the Ottoman Turks, they did not enforce the ban on the duke, and agitation against him soon died away. For other conflicts referred to as peasant wars or revolts see Peasant revolt (disambiguation. The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older European
In imperial politics Albert was fairly active. Joining the League of Torgau in 1526, he acted in unison with the Protestants, and was among the princes who banded together to overthrow Charles V after the issue of the Augsburg Interim in May 1548. The League of Torgau (Torgauer Bund was an alliance of Protestant princes including Philip of Hesse and John of Saxony which was formed in 1526 by Lutheran princes The Augsburg Interim was an imperial decree ordered on May 15, 1548, at the Diet of Augsburg, after Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, defeated the For various reasons, however, poverty and personal inclination among others, he did not take a prominent part in the military operations of this period.
The early years of Albert's rule in Prussia were fairly prosperous. Although he had some trouble with the peasantry, the lands and treasures of the church enabled him to propitiate the nobles and for a time to provide for the expenses of the court. He did something for the furtherance of learning by establishing schools in every town and by freeing serfs who adopted a scholastic life. In 1544, in spite of some opposition, he founded Königsberg University, where he appointed his friend Andreas Osiander to a professorship in 1549. The University of Königsberg (Albertus-Universität Königsberg was the University of Königsberg, East Prussia. Albert also paid for the printing of the Astronomical "Prutenic Tables" compiled by Erasmus Reinhold. The Prutenic Tables (Tabulae prutenicae Prutenische oder Preußische Tafeln were Ephemeris (astronomical tables by astronomer Erasmus Reinhold published Erasmus Reinhold ( October 22, 1511 &ndash February 19, 1553) was a German Astronomer and Mathematician
This step was the beginning of the troubles which clouded the closing years of Albert's reign. Groschen (Grossus Groschen grossone groš grosz garas гроші, грош grosh, gros грош was the (sometimes colloquial name for a Coin The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. It is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to a number of early Christian communities in the Roman province of Osiander's divergence from Luther's doctrine of justification by faith involved him in a violent quarrel with Philip Melanchthon, who had adherents in Königsberg, and these theological disputes soon created an uproar in the town. In Christian theology, justification is God 's act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God Philipp Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerd) ( February 16, 1497 &ndash April 19, 1560) was a German professor and theologian The duke strenuously supported Osiander, and the area of the quarrel soon broadened. There were no longer church lands available with which to conciliate the nobles, the burden of taxation was heavy, and Albert's rule became unpopular.
After Osiander's death in 1552, Albert favoured a preacher named Johann Funck, who, with an adventurer named Paul Skalić, exercised great influence over him and obtained considerable wealth at public expense. Stanislav Pavao Skalić (1534-1573 also known as Paul Skalich or Paulus Scalichius de Lika, was an Encyclopedist, Renaissance humanist The state of turmoil caused by these religious and political disputes was increased by the possibility of Albert's early death and the need, should that happen, to appoint a regent, as his only son, Albert Frederick was still a mere youth. A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor Albert Frederick (Albrecht Friedrich 7 May 1553 &ndash 28 August 1618 was Duke of Prussia from 1568 until his death The duke was forced to consent to a condemnation of the teaching of Osiander, and the climax came in 1566 when the Estates appealed to King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland, Albert's cousin, who sent a commission to Königsberg. The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages For other nobles of the same name please see Sigismund. Sigismund II Augustus I (Zygmunt II August Scalich saved his life by flight, but Funck was executed. The question of the regency was settled, and a form of Lutheranism was adopted and declared binding on all teachers and preachers.
Virtually deprived of power, the duke lived for two more years, and died at Tapiau on March 20, 1568. Gvardeysk (; Tepliava/Tepliuva Tapiawa/Tapiewo is a town in the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pregolya River Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. He had married Dorothea, daughter of King Frederick I of Denmark, in 1526 and, following her death in 1547, he married Anna Maria, daughter of Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Frederick I of Denmark and Norway ( October 7 1471 &ndash April 10 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian Brunswick-Lüneburg (Braunschweig-Lüneburg also Brunswick-Lunenburg was a historical ducal state during the period from the Late Middle Ages through the
Albert was a voluminous letter writer, and corresponded with many of the leading personages of the time.
In 1891, a statue was erected to his memory at Königsberg. Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
|Albert, Duke of Prussia||Father:|
Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Albert III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg
Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg
Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut
Anna of Saxony
Frederick II, Elector of Saxony
Margarete of Austria
Casimir IV Jagiellon
Sophia of Halshany
Elisabeth of Austria
Albert II of Germany
Elisabeth II of Bohemia
Albert, Duke of Prussia
Cadet branch of the House of HohenzollernBorn: 16 May 1490 Died: 20 March 1568
Duke Frederick of Saxony
|Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights|
Walter von Cronberg
|New creation||Duke of Prussia|