Alaric I (Alareiks in the original Gothic; Alarik or Alarich in modern Germanic languages; Alaricus in Latin; and Alarico in Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish), was likely born about 370 on an island named Peuce (the Fir) at the mouth of the Danube. Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. Events By Place Roman Empire The presence of the Saxons in Batavia is noted by Ammianus Marcellinus. Peuce in ancient geography was an island located near one of the mouths of the Danube, in the Danube Delta in the Romanian portion of Dobrudja. The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj He was king of the Visigoths from 395–410 and the first Germanic leader to take the city of Rome. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Events By Place Roman Empire After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Empire is re-divided into an eastern and a western half Events By place Western Roman Empire Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Emperor. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Having originally desired to settle his people in the Roman Empire, he finally sacked the city, marking the decline of imperial power in the west.
Alaric, whose name means literally "king of all" was well-born, his father kindred to the Balti, a tribe competing with the Amali among Gothic fighters. The Balt(hi dynasty, Baltungs, Balthings, or Balth(es, existed among the Visigoths, a Germanic tribe who confronted the Western The Amali were one of the leading dynasties of the Goths, a Germanic people who confronted the Roman Empire in its declining years in the west He belonged to the western Gothic branch, the Visigoths. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East At the time of his birth the Visigoths dwelt in Bulgaria, having fled beyond the wide estuary marshes of the Danube to its southern shore so as not to be followed by their foe from the steppe, the Huns. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy
During the fourth century it had become common practice with the Roman emperors to employ foederati; Germanic irregular troops under Roman command but organized by tribal structures. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Foederatus (pl foederati) is a Latin term whose definition and usage drifted in the time between the early Roman Republic and the Irregular military refers to any non-standard military Being defined by exclusion there is a lot of variance in what comes under the term The provincial population, crushed under a load of taxation, could no longer furnish soldiers in the numbers needed for the defence of the empire. Moreover, the emperors—ever fearful that a brilliantly successful general of Roman extraction might be proclaimed Augustus by his followers—preferred that high military command should be in the hands of one to whom such an accession of dignity was as yet impossible. Augustus (plural augusti) Latin for "majestic" "the increaser" or "venerable" was an Ancient Roman The largest of these contingents was that of the Goths, who had in 382 been allowed to settle within the imperial boundaries with a large degree of autonomy. Events By Place Roman Empire October 3 — Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the
In 394 Alaric served as a leader of foederati under Theodosius I in the campaign in which the usurper Eugenius was crushed. Events By Place Roman Empire September 6 — Battle of the Frigidus: Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the usurper Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ Flavius Eugenius (died 6 September 394 was a Roman usurper (392-394 against Emperor Theodosius I. As the Battle of the Frigidus, which terminated this campaign, was fought at the passes of the Julian Alps, Alaric probably learned the weakness of Italy's natural defences on its northeastern frontier at the head of the Adriatic. The Battle of the Frigidus, also called the Battle of the Frigid River, was fought between September 5&ndash6 394 between the army of the Eastern Emperor The Julian Alps (Julijske Alpe Alpi Giulie are a Mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretches from north-eastern Italy to Slovenia Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
Theodosius died in 395, leaving the empire to be divided between his two sons Arcadius and Honorius, the former taking the eastern and the latter the western portion of the empire. Flavius Arcadius (377/378&ndash May 1, 408) was Byzantine Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death Flavius Honorius ( September 9, 384 &ndash August 15, 423) was Roman Emperor (393- 395 and then Western Roman Emperor Arcadius showed little interest in ruling, leaving most of the actual power to his Praetorian Prefect Rufinus. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature Flavius Rufinus (ca 335 &ndash November 27, 395) was a fourth century Eastern Roman statesman of Gaulish extraction who served as the Praetorian Prefect Honorius was still a minor; as his guardian, Theodosius had appointed the magister militum Stilicho. Magister militum ( Latin for "Master of the Soldiers" was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca 359 &ndash August 22, 408) was a high-ranking general ( Magister militum Stilicho also claimed to be the guardian of Arcadius, causing much rivalry between the western and eastern courts.
According to Edward Gibbon, in the shifting of offices which took place at the beginning of the new reigns, Alaric apparently hoped he would be promoted from the position of a mere commander of federates to a general of one of the regular armies. Edward Gibbon ( April 27, 1737 January 16, 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament. This was denied him, however. Among the Visigoths, settled in Lower Moesia, the situation was ripe for rebellion. Moesia (Μοισία Moisía; Мизия Miziya; Moesia Мезија Mezija) was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the At Frigidus they had suffered disproportionately great losses, according to rumour, exposing them in battle was a convenient way of weakening the Gothic tribes. Their rewards after the campaign had also been lacking. So they raised Alaric on a shield and proclaimed him king; leader and followers both resolving (says Jordanes the Gothic historian) "rather to seek new kingdoms by their own work, than to slumber in peaceful subjection to the rule of others. Jordanes (also Jordanis or even Iornandes) was a 6th century Roman Bureaucrat, who turned his hand to History later in life "
Alaric struck first at the eastern empire. He marched to the neighbourhood of Constantinople but, finding himself unable to undertake a siege, retraced his steps westward and then marched southward through Thessaly and the unguarded pass of Thermopylae into Greece. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Thessalia redirects here For the Butterfly Genus, see Thessalia (butterfly. Thermopylae (θɚˈmɒpəli (Ancient and Katharevousa Greek, Demotic Θερμοπύλες: "hot gateway" is a location in Greece Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
The armies of the eastern empire were occupied with Hunnic incursions in Asia Minor and Syria. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Instead Rufinus attempted to negotiate with Alaric in person. The only results were suspicions in Constantinople that Rufinius was in league with the Goths. Stilicho now marched east against Alaric. According to Claudian, Stilicho was in a position to destroy the Goths, when he was ordered by Arcadius to leave Illyricum. Claudian (lat Claudius Claudianus) was a court Poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. Soon after Rufinus was hacked to death by his own soldiers. Power in Constantinople now passed to the eunuch chamberlain Eutropius. Eutropius (died 399 was a fourth century Eastern Roman official
The death of Rufinus and departure of Stilicho gave free rein to Alaric's movements: he ravaged Attica but spared Athens, which at once capitulated to the conqueror. In 396 he wiped out the last remnants of the Mysteries at Eleusis in Attica, ending a tradition of esoteric religious ceremonies that had lasted since the Bronze Age. The Eleusinian Mysteries (Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Then he penetrated into the Peloponnesus and captured its most famous cities—Corinth, Argos, and Sparta—selling many of their inhabitants into slavery. The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus ( Greek: Πελοπόννησος Pelopónnisos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large Peninsula Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. Argos ( Greek: Ἄργος, Árgos ˈaɾɣos is a city in Greece in the Peloponnese near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη
Here, however, his victorious career suffered a serious setback. In 397 Stilicho crossed by sea to Greece and succeeded in shutting up the Goths in the mountains of Pholoe on the borders of Elis and Arcadia in the peninsula. Events By Place Asia The Xiongnu occupy the Gansu area in China. Foloi (Φολόη older forms Foloe, older form and Latin: Pholoe is a village and a municipality in the eastern part of the Prefecture of Ilia Elis, or Eleia ( Greek, Modern Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient Ēlis, Doric: Alis, Elean: Walis) is an ancient Arcadia or Arkadía ( Greek Αρκαδία is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. From there Alaric escaped with difficulty, and not without some suspicion of connivance on the part of Stilicho, who supposedly again had received orders to depart. Alaric then crossed the Gulf of Corinth and marched with the plunder of Greece northwards to Epirus. The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Principality of Epirus can also refer to the pashalik of Ali Pasha The Despotate or Principality of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της Here his rampage continued until the eastern government appointed him magister militum per Illyricum, giving him the Roman command he had desired and authority to resupply his men from the imperial arsenals.
It was probably in the year 401 that Alaric made his first invasion of Italy, Supernatural influences were not lacking to urge him to this great enterprise. Some lines of the Roman poet Claudian inform us that he heard a voice proceeding from a sacred grove, "Break off all delays, Alaric. Claudian (lat Claudius Claudianus) was a court Poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. A major event leading to the eventual formation of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, took place in what is commonly referred to within the Church as The This very year thou shalt force the Alpine barrier of Italy; thou shalt penetrate to the city. " But the prophecy was not to be fulfilled at this time. After spreading desolation through North Italy and striking terror into the citizens of Rome, Alaric was met by Stilicho at Pollentia, today in Piedmont. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca 359 &ndash August 22, 408) was a high-ranking general ( Magister militum The ancient town of Pollentia on the left bank of the Tanaro is known today as Pollenzo, a Frazione of Bra in the Province Piedmont ( Piemonte; Piedmontese and Occitan: Piemont; French: Piémont) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The battle which followed on April 6, 402 (coinciding with Easter), was a victory for Rome, though a costly one. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Events By Place Western Roman Empire Stilicho recalls troops from the frontiers of the Roman Empire to But it effectually barred the further progress of the Goths.
Stilicho's enemies later reproached him for having gained his victory by taking impious advantage of the great Christian festival. Alaric, too, was a Christian, though an Arian not Orthodox. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. He had trusted to the sanctity of Easter for immunity from attack.
The wife of Alaric is said to have been taken prisoner after this battle; and there is some reason to suppose that he was hampered in his movements by the presence with his forces of large numbers of women and children, which gave to his invasion of Italy the character of a human migration. Human migration denotes any movement by Humans from one locality to another sometimes over long distances or
After another defeat before Verona, Alaric left Italy, probably in 403. Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. For the cars see Peugeot 403 and Bristol 403. For the HTTP status code, see HTTP 403. He had not indeed "penetrated to the city" but his invasion of Italy had produced important results. It had caused the imperial residence to be transferred from Milan to Ravenna and it had necessitated the withdrawal of Legio XX Valeria Victrix from Britain. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Legio XX Valeria Victrix was a Roman legion, probably raised by Augustus some time after 31 BC.
Alaric became the friend and ally of his late opponent Stilicho. The estrangement between the eastern and western courts had in 407 become so bitter as to threaten civil war, and Stilicho was actually proposing to use the forces of Alaric in order to enforce the claims of Honorius to the prefecture of Illyricum. For the cars see Peugeot 407 and Bristol 407. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Gratianus For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office The death of Arcadius in May 408 caused milder counsels to prevail in the western court, but Alaric, who had actually entered Epirus, demanded in a somewhat threatening manner that if he were thus suddenly bidden to desist from war, he should be paid handsomely for what in modern language would be called the expenses of mobilization. For the area code see Area code 408. Events By Place Western Roman Empire In the summer of this year The sum which he named was a large one, 4,000 pounds of gold. Under strong pressure from Stilicho the Roman senate consented to promise its payment.
But three months later Stilicho himself and the chief ministers of his party were treacherously slain on the orders of Honorius. In the disturbances that followed, throughout Italy the wives and children of the foederati were slain. The natural consequence of all this was that these men, to the number of 30,000, flocked to the camp of Alaric, clamouring to be led against their cowardly enemies. He accordingly led them across the Julian Alps and, in September 408, stood before the walls of Rome (now with no capable general like Stilicho as a defender) and began a strict blockade. For the area code see Area code 408. Events By Place Western Roman Empire In the summer of this year Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
No blood was shed this time; hunger was the weapon on which Alaric relied. When the ambassadors of the Senate, in treating for peace, tried to terrify him with their hints of what the despairing citizens might accomplish, he gave with a laugh his celebrated answer: "The thicker the hay, the easier mowed!" After much bargaining, the famine-stricken citizens agreed to pay a ransom of 5,000 pounds of gold, 30,000 pounds of silver, 4,000 silken tunics, 3,000 hides dyed scarlet, and 3,000 pounds of pepper. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome.  Thus ended Alaric's first siege of Rome.
At this time, and indeed throughout his career, Alaric's primary goal was not to pull down the fabric of the empire but to secure for himself, by negotiation with its rulers, a regular and recognized position within its borders. His demands were certainly large— the concession of a block of territory 200 miles long by 150 wide between the Danube and the Gulf of Venice (to be held probably on some terms of nominal dependence on the empire) and the title of commander-in-chief of the imperial army—but, great as these terms were, the emperor would probably have been well advised to grant them. Honorius, however, refused to look beyond the question of his own personal safety, guaranteed as it was by the dikes and marshes of Ravenna. As all attempts to conduct a satisfactory negotiation with this emperor failed, Alaric, after instituting a second siege and blockade of Rome in 409, came to terms with the senate. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Constantine III 's general Gerontius revolts in Hispania, and elevates With their consent he set up a rival emperor, the prefect of the city, a Greek named Priscus Attalus. Priscus Attalus (d after 416 was twice Roman usurper (in 409 and in 414 against Emperor Honorius, with Visigothic support
Attalus, however, proved quite unfit for his high position; he rejected the advice of Alaric and lost in consequence the province of Africa, the granary of Rome, which was defended by the partisans of Honorius. The Roman province of Africa was established after the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War. The weapon of famine, formerly in the hand of Alaric, was thus turned against him, and loud in consequence were the murmurs of the Roman populace. Honorius was also greatly strengthened by the arrival of six legions sent to his assistance from Constantinople by his nephew Theodosius II. Flavius Theodosius ( 10 April, 401 – July 28, 450) called the Calligrapher, known in English as Theodosius II, was
Alaric therefore cashiered his puppet emperor, after the latter's eleven months of ineffectual rule, and once more tried to reopen negotiations with Honorius. These negotiations would probably have succeeded but for the malign influence of another Goth, Sarus, an Amali and therefore a hereditary enemy of Alaric and his house. When Alaric found himself once more outwitted by the machinations of such a foe, he marched southward and began in deadly earnest his third, his ever-memorable siege of Rome. No defence apparently was possible; there are hints, not well substantiated, of treachery; there is greater probability of surprise. However, this may be—for our information at this point of the story is meagre—on August 24, 410, Alaric and his Visigoths burst in by the Porta Salaria on the northeast of the city. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Events By place Western Roman Empire Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Emperor. Porta Salaria was a Gate in the Aurelian Walls of Rome, demolished in 1921 Rome, which had for so long defeated its enemies, now lay at the feet of foreign enemies.
The contemporary ecclesiastics recorded with wonder many instances of the Visigoths' clemency: Christian churches saved from ravage; protection granted to vast multitudes both of pagans and Christians who took refuge therein; vessels of gold and silver which were found in a private dwelling, spared because they "belonged to St. Peter"; at least one case in which a beautiful Roman matron appealed, not in vain, to the better feelings of the Gothic soldier who attempted her dishonor. But even these exceptional instances show that Rome was not entirely spared those scenes of horror which usually accompany the storming of a besieged city. Nonetheless, the written sources do not tell of any damage wrought by fire, save in the case of the Gardens of Sallust, which were situated close to the gate by which the Goths had made their entrance; nor is there any reason to attribute any extensive destruction of the buildings of the city to Alaric and his followers. The Gardens of Sallust ( Latin: Horti Sallustiani) were Roman gardens developed by the Roman historian Sallust in the 1st century The Basilica Aemilia in the Roman Forum did burn down, which perhaps can be attributed to Alaric: the archaeological evidence was provided by coins dating from 410 found melted in the floor. The Basilica Aemilia was a civil Basilica in the Roman forum, in Rome, Italy. This page refers to the main forum in the center of Rome See Imperial forums or Other forums in Rome (below for other forums in Rome and The pagan emperors tombs of the Mausoleum of Augustus and Castel Sant'Angelo were rifled and the ashes scattered. The Mausoleum of Augustus was a large tomb built by the Roman Emperor Augustus in 28 BC on the Campus Martius in Rome. For the town with the same name see Castel Sant'Angelo (RI The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as the Castel Sant'Angelo, is a towering
Alaric, having penetrated to the city, marched southwards into Calabria. Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of He desired to invade Africa, which on account of its grain was now the key to holding Italy firmly, but his ships were dashed to pieces by a storm in which many of his soldiers perished. He died soon afterward in Cosenza, probably of fever, at the early age of about forty (assuming again, a birth around 370), and his body was, according to legend, buried under the riverbed of the Busento. Cosenza is a city in Italy, located at the confluence of the rivers Busento and Crathis. The Busento River is a left side tributary of the Crathis (Crati in Italian River The stream was temporarily turned aside from its course while the grave was dug wherein the Gothic chief and some of his most precious spoils were interred; when the work was finished the river was turned back into its usual channel and the captives by whose hands the labor had been accomplished were put to death that none might learn their secret.
Alaric was succeeded in the command of the Gothic army by his brother-in-law, Ataulf, who three years later married Honorius' sister Gallia Placidia
Our chief authorities for the career of Alaric are four: the historian Orosius and the poet Claudian, both contemporary, neither disinterested; Zosimus, a somewhat prejudiced pagan historian who lived probably about half a century after the death of Alaric; and Jordanes, a Goth who wrote the history of his nation in the year 551, basing his work on The Trojan War when he fought the Romans. Ataulf (sometimes Athavulf, Atawulf, or Athaulf — "noble wolf" — Latinized as Ataulphus or Adolphus in Spanish and Paulus Orosius (b circa 375 d 418? was a Christian Historian, theologian and disciple of St Claudian (lat Claudius Claudianus) was a court Poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. Zosimus ( ''fl'' 490s-510s was a Byzantine historian who lived in Constantinople during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius Jordanes (also Jordanis or even Iornandes) was a 6th century Roman Bureaucrat, who turned his hand to History later in life Events By Place Byzantine Empire Beirut is destroyed by an Earthquake and Tsunami.
King Alaric I of the VisigothsBorn: 370 Died: 410
Title last held byAthanaric
|King of the Visigoths|
395 – 410