|State of Alabama|
|Spoken language(s)||English 96. The flag of Alabama was adopted by Act 383 of the Alabama state legislature on February 16 1895 The Great Seal of Alabama is the state seal of the US state of Alabama. This is a list of US state nicknames, including officially adopted Nicknames and other traditional nicknames for individual states of the United States. Here is a list of state Mottos for the states of the United States of America. Audemus jura nostra defendere ( Latin " We Dare Defend Our Rights " or " We Dare Maintain Our Rights " is the state The United States does not have an Official language; however the majority of the population speaks English as a native language (about 82% English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The United States does not have an Official language; however the majority of the population speaks English as a native language (about 82% English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States 17%,|
Spanish 2. 12%
(229,424, est. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Washington DC has been the capital of the United States since 1800 Montgomery (məntˈgəmɜriː is the Capital, second most populous city and the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the Southern U This is a list of the largest cities of US states by population Birmingham (ˈbɝmɪŋhæm is the largest City in the US state of Alabama and is the County seat of Jefferson County. 2006)
|Largest metro area||Greater Birmingham Area|
|Area||Ranked 30th in the US|
|- Total||52,419 sq mi|
|- Width||190 miles (306 km)|
|- Length||330 miles (531 km)|
|- % water||3. Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas|Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasIn the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB has produced The Birmingham-Hoover-Cullman AL CSA (combined statistical area sometimes known as Greater Birmingham, is made up of 8 counties in Central Alabama. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. This is a complete list of the states of the United States and its major territories ordered by total area, land area, and water area The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand 20|
|- Latitude||30° 11′ N to 35° N|
|- Longitude||84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W|
|Population||Ranked 23rd in the US|
|- Density||84. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison as of July 1, 2007, according to the This article is a list of the 50 US States ordered by Population density. 83/sq mi |
33. 84/km² (26th in the US)
|- Highest point||Mount Cheaha|
2,407 ft (734 m)
|- Mean||499 ft (152 m)|
|- Lowest point||Gulf of Mexico|
0 ft (0 m)
|Admission to Union||December 14, 1819 (22nd)|
|Governor||Robert R. Riley (R)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Jim Folsom, Jr. (D)|
|U.S. Senators||Richard Shelby (R)|
Jeff Sessions (R)
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/DST-5|
|Abbreviations||AL Ala. US-AL|
|Alabama State Symbols|
|-Amphibian||Red Hills salamander|
|-Bird||Yellowhammer, Wild Turkey|
|-Butterfly||Eastern Tiger Swallowtail|
|-Fish||Largemouth bass, Fighting tarpon|
|-Flower||Camellia, Oak-leaf Hydrangea|
|-Mammal||American Black Bear, Racking horse|
|-Reptile||Alabama red-bellied turtle|
|Beverage||Conecuh Ridge Whiskey|
|Food||Pecan, Blackberry, Peach|
|Gemstone||Star Blue Quartz|
|Slogan(s)||Share The Wonder,|
Alabama the beautiful,
Where America finds its voice
The State of Alabama (IPA: /ˌæləˈbæmə/), is located in the southern region of the United States of America. Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below --> Cheaha Mountain often called Mount Cheaha is the highest point in the U The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of U Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 1819 ( MDCCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar in the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government Robert Renfroe "Bob" Riley (born October 3 1944 is an American Politician in the Republican Party. This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. James Elisha Folsom Jr (born 14 May, 1949) is an American Democratic Politician who was the governor of Alabama The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Richard Craig Shelby (born May 6 1934) sometimes known as Dick Shelby, is an American politician. Jefferson Beauregard "Jeff" Sessions III (born December 24, 1946) is the junior United States Senator from Alabama. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses These are tables of congressional delegations from Alabama to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. This is a list of United States of America States by time zone The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving Daylight saving time ( DST The traditional abbreviations for US states and territories were widely used in mailing addresses prior to the introduction of two-letter U ISO 3166-2US is an ISO standard which defines Geocodes it is the subset of ISO 3166-2 which applies to the United States of America. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages This is a list of state symbols of Alabama. The items on the list have been officially sanctioned by the Alabama Legislature. This is a list of official US state Amphibians. State amphibians are designated by tradition or the respective state legislatures See also The Red Hills Salamander ( Phaeognathus hubrichti) is a fairly large terrestrial Salamander growing to about 255 millimeters This is a list of US state birds as designated by each state's legislature For the American Woodpecker or Alabama state troops see Yellowhammer (disambiguation The Yellowhammer, Emberiza citrinella, The Wild Turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) is native to North America and is the heaviest member of the Galliformes. This is a list of official US state butterflies: See also List of U The Eastern tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus, is a large (12 cm wingspan Swallowtail butterfly. This is a list of official and *unofficial US state fish:The only states lacking a state fish as of 2008 are Arkansas Indiana Kansas and Ohio The largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) is a Species of Fish in the sunfish family. The Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus, inhabits coastal waters estuaries, Lagoons and Rivers It feeds on various fish and Crabs This is a list of US state flowers: See also List of US state trees Lists of U Camellia ( ( Japanese: 椿 Tsubaki) is a Genus of Flowering plants in the family Theaceae, native to eastern and southern Hydrangea quercifolia ( Oakleaf hydrangea) is a species of Hydrangea native to the southeastern United States, from North Carolina This is a list of United States state insects note that some states have more than one designated insect or have multiple categories (e The monarch ( Danaus plexippus) is a Milkweed butterfly ( Subfamily Danainae in the family Nymphalidae. A state mammal is the official or representative Animal of a U The American Black Bear ( Ursus americanus) is the most common Bear Species native to North America. The Racking Horse is Horse breed derived from the Tennessee Walking Horse, recognized by the USDA in 1978 This is a list of official US state reptiles: See also Lists of United States state insignia The Alabama Red-Bellied Turtle, Pseudemys alabamensis, is native to Alabama. This List of US state trees includes official trees of the following states and U The 'Longleaf Pine' ( Pinus palustris) is a Pine native to the southeast United States, found along the coastal plain from eastern Texas to southeast This is a list of official state beverages: Conecuh Ridge Whiskey, officially marketed as Clyde May's Conecuh Ridge Alabama Style Whiskey, is a recreation of a high-quality aged Moonshine Whiskey This is a list of US state colors: See also Lists of US state insignia Red is any of a number of similar Colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of Light discernible by the human eye in the wavelength White is a Color, the perception which is evoked by Light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive Cone cells in the Human eye This is a list of official US state dances: See also Lists of U Square dance is a Folk dance with four couples (eight dancers arranged in a square with one couple on each side beginning with Couple 1 facing away from the music and going This is a list of official US state foods: The Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis, commonly misspelled illinoensis) is a species of Hickory, native to south-central North America The BlackBerry is a Wireless Handheld device introduced in 1999 as a two-way pager The peach ( Prunus persica) is a species of Prunus native to China that bears an edible juicy fruit also called a peach Most American states have made a state fossil designation in many cases during the 1980s. Basilosaurus ("King Lizard" is a Genus of Cetacean that lived from 40 to 34 million years ago in the Eocene. Not every state has an official state mineral rock stone or gemstone Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in Not every state has an official state mineral rock stone or gemstone Hematite, also spelt hæmatite, is the Mineral form of Iron(III oxide (Fe2O3 one of several Iron oxides Not every state has an official state mineral rock stone or gemstone Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of This is a list of official state shells: See also Lists of US This list of US state slogans is made up the Advertising slogans currently and formerly used by U This is a list of Representative US State Soils. A state soil is a Soil that has special significance to a particular state. Bama is the official state soil of Alabama. The Professional Soil Classifiers Association of Alabama adopted a resolution at its 1996 annual meeting recommending Introduction Forty-nine states of the United States (all except New Jersey) have one or more state songs, selected by the state Alabama is the State song of Alabama. It was written by Julia Tutwiler and composed by Edna Gockel-Gussen and adopted in 1931 Highways in the United States are split into at least four different types of systems The 50 State Quarters program ( is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. These are lists of US state insignia as designated by tradition or the respective state legislatures: List of U The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland waterways. The state ranks 23rd in population with almost 4. 6 million residents in 2006. 
From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many Southern States, suffered economic hardship, in part because of continued dependence on agriculture. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including More significantly, white rural, minority domination of the legislature until the 1960s meant that urban, contemporary interests were consistently underrepresented.  In the years following the war, Alabama experienced significant recovery as the economy of the state transitioned from agriculture to diversified interests in heavy manufacturing, mineral extraction, education, and high technology. Today, the state is heavily invested in aerospace, education, health care, and banking, and various heavy industries including automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication.
Alabama is unofficially nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, which is also the name of the state bird. The Northern Flicker ( Colaptes auratus) is a medium-sized member of the Woodpecker family This is a list of US state birds as designated by each state's legislature Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie". Dixie is a nickname for the Southern United States. Origin of Dixie According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the origins The state tree is the Longleaf Pine, the state flower is the Camellia. This List of US state trees includes official trees of the following states and U The 'Longleaf Pine' ( Pinus palustris) is a Pine native to the southeast United States, found along the coastal plain from eastern Texas to southeast This is a list of US state flowers: See also List of US state trees Lists of U Camellia ( ( Japanese: 椿 Tsubaki) is a Genus of Flowering plants in the family Theaceae, native to eastern and southern The capital of Alabama is Montgomery, and the largest city is Birmingham. Montgomery (məntˈgəmɜriː is the Capital, second most populous city and the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the Southern U Birmingham (ˈbɝmɪŋhæm is the largest City in the US state of Alabama and is the County seat of Jefferson County.
The Alabama, an Upper Creek tribe, which resided just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers on the upper reaches of the Alabama River, served as the etymological source of the names of the river and state. The Alabama or Alibamu ( Albaamaha in the Alabama language) are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans. The Coosa River is one of Alabama's most developed rivers It begins at the confluence of the Oostanaula and Etowah Rivers in Rome Georgia The Tallapoosa River runs from the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains in Georgia, in the United States, southward and westward into Alabama The Alabama River, in the US state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers which unite about six miles above Montgomery Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time The word Alabama is believed to have originated from the Choctaw language and was later adopted by the Alabama tribe as their name. The Choctaw language, traditionally spoken by the Native American Choctaw people of the southeastern United States, is a member of the Muskogean  The spelling of the word varies significantly between sources.  The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540 with Garcilasso de la Vega using Alibamo while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively.  As early as 1702, the tribe was known to the French as Alibamon with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  Other spellings of the appellation have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, and Allibamou.  The use of state names derived from Native American languages is common with an estimated 27 states having names of Native American origin. Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and 
Although the origin of Alabama was evident, the meaning of the tribe's name was not always clear. An article without a byline appearing in the Jacksonville Republican on July 27, 1842 originated the idea that the meaning was "Here We Rest. The byline on a Newspaper or Magazine article gives the name and often the position of the writer of the article Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common " This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Alexander Beaufort Meek (July 17 1814 ( Columbia South Carolina) - November 30 1865 ( Columbus Mississippi) was an American politician lawyer chess  Experts in the Muskogean languages have been unable to find any evidence that would support this translation. Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is an indigenous language family of the Southeastern United States.  It is now generally accepted that the word comes from the Choctaw words alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather").  This results in translations such as "clearers of the thicket" or even "herb gatherers" which may refer to clearing of land for the purpose of planting crops or to collection of medicinal plants by medicine men. " Medicine man " is an English term used to describe Native American spiritual figures such individuals are often viewed by scholars concerned with these 
Alabama is the 30th largest state in the United States with 52,423 square miles (135,775 km²) of total area: 3. 19% of the area is water, making Alabama 23rd in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second largest inland waterway system in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  About three-fifths of the land area is a gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The North Alabama region is mostly mountainous, with the Tennessee River cutting a large valley creating numerous creeks, streams, rivers, mountains, and lakes. North Alabama is a region of the US state of Alabama, generally considered to include 12 counties: Cherokee, Colbert, The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River.  Another natural wonder in Alabama is "Natural Bridge" rock, the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies, located just south of Haleyville, in Winston County. Natural Bridge is a town at the southwest edgeof Winston County, Alabama, United States, located around the intersection of U "Natural Bridges" redirects here for the US National Monument see Natural Bridges National Monument. Haleyville is a city in Marion and Winston Counties in the US Winston County is a County of the US state of Alabama, formerly known as Hancock County before 1858
Alabama generally ranges in elevation from sea level, down at Mobile Bay, to over 1,800 feet (550 m) in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States. The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. The highest point is Mount Cheaha (see map), at a height of 2,407 ft (733 m). Cheaha Mountain often called Mount Cheaha is the highest point in the U
States bordering Alabama include Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida to the south; and Mississippi to the west. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States Alabama has coastline at the Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge of the state. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world 
National Parks in Alabama include Horseshoe Bend National Military Park near Alexander City; Little River Canyon National Preserve near Fort Payne; Russell Cave National Monument in Bridgeport; Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site in Tuskegee; and Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site near Tuskegee. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Horseshoe Bend National Military Park is a US National Military Park managed by the National Park Service that is the site of the last battle of Alexander City is a city in Tallapoosa County, Alabama, United States. Little River Canyon National Preserve is a United States National Preserve located on top of Lookout Mountain near Fort Payne, Alabama Fort Payne is a city in DeKalb County, Alabama, United States. The Russell Cave National Monument is a US National Monument in northeastern Bridgeport is a small city in Jackson County, Alabama, United States. Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site, at Moton Field in Tuskegee Alabama, commemorates the contributions of African American airmen in World War II. Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. 
Alabama also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway, the Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail, and the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail. See also Blue Ridge Parkway Loveless Cafe The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the Political and emotional peak of the American civil rights The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation of Native Americans from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma in the Western United States
Suburban Baldwin County, along the Gulf Coast, is the largest county in the state in both land area and water area. Baldwin County is a County of the US state of Alabama. It is named in honor of Abraham Baldwin, a member of the United States Senate 
A 5-mile (8 km)-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery. Elmore County is a County of the State of Alabama. Its name is in honor of General John A This is the Wetumpka crater, which is the site of "Alabama's greatest natural disaster". The Wetumpka impact crater is the only confirmed Meteorite crater in Alabama, United States.  A 1,000-foot (300 m)-wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago.  The hills just east of downtown Wetumpka showcase the eroded remains of the impact crater that was blasted into the bedrock, with the area labeled the Wetumpka crater or astrobleme ("star-wound") because of the concentric rings of fractures and zones of shattered rock that can be found beneath the surface. Wetumpka is a city in Elmore County, Alabama, United States. At the 2000 census the population was 5726 The Wetumpka impact crater is the only confirmed Meteorite crater in Alabama, United States.  In 2002, Christian Koeberl with the Institute of Geochemistry University of Vienna published evidence and established the site as an internationally recognized impact crater. 
The climate of Alabama is described as temperate with an average annual temperature of 64 °F (18 °C). Birmingham (ˈbɝmɪŋhæm is the largest City in the US state of Alabama and is the County seat of Jefferson County. Huntsville is a city in Madison and Limestone Counties in the U This is a list of the 718 current cities Major cities by population City Population > 200000 Birmingham (ˈbɝmɪŋhæm is the largest City in the US state of Alabama and is the County seat of Jefferson County. Huntsville is a city in Madison and Limestone Counties in the U Montgomery (məntˈgəmɜriː is the Capital, second most populous city and the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the Southern U Tuscaloosa is a city in west central Alabama in the southern United States. The Decatur Metropolitan Area is a moderately urban region of North-Central Alabama. The Shoals is a metropolitan area in northwestern Alabama officially known as the Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area, including the cities of Florence, Dothan is a city located in the southeastern corner of the US The Auburn Metropolitan Area --officially the Auburn-Opelika Metropolitan Statistical Area --is a metro area in east-central Alabama with a 2007 population Counties Alabama Calhoun Core Cities Oxford Anniston Gadsden is a city in and the County seat of Etowah County, northeastern Alabama, United States, approximately 60 miles northeast of Birmingham Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler.  Generally, Alabama has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the year. Alabama receives an average of 56 inches (1,400 mm) of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state. 
Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the United States, with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F (32 °C) throughout the summer in the entire state. Alabama is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding Areas of the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken.
South Alabama reports more thunderstorms than any part of the U. S. The Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large hail – the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or Hail is a form of precipitation which consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice (hailstones Alabama ranks seventh in the number of deaths from lightning and ninth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita.  Sometimes tornadoes occur – these are common throughout the state, although the peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern parts of the state. A tornado is a violent rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a Cumulonimbus cloud or in rare cases the base of a Cumulus Alabama shares the dubious distinction, with Kansas, of having reported more F5 tornadoes than any other state – according to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center for the period 1 January 1950 to 31 October 2006. Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American " The Fujita scale ( F-Scale) or Fujita-Pearson scale, is a scale for rating Tornado intensity based on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures The United States National Climatic Data Center ( NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina is the world's largest active Archive of New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. An F5 tornado is the most powerful of its kind.  Several long – tracked F5 tornadoes have contributed to Alabama reporting more tornado fatalities than any other state except for Texas and Mississippi. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States The Super Outbreak of March, 1974, badly affected Alabama. The Super Outbreak is the largest Tornado outbreak on record for a single 24-hour period The northern part of the state – along the Tennessee Valley – is one of the areas in the US most vulnerable to violent tornadoes. The area of Alabama and Mississippi most affected by tornadoes is sometimes referred to as Dixie Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley of the Southern Plains. Dixie Alley is a nickname sometimes given to areas of the southern United States that are particularly vulnerable to strong or violent Tornadoes This is distinct from For the book by William S Burroughs, see Tornado Alley (book. Alabama is one of the few places in the world that has a secondary tornado season (November and December) in addition to the Spring severe weather season.
Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of the southeastern United States, with average January low temperatures around 40 °F (4 °C) in Mobile and around 32 °F (0 °C) in Birmingham. The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a "Southeast" region Snow is a rare event in much of Alabama. Areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years. In the southern Gulf coast, snowfall is less frequent, sometimes going several years without any snowfall.
|Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Alabama cities|
Among the Native American people once living in the area of present day Alabama were Alabama (Alibamu), Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Koasati, and Mobile. Alabama became a State of the United States of America in 1819 Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The Alabama or Alibamu ( Albaamaha in the Alabama language) are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans. The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact The Chickasaw' are Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States (Mississippi Alabama Tennessee The Choctaw are a Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States ( Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana) The Coushatta (also Koasati) are a Native American people living primarily in the U  Trade with the Northeast via the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC-AD 700) and continued until European contact. The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort  Meso-American influence is evident in the agrarian Mississippian culture that followed. The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern
The French founded the first European settlement in the state with the establishment of Mobile in 1702. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  Southern Alabama was French from 1702 to 1763, part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1780, and part of Spanish West Florida from 1780 to 1814. Northern and central Alabama was part of British Georgia from 1763 to 1783 and part of the American Mississippi territory thereafter. Its statehood was delayed by the lack of a coastline; rectified when Andrew Jackson captured Spanish Mobile in 1814. Andrew Jackson (March 15 1767 June 8 1845 was the seventh President of the United States (1829&ndash1837  Alabama was the twenty-second state admitted to the Union, in 1819.
Alabama was the new frontier in the 1820s and 1830s. Settlers rapidly arrived to take advantage of fertile soils. Planters brought slaves with them, and traders brought in more from the Upper South as the cotton plantations expanded. The economy of the central "Black Belt" featured large cotton plantations whose owners built their wealth on the labor of enslaved African Americans. Alabama 's Black Belt is a region of the state and part of the larger Black Belt Region of the Southern United States, which stretches from It was named for the dark, fertile soil.  Elsewhere poor whites were subsistence farmers. According to the 1860 census, enslaved Africans comprised 45% of the state's population of 964,201. There were only 2,690 free persons of color.
In 1861 Alabama seceded from the Union to join the Confederate States of America. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 While not many battles were fought in the state, Alabama contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the Civil War. All the slaves were freed by 1865.  Following Reconstruction, Alabama was readmitted to the Union in 1868.
After the Civil War, the state was still chiefly rural and tied to cotton. Planters resisted working with free labor and sought to re-establish controls over African Americans. Whites used paramiliatry groups, Jim Crow laws and segregation to reduce freedoms of African Americans and restore their own dominance. The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965
In its new constitution of 1901, the elite-dominated legislature effectively disfranchised African Americans through voting restrictions. While the planter class had engaged poor whites in supporting these efforts, the new restrictions resulted in disfranchising poor whites as well. By 1941 a total of more whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 whites to 520,000 blacks. This was due mostly to effects of the cumulative poll tax. 
The damage to the African-American community was more pervasive, as nearly all its citizens lost the ability to vote. In 1900 fourteen Black Belt counties (which were primarily African American) had more than 79,000 voters on the rolls. By June 1,1903, the number of registered voters had dropped to 1,081. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected In 1900 Alabama had more than 181,000 African Americans eligible to vote. By 1903 only 2,980 had managed to "qualify" to register, although at least 74,000 black voters were literate. The shut out was longlasting. The disfranchisement was ended only by African Americans' leading the Civil Rights Movement and gaining Federal legislation in the mid-1960s to protect their voting and civil rights. Such legislation also protected the rights of poor whites.
The rural-dominated legislature continued to underfund schools and services for African Americans in the segregated state, but did not relieve them of paying taxes.  Continued racial discrimination, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation led tens of thousands of African Americans to seek out opportunities in northern cities. The boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis) is a Beetle measuring an average length of six Millimeters which feeds on Cotton buds and flowers They left Alabama in the early 20th century as part of the Great Migration to industrial jobs and better futures in northern industrial cities. The rate of population growth rate in Alabama (see table) dropped by nearly half from 1910-1920, reflecting the outmigration.
At the same time, many rural whites and blacks migrated to the city of Birmingham for work in new industrial jobs. It experienced such rapid growth that it was nicknamed "The Magic City. " By the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th largest city in the U. S and held more than 30% of the population of the state. Heavy industry and mining were the basis of the economy.
Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate seats based on population. They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. In addition, the state legislature gerrymandered the few Birmingham legislative seats to ensure election by persons living outside of Birmingham.
One result was that Jefferson County, home of Birmingham's industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than one-third of all tax revenue to the state. It received back only 1/67th of the tax money, as the state legislature ensured that taxes were distributed equally to each county regardless of population. Urban interests were consistently underrepresented. A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination, "A minority of about 25 per cent of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama legislature. "
Because of the long disfranchisement of African Americans, the state continued as one-party Democratic for decades. It produced a number of national leaders. Industrial development related to the demands of World War II brought prosperity. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  Cotton faded in importance as the state developed a manufacturing and service base. In the 1960s under Governor George Wallace, many whites in the state opposed integration efforts. George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for
By the moral crusade of the Civil Rights Movement, African Americans achieved a restoration of voting and other civil rights through the passage of the national Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. De jure segregation ended in the states as Jim Crow laws were invalidated or repealed. The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 
Under the Voting Rights Act of 1965, cases were filed in Federal courts to force Alabama to properly redistrict by population both the state legislature House and Senate. In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the Alabama constitution's provision for periodic redistricting based on population was implemented. This benefited the many urban areas that had developed, and all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than 60 years. 
After 1972, the state's white voters shifted much of their support to Republican candidates in presidential elections (as also occurred in neighboring southern states). Since 1990 the majority of whites in the state have also voted increasingly Republican in state elections. 
|Census||Pop. See also Alabama Population According to the US Census Bureau, Alabama's 2000 population was 4447100||%±|
|Est. 2007||4,627,851||4. 1%|
As of 2005, Alabama has an estimated population of 4,557,808, which is an increase of 32,433, or 0. 7%, from the prior year and an increase of 110,457, or 2. 5%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 77,418 people (that is 319,544 births minus 242,126 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 36,457 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 25,936 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 10,521 people.
The state had 108,000 foreign-born (2. 4% of the state population), of which an estimated 22. 2% were illegal immigrants (24,000).
The center of population of Alabama is located in Chilton County, outside of the town of Jemison, an area known as Jemison Division. In Demographics, the center of population of a region is the geographical point nearest to all the inhabitants of that region on average Chilton County is a County of the US state of Alabama known for its Peaches. Jemison is a town in Chilton County, Alabama, United States. At the 2000 census the population was 2248 
The racial makeup of the state and comparison to the prior census:
|Demographics of Alabama (csv)|
|2000 (total population)||72. 56%||26. 33%||1. 00%||0. 89%||0. 07%|
|2000 (Hispanic only)||1. 48%||0. 18%||0. 04%||0. 02%||0. 01%|
|2005 (total population)||72. 14%||26. 70%||0. 98%||1. 02%||0. 07%|
|2005 (Hispanic only)||2. 08%||0. 17%||0. 05%||0. 03%||0. 01%|
|Growth 2000–05 (total population)||1. 90%||3. 95%||-0. 06%||17. 43%||4. 90%|
|Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only)||1. 02%||3. 97%||-0. 55%||17. 47%||6. 67%|
|Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only)||43. 85%||1. 05%||11. 46%||16. 20%||-2. 17%|
|* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander|
The largest reported ancestry groups in Alabama: African American (26. 0%), American (17. 0%), English (7. English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo -Americans although this may have a wider cultural meaning are Citizens of the United States whose ancestry 8%), Irish (7. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. 7%), German (5. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry 7%), and Scots-Irish (2. Scotch-Irish (the historically common term in North America) or Scots-Irish refers to inhabitants of the United States and by some of Canada 0%). 'American' does not include those reported as Native American.
Alabama is located in the middle of the Bible Belt. The Bible Belt is an informal term for an area of the United States of America in which socially conservative Evangelical Protestantism is a In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the Christian Gospels. Of those who indicated a religious preference, 59% said they possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further learning.  In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in churches in the state. 
According to the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis, the 2006 total gross state product was $160 billion, or $29,697 per capita for a ranking of 44th among states. The Bureau of Economic Analysis ( BEA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides important economic statistics including the Gross state product (or gross regional product) is a measurement of the economic output of a state or Province. Alabama's GDP increased 3. 1% from 2005, placing Alabama number 23 in terms of state level GDP growth. The single largest increase came in the area of durable goods manufacturing.  In 1999, per capita income for the state was $18,189. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country 
Alabama's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, cattle, plant nursery items, peanuts, cotton, grains such as corn and sorghum, vegetables, milk, soybeans, and peaches. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Poultry is the category of Domesticated Birds which some humans keep for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or kill for their Meat and/or An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals consisting of an Ovum surrounded by layers of Membranes and an outer casing which acts to nourish Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The peanut, or Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the Legume family Fabaceae native to South America, Mexico Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as Fodder plants either cultivated or as part The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. The peach ( Prunus persica) is a species of Prunus native to China that bears an edible juicy fruit also called a peach Although known as "The Cotton State", Alabama ranks between eight and ten in national cotton production, according to various reports, with Texas, Georgia and Mississippi comprising the top three. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States
Alabama's industrial outputs include iron and steel products (including cast-iron and steel pipe); paper, lumber, and wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Also, Alabama produces aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, which is home of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the US Army Missile Command, headquartered at Redstone Arsenal. This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical Huntsville is a city in Madison and Limestone Counties in the U The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program George C Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC the original home of NASA, is a lead center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion Shuttle external fuel The United States Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM is the U Redstone Arsenal is a US Army post and a Census-designated place (CDP located next to the city of Huntsville in Madison County, Alabama
Alabama is also home to the largest industrial growth corridor in the nation, including the surrounding states of Tennessee, Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia. Most of this growth is due to Alabama's rapidly expanding automotive manufacturing industry. In Alabama alone since 1993, it has generated more than 67,800 new jobs. Alabama currently ranks 2nd in the nation behind Detroit in automobile output. With recent expansions at sites in Alabama, by early 2009 the state will surpass Detroit and become the largest builder of automobiles in North America.
In May 2007, a site north of Mobile was selected by German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp for a $3. ThyssenKrupp AG ( is a large German industrial conglomerate, with more than 200000 employees 7 billion steel production plant, with the promise of 2,700 permanent jobs. 
The city of Mobile, Alabama's only saltwater port, is a busy seaport on the Gulf of Mexico, and with inland waterway access to the Midwest via the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (popularly known as the Tenn-Tom) is a 234 mile (377 km artificial waterway that provides a connecting link between the Tennessee
Alabama levies a 2, 4, or 5% personal income tax, depending upon the amount earned and filing status. The state's general sales tax rate is 4%.  The collection rate could be substantially higher, depending upon additional city and county sales taxes. The corporate income tax rate is currently 6. 5%. The overall federal, state, and local tax burden in Alabama ranks the state as the second least tax-burdened state in the country. 
As recently as 2003, Alabama had an annual budget deficit as high as $670 million. It is one of only a few handful of states to accomplish large surpluses, with a budget surplus of nearly $1. 2 billion in 2007, and estimated at more than $2. 1 billion for 2008. The declining economy may reduce that surplus.
Alabama has five major interstate roads that cross it: I-65 runs north–south roughly through the middle of the state; I-59/I-20 travels from the central west border to Birmingham, where I-59 continues to the north-east corner of the state and I-20 continues east towards Atlanta; I-85 goes from the border of Georgia and ends in Montgomery, providing a main thoroughfare to Atlanta; and I-10 traverses the southernmost portion of the state, running from west to east through Mobile. Interstate 65 (I-65 is a major Interstate Highway in the United States. Interstate 59 (I-59 is an Interstate highway in the southern United States. Interstate 85 (I-85 is an Interstate highway in the southeastern United States. Interstate 10, the major east-west Interstate Highway in the southern United States runs through the southern sections of Mobile County and Baldwin County Alabama Another interstate road, I-22, is currently under construction. Interstate 22 (I-22 when completed will follow the US Highway 78 corridor along a 213-mile (343-km route from Memphis Tennessee, to Birmingham Alabama When completed around 2012 it will connect Birmingham with Memphis, Tennessee. Memphis is a City in the southwest corner of Tennessee, and the County seat of Shelby County.
Major airports in Alabama include Birmingham International Airport (BHM), Dothan Regional Airport (DHN), Huntsville International Airport (HSV), Mobile Regional Airport (MOB), Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM), Muscle Shoals – Northwest Alabama Regional Airport (MSL), Tuscaloosa Regional Airport (TCL), and Pryor Field Regional Airport (DCU). Birmingham International Airport is the major Airport that serves Birmingham, Alabama and Central Alabama. Dothan Regional Airport is a public Airport located five miles (8 km northwest of the Central business district of Dothan, a city in Houston Huntsville International Airport, also known as Carl T Jones Field, is an Airport located 9 miles (14 km southwest of the Central business district Mobile Regional Airport is an Airport located 11 miles (18 km west of the Central business district of Mobile, a city in Mobile County Montgomery Regional Airport, also known as Dannelly Field, is a joint civil-military public Airport located six miles (9 Northwest Alabama Regional Airport is a public Airport located one mile (1 Tuscaloosa Regional Airport is a public Airport located three miles (5 km northwest of the Central business district of Tuscaloosa, a city in Pryor Field Regional Airport is a public Airport located three miles (5 km northeast of the Central business district of Decatur and south of For rail transport, Amtrak schedules the Crescent, a daily passenger train, running from New York to New Orleans with stops at Anniston, Birmingham, and Tuscaloosa. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971
Listed from north to south
|Port name||Location||Connected to|
|Port of Muscle Shoals||Florence/Muscle Shoals, on Wilson Lake||Tennessee River|
|Port of Decatur||Decatur, on Wheeler Lake||Tennessee River|
|Port of Guntersville||Guntersville, on Lake Guntersville||Tennessee River|
|Port of Birmingham||Birmingham, on Black Warrior River||Tenn-Tom Waterway|
|Port of Tuscaloosa||Tuscaloosa, on Black Warrior River||Tenn-Tom Waterway|
|Port of Montgomery||Montgomery, on Woodruff Lake||Alabama River|
|Port of Mobile||Mobile, on Mobile Bay||Gulf of Mexico|
The foundational document for Alabama's government is the Alabama Constitution, which was ratified in 1901. Muscle Shoals is a city in Colbert County, Alabama, United States. Florence is a city in and the County seat of Lauderdale County, Alabama, United States, in the northwestern corner of the state Muscle Shoals is a city in Colbert County, Alabama, United States. Wilson Lake is the Reservoir created by Wilson Dam as part of the Tennessee Valley Authority. The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. The Port of Decatur is a Transshipment Port on the Tennessee River, in the city of Decatur Alabama, United States of America Decatur is a city in Limestone and Morgan Counties in the US state of Alabama. Wheeler Lake is located in the northern part of the United States state of Alabama, between Rogersville and Huntsville. The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. Guntersville is a city in Marshall County, Alabama, United States and is included in the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area. Guntersville is a city in Marshall County, Alabama, United States and is included in the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area. Guntersville Lake (generally referred to locally as Lake Guntersville) is located in north Alabama between Bridgeport and Guntersville. The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. Birmingham (ˈbɝmɪŋhæm is the largest City in the US state of Alabama and is the County seat of Jefferson County. Birmingham (ˈbɝmɪŋhæm is the largest City in the US state of Alabama and is the County seat of Jefferson County. The Black Warrior River is a tributary of the Tombigbee River, approximately 178 mi (286 km long in west central Alabama The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (popularly known as the Tenn-Tom) is a 234 mile (377 km artificial waterway that provides a connecting link between the Tennessee Tuscaloosa is a city in west central Alabama in the southern United States. Tuscaloosa is a city in west central Alabama in the southern United States. The Black Warrior River is a tributary of the Tombigbee River, approximately 178 mi (286 km long in west central Alabama The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (popularly known as the Tenn-Tom) is a 234 mile (377 km artificial waterway that provides a connecting link between the Tennessee Montgomery (məntˈgəmɜriː is the Capital, second most populous city and the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the Southern U Montgomery (məntˈgəmɜriː is the Capital, second most populous city and the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the Southern U The Alabama River, in the US state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers which unite about six miles above Montgomery The Port of Mobile, located in Mobile, Alabama, United States, is the only deep-water port in the state and was the 10th largest in the nation in 2006 Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world The Government of Alabama is divided into executive judicial and legislative branches The Constitution of the State of Alabama is the basic governing document of the U At almost 800 amendments and 310,000 words, it is the world's longest constitution and is roughly forty times the length of the U.S. Constitution. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States.  There is a significant movement to rewrite and modernize Alabama's constitution.  This movement is based upon the fact that Alabama's constitution highly centralizes power in Montgomery and leaves practically no power in local hands. Any policy changes proposed around the state must be approved by the entire Alabama legislature and, frequently, by state referendum. One criticism of the current constitution claims that its complexity and length were intentional to codify segregation and racism.
Alabama is divided into three equal branches:
The legislative branch is the Alabama Legislature, a bicameral assembly composed of the Alabama House of Representatives, with 105 members, and the Alabama Senate, with 35 members. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The Alabama Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of Alabama. In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral The Alabama House of Representatives is the Lower house of the Alabama Legislature, the state legislature of the U The Alabama Senate is the Upper house of the Alabama Legislature, the state legislature of the U The Legislature is responsible for writing, debating, passing, or defeating state legislation.
The executive branch is responsible for the execution and oversight of laws. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. It is headed by the Governor of Alabama. The Governor of the State of Alabama is the chief executive of the Government of Alabama The Governor has the power to execute Alabama 's laws and to call Other members of executive branch include the cabinet, the Attorney General of Alabama, the Alabama Secretary of State, the Alabama Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, the Alabama State Treasurer, and the Alabama State Auditor. The Attorney General of Alabama is an elected constitutional officer of the State of Alabama.
The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and applying the law in state criminal and civil cases. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Constitution of the State of Alabama is the basic governing document of the U The highest court is the Supreme Court of Alabama. The Supreme Court of Alabama is the highest court in the state of Alabama.
Alabama has 67 counties. A county of the United States is a local level of government created as a subdivision of a state by the state government or by the federal or territorial government as a subdivision Each county has its own elected legislative branch, usually called the County Commission, which usually also has executive authority in the county. Due to the restraints placed in the Alabama Constitution, all but seven counties (Jefferson, Lee, Mobile, Madison, Montgomery, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa) in the state have little to no home rule. The Constitution of the State of Alabama is the basic governing document of the U Home rule refers to a demand that constituent parts of a state be given greater self-government within the greater administrative purview of the central government Instead, most counties in the state must lobby the Local Legislation Committee of the state legislature to get simple local policies such as waste disposal to land use zoning.
Alabama is an alcoholic beverage control state; the government holds a monopoly on the sale of alcohol. ImageAlabama counties mappng|thumb|right|310px|Alabama counties (clickable mappoly 210 83 208 83 199 75 188 75 176 70 171 70 165 David Justin 1550 16 September However, counties can declare themselves "dry"; the state does not sell alcohol in those areas.
The current governor of the state is Bob Riley. The Governor of the State of Alabama is the chief executive of the Government of Alabama The Governor has the power to execute Alabama 's laws and to call Robert Renfroe "Bob" Riley (born October 3 1944 is an American Politician in the Republican Party. The lieutenant governor is Jim Folsom Jr. This is a List of Lieutenant Governors of the US state of Alabama, 1868 to present James Elisha Folsom Jr (born 14 May, 1949) is an American Democratic Politician who was the governor of Alabama The Democratic Party currently holds a large majority in both houses of the Legislature. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The Alabama Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of Alabama. Due to the Legislature's power to override a gubernatorial veto by a mere simple majority (most state Legislatures require a 2/3 majority to override a veto), the relationship between the executive and legislative branches can be easily strained when different parties control the branches. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation.
During Reconstruction following the American Civil War, Alabama was occupied by federal troops of the Third Military District under General John Pope. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Third Military District existed in the American South during the Reconstruction era that followed the American Civil War. John Pope ( March 16, 1822 &ndash September 23, 1892) was a career United States Army officer and Union general in In 1874, the political coalition known as the Redeemers took control of the state government from the Republicans, in part by suppressing the African American vote through intimidation and terrorism. For the marvel comics superhero group see Redeemers (comics. The " Redeemers " were a political coalition in the Southern United States during the White supremacy was re-established.
After 1890, a coalition of whites passed laws to segregate and disenfranchise black residents, a process completed in provisions of the 1901 constitution. Provisions which disfranchised African Americans also disfranchised poor whites, however. By 1941 more whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 to 520,000, although the impact was greater on the African-American community, as almost all of its citizens were disfranchised.
From 1901 to the 1960s, the state legislature failed to perform redistricting as population grew and shifted within the state . The result was a rural minority that dominated state politics until a series of court cases required redistricting in 1972.
With the disfranchisement of African Americans, the state became part of the "Solid South", a one-party system in which the Democratic Party became essentially the only political party in every Southern state. Solid South refers to the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for nearly a century from 1877 the end of the Reconstruction The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. For nearly 100 years, local and state elections in Alabama were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally only token Republican challengers running in the General Election. A primary election ( nominating primary) also referred to simply as a primary, is an election in which voters in a Jurisdiction select candidates
In the 1986 Democratic primary election, the then-incumbent Lieutenant Governor lost the Democratic nomination for Governor. The state Democratic party invalidated the election and placed the Lieutenant Governor's name on the ballot as the Democratic candidate instead of the candidate chosen in the primary. The voters of the state revolted at what they perceived as disenfranchisement of their right to vote and elected the Republican challenger Guy Hunt as Governor. Harold Guy Hunt (born June 17, 1933 in Holly Pond Alabama) is an American Politician who served two terms as the Governor This was the first Republican Governor elected in Alabama since Reconstruction. Since then, Republicans have been increasingly elected to state offices until in 2006 Democrats were barely holding a majority in the state legislature. Since 1986, only one Democrat, Don Siegelman, has managed to win the Governor's office. Donald Eugene Siegelman (born February 24, 1946) is an American Democratic politician A corruption probe and eventual trial, the timing of which coincided with the 2006 state primary, relegated Siegelman to one term. Today, the state is mainly Republican.
Alabama state politics gained nationwide and international attention in the 1950s and 1960s during the American Civil Rights Movement, when majority whites bureaucratically, and at times, violently resisted protests for electoral and social reform. The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African George Wallace, the state's governor, remains a notorious and controversial figure. George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for Only with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 did African Americans regain suffrage and other civil rights.
In 2007, the Alabama Legislature passed, and the Governor signed, a resolution expressing "profound regret" over slavery and its lingering impact. The Alabama Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of Alabama. In a symbolic ceremony, the bill was signed in the Alabama State Capitol, which served as the first Capital of the Confederate States of America. The Alabama State Capitol, also known as First Confederate Capitol, is located on Goat Hill in Montgomery Alabama. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 
|2004||62. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. 46% 1,176,394||36. 84% 693,933||George W. Bush|
|2000||56. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Democratic candidate Al Gore, then Vice President, and Republican 47% 944,409||41. 59% 695,602||George W. Bush|
|1996||50. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice 12% 769,044||43. 16% 662,165||Bob Dole|
|1992||47. Robert Joseph "Bob" Dole (born July 22 1923 is an attorney and retired United States Senator from Kansas from 1969–1996 serving part of that time The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H 65% 804,283||40. 88% 690,080||George Bush|
|1988||59. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 -->The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties 17% 815,576||39. 86% 549,506||George Bush|
|1984||60. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 The United States presidential election of 1984 was a contest between the incumbent President Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate and former Vice President 54% 872,849||38. 28% 551,899||Ronald Reagan|
|1980||48. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan 75% 654,192||47. 45% 636,730||Ronald Reagan|
|1976||42. The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M 61% 504,070||55. 73% 659,170||Jimmy Carter|
|1972||72. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 The United States presidential election of 1972 was waged on the issues of radicalism and the Vietnam War. 43% 728,701||25. 54% 256,923||Richard Nixon|
|1968*||13. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience and included the assassination of Democratic candidate 99% 146,923||18. 72% 196,579||George Wallace|
|1964||69. George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1964 was one of the most lopsided presidential elections in the history of the United States 45% 479,085||30. 55% 210,732||Barry Goldwater|
|1960||42. The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D 16% 237,981||56. 39% 318,303||John F. Kennedy|
|*State won by George Wallace|
of the American Independent Party,
at 65. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for The American Independent Party is a California Political party. 86%, or 691,425 votes
From 1876 through 1956, Alabama supported only Democratic presidential candidates, by large margins. 1960 was a curious election. The Democrats won with John F. Kennedy on the ballot, but the Democratic electors from Alabama gave 6 of their 11 electoral votes as a protest to Harry Byrd. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Harry Flood Byrd Sr ( June 10, 1887 – October 20, 1966) of Berryville in Clarke County Virginia was an American In 1964, Republican Barry Goldwater carried the state, in part because of his opposition to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which restored the franchise for African Americans. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1964 was one of the most lopsided presidential elections in the history of the United States
In the 1968 presidential election, Alabama supported native son and American Independent Party candidate George Wallace over both Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience and included the assassination of Democratic candidate The American Independent Party is a California Political party. George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr ( May 27, 1911 &ndash January 13, 1978) was the thirty-eighth Vice President of the United States, serving In 1976, Democratic candidate Jimmy Carter from Georgia carried the state, the region, and the nation, but Democratic control of the region slipped after that. The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002
Since 1980, conservative Alabama voters have increasingly voted for Republican candidates at the Federal level, especially in Presidential elections. By contrast, Democratic candidates have been elected to many state-level offices and comprise a longstanding majority in the Alabama Legislature. The Alabama Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of Alabama.
In 2004, George W. Bush won Alabama's nine electoral votes by a margin of 25 percentage points with 62. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. 5% of the vote, mostly white voters. The eleven counties that voted Democratic were Black Belt counties, where African Americans are the majority racial group. Alabama 's Black Belt is a region of the state and part of the larger Black Belt Region of the Southern United States, which stretches from African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa
The state's two U.S. senators are Jefferson B. Sessions III and Richard C. Shelby, both Republicans. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Jefferson Beauregard "Jeff" Sessions III (born December 24, 1946) is the junior United States Senator from Alabama. Richard Craig Shelby (born May 6 1934) sometimes known as Dick Shelby, is an American politician.
In the U.S. House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, five of whom are Republicans: (Jo Bonner, Terry Everett, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, and Spencer Bachus) and two are Democrats: (Bud Cramer and Artur Davis). The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Josiah Robins (Jo Bonner Jr (born November 19 1959 American politician has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives Robert Terry Everett (born February 15 1937 is an American politician who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives Michael Dennis (Mike Rogers (born July 16 1958 is American politician and a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since Robert Brown Aderholt (born July 22 1965 is an American politician and a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1997 Spencer Thomas Bachus III (born December 28 1947) American politician has been a Republican member of the United States House of Robert Edward " Bud " Cramer Jr, (b August 22, 1947) American politician has been a Democratic member Artur Genestre Davis (born October 9 1967) is an American politician who has been a Democratic member of the United States House of
Public primary and secondary education in Alabama is under the oversight of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education. Alabama trended sharply toward George W Bush in 2004 In 2000 it voted for him 56%-41% by fifteen points this year it voted for him by 25 points The Alabama State Board of Education is a nine-member body which authorizes the education policy for the state of Alabama. Together, 1,541 individual schools provide education for 743,364 elementary and secondary students. 
Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. In FY 2006-2007, Alabama appropriated $3,775,163,578 for primary and secondary education. That represented an increase of $444,736,387 over the previous fiscal year. 
In 2007, over 82 percent of schools made adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward student proficiency under the National No Child Left Behind law. In 2004, only 23 percent of schools met AYP. 
Alabama's programs of higher education include 14 four-year public universities, numerous two-year community colleges, and 17 private, undergraduate and graduate universities. Public, post-secondary education in Alabama is overseen by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Colleges and universities in Alabama offer degree programs from 2-year associate degrees to 16 doctoral level programs. 
Accreditation of academic programs is through the Southern Association of Schools and Colleges as well as a variety of subject focused national and international accreditation agencies. 
|Birmingham Barons||Baseball||Southern League|
|Huntsville Stars||Baseball||Southern League|
|Mobile BayBears||Baseball||Southern League|
|Montgomery Biscuits||Baseball||Southern League|
|Huntsville Havoc||Ice hockey||Southern Professional Hockey League|
|Alabama Renegades (Huntsville)||Football||National Women's Football Association|
|Tennessee Valley Vipers (Huntsville)||Arena football||af2|
Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.