Al-Nahda (النهضة, also an-Nahda or el Nahda, Arabic for "awakening" or "renaissance") was cultural and intellectual renaissance that began in the late 19th century and early 20th century in Egypt, then later moving to Lebanon and other Arabic-speaking countries. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية It is often regarded as the Egyptian counterpart of the European Enlightenment era, and a period of intellectual modernization and reform. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century
Al-Nahda played a part in the rise of Egyptian nationalism to challenge European colonial domination. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism The movement was heavily influenced by European thinking and ideologies, or in some cases, the perceived need to counter such influences by strengthening Egyptian or Islamic cultural cohesion. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Often, the Nahda is seen as connected to the cultural shock brought on by Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1798, and the reformist drive of subsequent rulers such as Muhammad Ali. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation Another major influence and motive, were the 19th century tanzimat reforms of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled most of the Arabic-speaking world until the first world war. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The Tanzimat ( Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish These reforms brought a constitutional order to Ottoman politics, and institutionalized politics, which in turn engendered a new political class.
The Egyptian nahda was articulated in purely Egyptian terms, and its participants were mostly Egyptians, and Cairo was undoubtedly the geographical center of the movement. This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. But al-Nahda was also felt in neighboring Arab capitals, notably Beirut and to a lesser extent Damascus. Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2 Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. The shared language of Arabic-speaking nations ensured that the accomplishments of the movement could be quickly picked up by intellectuals in Arab countries.
The Egyptian scholar Rifa'a el-Tahtawi (1801-1873) is often seen as the pioneering figure of the Nahda. Rifa'a el-Tahtawi (also spelled Tahtawy; Arabic: رفاعة الطهطاوي born in Tahta, Egypt 1801 died in 1873 was an Egyptian Rifa'a el-Tahtawi (also spelled Tahtawy; Arabic: رفاعة الطهطاوي born in Tahta, Egypt 1801 died in 1873 was an Egyptian He was sent to Paris in 1826 by Muhammad Ali's government to study Western sciences and educational methods, although originally to serve as Imam for the Egyptian cadets training at the Paris military academy. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community He came to hold a very positive view of French society, although not without criticisms. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Learning French, he began translating important scientific and cultural works into Arabic. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language He also witnessed the July Revolution of 1830, against Charles X, but, perhaps understandably, was careful in commenting on the matter in his reports to Muhammad Ali. The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Charles X (9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836 ruled as King of France and Navarre from 20 May 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated  His political views, originally influenced by the conservative Islamic teachings at al-Azhar university, changed on a number of matters, and he came to advocate parliamentarism, women's education and, some hold, a degree of secularism. Al-Azhar University (pronounced "az-HAR" الأزهر الشريف, "the Noble Azhar" in Egypt, founded in 975 is the chief centre of A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs 
After five years in France, he then returned to Egypt to implement the philosophy of reform he had developed there, summarizing his views in the book Takhlis al-Ibriz fi Talkhis Bariz (sometimes translated as The Quintessence of Paris), published in 1834. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language It is written in rhymed prose, and describes France and Western societies from an Egyptian Muslim viewpoint. Rhymed prose is a Literary form and Literary genre, written in unmetrical Rhymes This form has been known in many different cultures Tahtawi's suggestion was that the Egypt and the Muslim world had much to learn from Europe, and generally embraced Western society, but also held that reforms should be adapted to the values of Islamic culture. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings Muslim Culture is a term primarily used in Secular Academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples This brand of self-confident but open-minded modernism came to be the defining creed of al-Nahda.
In the religious field, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1839-1897) gave Islam a modernist reinterpretation and fused adherence to the faith with an anti-colonial doctrine that preached Pan-Islamic solidarity in the face of European pressures. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Pan-Islamism ( اتّحاد الاسلام) is a Political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state or a Caliphate He also favored the replacement of authoritarian monarchies with representative rule, and denounced what he perceived as the dogmatism, stagnation and corruption of the Islam of his age. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or He claimed that tradition (taqlid, تقليد) had stifled Islamic debate and repressed the correct practices of the faith. Taqlid or taqleed ( Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Arabic term meaning "to follow (someone" or "to imitate" Al-Afghani's case for a redefinition of old interpretations of Islam, and his bold attacks on traditional religion, would become vastly influential with the fall of the Caliphate in 1924. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history This created a void in the religious doctrine and social structure of Islamic communities, as the divinely inspired authority of the Caliph suddenly vanished. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah It forced Muslims to look for new interpretations of the faith, and to re-examine widely held dogma; exactly what al-Afghani had urged them to do decades earlier.
Al-Afghani influenced many, but greatest among his followers is undoubtedly his student Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905), whose teachings would play a similarly important role in the reform of the practice of Islam. Muhammad Abduh (or Muhammad 'Abduh) (محمد عبده ( Nile Delta, 1849 - Alexandria, July 11 1905,) was an Egyptian Like al-Afghani, Abduh accused traditionalist Islamic authorities of moral and intellectual corruption, and of imposing a doctrinaire form of Islam on the umma, that had hindered correct applications of the faith. Umma (modern Tell Jokha) was an ancient city in Sumer. History Best known for its long frontier conflict with Lagash. He therefore advocated that Muslims should return to the "true" Islam practiced by the ancient Caliphs, which he held had been both rational and divinely inspired. Applying the original message of the Prophet Muhammad with no interference of tradition or the faulty interpretations of his followers, would automatically create the just society ordained by God in the Qur'an, and so empower the Muslim world to stand against colonization and injustices. In Religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has encountered the Supernatural or the divine and serves as an intermediary IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran
Among the students of Abduh were Syrian Islamic scholar and reformer Rashid Rida (1865-1935), who continued his legacy, and expanded on the concept of just Islamic government. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Muhammad Rashid Rida ( September 23, 1865, Syria - August 22, 1935, Egypt) is said to have been "one of the most influential His theses on how an Islamic state should be organized remain influential among modern-day Islamists such as the Muslim Brotherhood. The term Islamic state refers to states that have adopted Islam, specifically the Shari'a or "God's Law" as their ideological foundation for their political institution Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only The Muslim Brothers ( Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان
Shi'a scholars contributed to the renaissance movement, such as the linguist shaykh Ahmad Reda, the historian Muhammad Jaber al-Safa and Suleiman Daher, but, for obvious reasons, their influence on Sunni religious reform was rather limited. Sheikh Ahmad Reda (1872-1953 (الشيخ أحمد رضا was one of the foremost scholars of Arab literature and linguistics Muhammad Jaber āl Safa (1875-1945 (محمد جابر آل صفا was a prominent historian and writer from the Lebanese region of Jabal Amel. Important political reforms took place simultaneously also in Iran and Shi'a religious beliefs saw important developments with the systematization of a religious hierarchy. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - A wave of political reform followed, with the constitutional movement in Iran, to some extent paralleling the Egyptian Nahda reforms. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity
In 1914, Muhammad Husayn Haykal (1888-1956) published Zaynab, the first Egyptian novel written in Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to Ancient Egypt and therefore is some of the earliest known literature Arabic literature ( Arabic: الأدب العربي Al-Adab Al-Arabi) is the writing produced both Prose and Poetry, by speakers Muhammad Husayn Haykal ( Arabic: ar محمد حسين هيكل ( August 20, 1888 – 1956 was an Egyptian writer journalist politician Husayn Haykal 's Zaynab is the first modern Egyptian novel published in 1913 Prose writing rapidly developed from this date.
A group of young writers formed The New School, and in 1925 began publishing the a weekly literary journal al-Fajr (The Dawn), which would have a great impact on Arabic literature. The group was especially influenced by nineteenth-century Russian writers such as Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy and Gogol. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, This article is about the Tolstoy family, for other meanings see Tolstoy (disambiguation Tolstoy, or Tolstoi Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Никола́й Васи́льевич Го́голь Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol;; Микола Васильович Гоголь
Poetry developed no less than prose. The Prophet, published in 1923 by the Boston-based Lebanese writer Khalil Gibran (1883-1931), is perhaps the best known work of the era in the West, but was actually first written in English (Read The Prophet online here). The Prophet is a book of 26 poetic essays written in English in 1923 by the Lebanese - American artist philosopher and writer Khalil Gibran Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Kahlil Gibran (born Gibrān Khalīl Gibrān bin Mikhā'īl bin Sa'ad; Arabic ar جبران خليل جبران بن ميخائيل بن سعد (born January This article refers to the cardinal direction for other uses see West (disambiguation. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Gibran's associate in the Arab-American League of the Pen (al-Rabita al-Qalamiyya), Mikha'il Na'ima (1898-1989) would later return to Lebanon and contribute to the development of the novel there. An Arab American is a United States citizen or resident of Arab cultural and linguistic heritage and/or Identity whose ancestry traces back to any of various The New York Pen League (Al-Rabita al-Qalamiyah known more familiarly as Al- Mahjar) was an Arab American literary movement of the 1920s and 30s that included such important Mikha'il Na'ima (also spelled Mikhail Naimy; Arabic: ميخائيل نعيمة) (b
One of the main literary innovators in the later stages of al-Nahda was Prof. Taha Hussein (1889-1973), the blind child of an Egyptian peasant family who is today widely considered an intellectual giant of Egypt, and apart from his Qur'anic education at al-Azhar held triple doctorates from Cairo University, the University of Sorbonne and the University of Paris. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Taha Hussein ( November 14, 1889 &mdash October 28, 1973) ( طه حسين) (nicknamed "the dean of Arabic literature"was Blindness is the condition of lacking Visual perception due to Physiological or Neurological factors The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Al-Azhar University (pronounced "az-HAR" الأزهر الشريف, "the Noble Azhar" in Egypt, founded in 975 is the chief centre of Cairo University ( جامعة القاهرة, previously Egyptian University and later Fuʾād I University) is an institute of Higher education The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century He served as Minister of Education in Egypt in the 1950s, and was responsible for creating free and mandatory schooling. His best known book is the autobiographical el-Ayyam (The Days).
In 1821, Muhammad Ali of Egypt brought the first printing press to Egypt. This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image  Modern printing techniques spread rapidly and gave birth to a modern Egyptian press, which brought the reformist trends of the al-Nahda into contact with the emerging Egyptian middle class of clerks and tradesmen. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. The Egyptian newspaper al-Ahram dates from 1875, and between 1870 and 1900, Beirut alone saw the founding of about 40 new periodicals and 15 newspapers. Al-Ahram ( Arabic: الأهرام, literally "The Pyramids" founded in 1875 is one of the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspapers
The efforts at translating European and American literature led to the modernization of the Arabic language. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Many scientific and academic terms, a well as words for modern inventions, were incorporated in modern Arabic vocabulary, and new words were coined in accordance with the Arabic root system to cover for others. In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic languages and some other Afro-Asiatic languages, a triliteral ( Arabic: جذر ثلاثي The development of a modern press (see above) ensured that classical Arabic spread through society in its updated form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is used still today all over the Arab world. Classical Arabic (CA also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad Literary Arabic (ar اللغة العربية الفصحى "the Eloquent Arabic language" or Standard Arabic is the literary and standard variety The Lebanese scholar Butrus al-Bustani (1819-83) created, in the late 1800s, the first modern Arabic encyclopedia, drawing both on medieval Arab scholars and Western methods of lexicography, and Ahmad Reda created the first modern dictionary of Arabic, "Matn al-lugha" ("Lisan al-Arab" was written in the 13th century). Butrus al-Bustani (بطرس البستاني (1883-1819 was a notable Arabic writer and scholar from present day Lebanon. An encyclopedia (or '''encyclopædia''') is a comprehensive written Compendium that contains Information on either all branches of Knowledge The pursuit of lexicography is divided into two related disciplines Practical lexicography is the art or Craft of compiling writing and editing dictionaries Sheikh Ahmad Reda (1872-1953 (الشيخ أحمد رضا was one of the foremost scholars of Arab literature and linguistics
In 1876, the Ottoman Empire promulgated a constitution, as the crowning accomplishment of the tanzimat reforms (1839-76) and inaugurating the Empire's First Constitutional Era. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity The Tanzimat ( Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of Constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî It was inspired by European methods of government and designed to bring the Empire back on level with the Western powers. The constitution was opposed by the Sultan, whose powers it checked, but had vast symbolic and political importance. The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ( Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922 beginning with
The introduction of parliamentarism also created a political class in the Ottoman-controlled provinces, from which later emerged a liberal nationalist elite that would spearhead the several nationalist movements, in particular Egyptian nationalism. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Egyptian nationalism was non-Arab, emphasising ethnic Egyptian identity and history in response to European colonialism and the Turkish occupation of Egypt. This was paralleled by the rise of the Young Turks in the central Ottoman provinces and administration. The Young Turks ( Turkish: Jön Türkler (plural from French: Jeunes Turcs) were a coalition of various groups favoring reforming the The resentment towards Turkish rule fused with protests against the Sultan's autocracy, and the largely secular concepts of Arab nationalism rose as a cultural response to the Ottoman Caliphates claims of religious legitimacy. The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. Arab nationalism ( Arabic: القومية العربية is a Nationalist ideology which rose to prominence amongst Arabs from the early 20th century onwards A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history Various Arab nationalist secret societies rose in the years prior to World War One, such as al-Fatat and the military based al-Ahd. al-Fatat or the Young Arab Society ( Arabic: جمعية العربية الفتاة Jam’iyat al-’Arabiya al-Fatat was founded in 1911 by one of the first
This was complemented by the rise of other national movements, including Syrian nationalism, which like Egyptian nationalism was in some of its manifestations essentially non-Arabist and connected to the concept of Greater Syria. Syrian nationalism refers to the Nationalism of Syria, as a cultural or political entity Greater Syria (سوريّة الكبرى also known (in a historic context simply as Syria, is a term that denotes a historic region in the Middle East bordering The main other example of the late al-Nahda era is the emerging Palestinian nationalism, which was set apart from Syrian nationalism by Zionist immigration to Palestine and the resulting sense of Palestinian particularism. Palestinian nationalism is a nationalist Ideology which calls for the creation of a Palestinian state in all or part of the former British Mandate History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement