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The Wives of Muhammad
Aisha bint Abi Bakr*
** status as wife or concubine is disputed
Aisha bint Abu Bakr (Arabic عائشة ʿāʾ'isha, "she who lives", also transcribed as A'ishah, Ayesha, 'A'isha, or 'Aisha, Turkish Ayşe, Ottoman Turkish Âişe etc. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Muhammad's wives were the eleven or thirteen women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra The following is a NAMED REFERENCE Sawda bint Zama ibn Qayyis ibn Abd Shams ( Arabic: سودة بنت زمعة) was a wife of Muhammad, and therefore a Mother of the Believers Ḥafsah bint ‘Umar ( Arabic: حفصة بنت عمر; literally Daughter of a Lion; born c Zaynab or Zainab ( زينب;) bint Khuzayma died November 624 was one of the wives of Muhammad, and therefore a Mother of the Believers Hind bint Abi Umayya (هند بنت أبي أمية (c 580 - 680 was a wife of Muhammad, and therefore a Mother of the Believers. Zaynab bint Jahsh ( Arabic: زينب بنت جحش born c 593 was a wife of Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers Juwayriyya bint al-Harith ( Arabic: جويرية بنت الحارث juwayriyya bint al-ḥārith, born c Ramlah binte Abi-Sufyan, رملة بنت أبي سفيان aka Umm Habiba, أم حبيبة was the daughter of Abu Sufyan. Rayhana bint Amr ibn Khunafa (ريحانة بنت زيد بن عمرو was a Jewish woman from the Banu Qurayza tribe Safiyya bint Huyayy ( Arabic: صفية بنت حيي c 610 - c Maymuna bint al-Harith ( Arabic: ميمونه بنت الحارث, Ottoman Turkish: Meymune Binti Hâris) (c Maria al-Qibtiyya (مارية القبطية (alternatively " Maria Qupthiya " or Maria the Copt, (died 637 was a Coptic Christian slave who Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlıca or tr ''Osmanlı Türkçesi'' Ottoman Turkish ota-Latn ''lisân-ı Osmânî'' is the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the ) was a wife of Muhammad. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics In Islamic writings, she is thus often referred to by the title "Mother of the Believers" (Arabic: أمّ المؤمنين umm-al-mu'minīn), per the description of Muhammad's wives as "Mothers of Believers" in the Qur'an (33. Mumin redirects here See Moomin for the children's fiction Mu'min (مؤمن is an Arabic Islamic term frequently referenced Muhammad's wives were the eleven or thirteen women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran 6), and later, as the "Mother of Believers", as in Qutb's Ma'alim fi al-Tariq (pps6). Ma'alim fi al-Tariq, also Ma'alim fi'l-tareeq, ( Arabic: معالم في الطريق) or Milestones, first There are many alternate ways of spelling her name, such as 'Aishah', which come from different cultures and all have the same meaning. She is quoted as source for many hadith, sacred traditions about the prophet Muhammad's life, with Muhammad's personal life being the topic of most narrations. Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic In Religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has encountered the Supernatural or the divine and serves as an intermediary IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics
Aisha is a controversial figure because of differing portrayals of her in Shia versions of Islamic history compared to other versions as well as for her role in the First Fitna, the first Islamic civil war, at the head of an army against Ali ibn Abu Talib in the Battle of Bassorah. The First Islamic Civil War (656–661 also called the First Fitna (a=فتنة مقتل عثمان|t=Fitnah Maqtal Uthmān was the first major Civil A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH "Battle of Basra" redirects here For other battles of Basra see Battle of Basra (1914, Battle of Basra (2003 and Battle of Basra (2008 
Aisha was the daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca. Zaynab bint ‘Āmir "Umm Ruman" (أم رومان بنت عامر was a Companion of Muhammad. Early life Abu Bakr was born at Mecca some time in the year 573 CE, in the Banu Taym branch of the Quraysh tribe Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Abu Bakr belonged to the Banu Taym sub-clan of the tribe of Quraysh, the tribe to which Muhammad also belonged. This is about the Sub-clan of Quraish, for the Tribe see Banu Tamim. Quraish is also the name of a Surah in the Qur'an. Quraysh or Quraish (Arabic ar قريش Aisha is said to have followed her father in accepting Islam when she was still young. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. She also joined him in his migration to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 615 AD; a number of Mecca's Muslims emigrated then, seeking refuge from persecution by the Meccans who still followed their pre-Islamic religions. This is a sub-article to Muhammad before Medina and Muhammad in Medina According to Islamic tradition twelve male and twelve female NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page This is a sub-article to Pre-Islamic Arabia Arabian mythology comprises the ancient Pre-Islamic beliefs of the Arabs Prior to the
According to the early Islamic historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Aisha's father tried to spare her the dangers and discomfort of the journey by solemnizing her marriage to her fiance, Jubayr ibn Mut'im, son of Mut‘im ibn ‘Adi. Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923 أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير الطبري was one of the earliest most prominent and famous Persian Historians Jubayr ibn Mut'im ( جبير بن مطعم) (d or) was one of the Meccan enemies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad whom later became a Sahaba Mut`im ibn `Uday ( مطعم بن عدي) was a non-Muslim who met Muhammad and the chief of the Banu Nawfal clan of the Banu Quraish tribe. However, Mut’am refused to honor the long-standing betrothal, as he did not wish his family to be connected to the Muslim outcasts. The emigration to Ethiopia proved temporary and Abu Bakr's family returned to Mecca within a few years. Aisha was then betrothed to Muhammad.
Aisha was initially betrothed to Jubayr ibn Mut'im, a Muslim whose father, though pagan, was friendly to the Muslims. Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century when Muhammad was attacked by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching Monotheism, Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world When Khawla bint Hakim suggested that Muhammad marry Aisha after the death of Muhammad's first wife (Khadijah bint Khuwaylid), the previous agreement regarding marriage of Aisha with ibn Mut'im was put aside by common consent. Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra The following is a NAMED REFERENCE  Watt suggests that Muhammad hoped to strengthen his ties with Abu Bakr; the strengthening of ties commonly served as a basis for marriage in Arabian culture. 
Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad. She stayed in her parents' home until the age of nine, when the marriage was consummated  The marriage was delayed until after the Hijra, or migration to Medina, in 622. As a Verb, consummate means to bring something to its completion such as a transaction concept plan or action The Hijra (هِجْرَة or withdrawal is the migration of Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina in 622 ( Common Era) Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as Aisha and her older sister Asma bint Abi Bakr only moved to Medina after Muhammad had already migrated there. Asmaa bint Abu Bakr (أسماء بنت أبي بكر was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr gave Muhammad the money to build a house for himself. After this, the wedding was celebrated very simply. After the wedding, Aisha continued to play with her toys, and Muhammad entered into the spirit of these games. 
Even though the marriage may have been politically motivated, to mark the ties between Muhammad and his companion Abu Bakr, most early accounts say that Muhammad and Aisha became sincerely fond of each other. Aisha is usually described as Muhammad's favorite wife, and it was in her company that Muhammad reportedly received the most revelations.  Some accounts claim it was the curtain from her tent that Muhammad used as his battle standard. has a tradition of venerating the Relics attributed to the prophet Muhammad. 
Aisha was traveling with her husband Muhammad and some of his followers. Aisha claimed that she had left camp in the morning to search for her lost necklace, but when she returned, she found that the company had broken camp and left without her. She waited for half a day, until she was rescued by a man named Safwan ibn Al-Muattal and taken to rejoin the caravan. This led to speculation that she had committed adultery with Safwan. Adultery is the voluntary Sexual intercourse between a married person and another person who is not his or her Spouse, though in many places it is Muhammad's adopted son Zayd ibn Harithah defended Aisha's reputation. Zayd bin Harithah (زيد بن حارثة Zayd bin Muhammad or Zaid Mawla Muhammad) (c Shortly after this, Muhammad announced that he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses.  These verses also rebuked Aisha's accusers, whom Muhammad ordered to receive forty lashes, among them his poet Hassan ibn Thabit. Hassan ibn Thabit (حسان بن ثابت (died 674 was an Arabian Poet and one of the Sahaba, or companions of Muhammad. 
Ibn Kathir wrote in his biography of Muhammad that Muhammad's wife Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya was given a skin filled with honey, which she shared with her husband. Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (1301&ndash1373 was an Islamic scholar and renowned commentator on the Qur'an. Hind bint Abi Umayya (هند بنت أبي أمية (c 580 - 680 was a wife of Muhammad, and therefore a Mother of the Believers.  He was fond of sweets and stayed overlong with Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya; at least in the opinion of Aisha and her co-wife Hafsa bint Umar. Ḥafsah bint ‘Umar ( Arabic: حفصة بنت عمر; literally Daughter of a Lion; born c Aisha and Hafsa conspired. Each of them was to tell Muhammad that the honey had given him bad breath. When he heard this from two wives, he believed that it was true and swore that he would eat no more of the honey. Soon afterwards, he reported that he had received a revelation, in which he was told that he could eat anything permitted by God.  In the following verses, Muhammad's wives are rebuked for their unruliness: "your hearts are inclined (to oppose him)".
Word spread in the small Muslim community that Muhammad's wives were tyrannizing him, speaking sharply to him and conspiring against him. Umar, Hafsa's father, scolded his daughter and also spoke to Muhammad of the matter. Umar (a=عمر بن الخطاب|t=`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c 581-83 CE &ndash 7 November, 644) also known as Umar the Great or Omar the Great Muhammad, saddened and upset, separated from his wives for a month. By the end of this time, his wives were humbled and harmony was restored.
When Muslim commentators on the Qur'an explicate Sura 66, it is usually this story that is told to explain the "occasion of revelation. Surat At-Tahrim (سورة التحريم (Banning Prohibition is the 66th sura of the Qur'an with 12 Ayat. "
There is a similar but alternative explanation of this chapter, also involving Aisha. In this story, Aisha and her co-wives were unhappy because Muhammad was infatuated with Maria al-Qibtiyya, the Coptic Christian woman who bore Muhammad a brief-lived son. Maria al-Qibtiyya (مارية القبطية (alternatively " Maria Qupthiya " or Maria the Copt, (died 637 was a Coptic Christian slave who A Copt ( Coptic: ouRemenkīmi enEkhristianos, literally Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth (Some accounts say that she was a slave, some that she converted to Islam, was freed, and was taken as a wife. )
Ibn Ishaq, in his Sirah Rasul Allah, states that during Muhammad's last illness, he sought Aisha's apartments and died with his head in her lap. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar (محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار or simply Ibn The Sunni take this as evidence of Muhammad's fondness for Aisha. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic The Shia deny this, and say that Muhammad died with his head in Ali's lap.  Aisha never remarried after Muhammad's death. A passage in the Qur'an forbids any Muslim to marry a widow of Muhammad:
Nor is it right for you that ye should annoy God's Apostle, or that ye should marry his widows after him at any time. Truly such a thing is in God's sight an enormity.—Qur'an 33:53
After Muhammad's death in 632 AD, Aisha's father, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph, or leader of the Muslims. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah This matter of succession to Muhammad is extremely controversial to the Shi'aas. For the book by Wilferd Madelung, see The Succession to Muhammad. Shia believe that Ali had been chosen to lead by Muhammad; Sunni maintain that the community chose Abu Bakr, and did so in accordance with Muhammad's wishes.
Abu Bakr's reign was short, and in 634 AD he was succeeded by Umar, as caliph. "Battle of Basra" redirects here For other battles of Basra see Battle of Basra (1914, Battle of Basra (2003 and Battle of Basra (2008 Umar reigned for ten years, and was then followed by Uthman Ibn Affan in 644 AD. Early life Uthman was born in Ta’if, which is situated on a hill and the presumption is that Uthman was born during the summer months since wealthy Meccans Both of these men had been among Muhammad's earliest followers, were linked to him by clanship and marriage, and had taken prominent parts in various military campaigns. Aisha, in the meantime, lived in Medina and made several pilgrimages to Mecca.
In 656 Uthman was killed by rebellious Muslim soldiers. The rebels then asked Ali to be the new caliph. Many reports absolve Ali of complicity in the murder. He is reported to have refused the caliphate. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history He agreed to rule only after his followers persisted.
Aisha raised an army which confronted Ali's army outside the city of Basra. Basra ( BGN: AlBasrah also called Basorah Abillah and Uruk or IRAQ The name that British colony has adopted for Basra Professor Leila Ahmed claims that it was during this engagement that Muslim slaughtered Muslim for the first time. Leila Ahmed (b 1940 لیلى احمد is an Egyptian American professor of Women's Studies and Religion at the Harvard Divinity School.  Battle ensued and Aisha's forces were defeated. Aisha was directing her forces from a howdah on the back of a camel; this 656 battle is therefore called the Battle of the Camel. howdah, or houdah, is a Carriage which is positioned on the back of an Elephant, or occasionally some other animal used most often in the past to carry
Ali captured Aisha but declined to harm her. He sent her back to Medina under military escort.
Sunni historians see Aisha as a learned woman, who tirelessly recounted stories from the life of Muhammad and explained Muslim history and traditions. She is considered to be one of the foremost scholars of Islam's early age with some historians accrediting up to one-quarter of the Islamic Sharia (Islamic religious law), based on the collection of hadiths, to have stemmed from her narrations. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Aisha became the most prominent of Muhammad’s wives and is revered as a role model by millions of women. 
After Khadijah al-Kubra (the Great) and Fatimah az-Zahra (the Resplendent), Aishah as-Siddiqah (the one who affirms the Truth) is regarded as the best woman in Islam. Because of the strength of her personality, she was a leader in every field in knowledge, in society, in politics and in war. She often regretted her involvement in war but lived long enough to regain position as the most respected woman of her time. She died in the year 58 AH in the month of Ramadan and as she instructed, was buried in the Jannat al-Baqi in the City of Light, beside other companions of the Prophet.