Shihonage technique performed in "half-seated" position (hanmihandachi waza). Uke is taking forward breakfall (mae ukemi) to safely reach the ground.
|Country of origin||Japan|
|Parenthood||aiki-jūjutsu; judo; jujutsu; kenjutsu; sōjutsu|
Aikido (合気道 aikidō?) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. Grappling refers to the gripping handling and controlling of an opponent without the use of striking, typically through the application of various Grappling holds For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, December 14, 1883 &ndash April 26, 1969) was a famous Martial artist originally called, is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the Headmastership of Takeda Sokaku meaning "gentle way" is a modern Japanese martial art ( Gendai budō) and Combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late literally meaning the " art of softness " or "way of yielding" is a collective name for Japanese martial art styles consisting of grappling is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese Sword ( Katana) meaning "art of the spear" is the Japanese martial art of fighting with the Japanese. Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of Martial arts native to Japan. Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, December 14, 1883 &ndash April 26, 1969) was a famous Martial artist Aikido is often translated as "the Way of unifying (with) life energy" or as "the Way of harmonious spirit. In traditional Chinese culture, qi (zh [[wikt氣 氣]] Pinyin qì, Wade-Giles ch'i Jyutping " Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attacker from injury.
Aikido is performed by blending with the motion of the attacker and redirecting the force of the attack rather than opposing it head-on. The aikidoka (aikido practitioner) "leads" the attacker's momentum using entering and turning movements. In Classical mechanics, momentum ( pl momenta SI unit kg · m/s, or equivalently N · s) is the product The techniques are completed with various throws or joint locks. A throw (in Japanese martial arts referred to as nage-waza, 投げ技 "throwing technique" is a Martial arts term for a Grappling A joint lock is a Grappling technique involving manipulation of an opponent's Joints in such a way that the joints reach their maximal degree of motion  Aikido can be categorized under the general umbrella of grappling arts. Grappling refers to the gripping handling and controlling of an opponent without the use of striking, typically through the application of various Grappling holds
Aikido derives mainly from the martial art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s, partly due to Ueshiba's involvement with the Ōmoto-kyō religion. originally called, is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the Headmastership of Takeda Sokaku Oomoto (大本 Ōmoto, literally "foundation" also known as Oomoto-kyo (大本教 Ōmoto-kyō) is a Japanese religion, often categorized Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu.  Many of Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending on when they studied with him. Today aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with broad ranges of interpretation and emphasis. However, they all share techniques learned from Ueshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker.
The word "aikido" is formed of three kanji:
The term dō connects the practice of aikido with the philosophical concept of Tao, which can be found in martial arts such as judo and kendo, and in more peaceful arts such as Japanese calligraphy (shodō) and flower arranging (kadō). are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with Hiragana (ひらがな 平仮名 Katakana Tao ( 道, Pinyin Dào) is a metaphysical concept found in Taoism, Confucianism, and more generally in ancient Chinese philosophy meaning "gentle way" is a modern Japanese martial art ( Gendai budō) and Combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late or " way of the sword " is the Japanese and South Korean martial art of sword-fighting is a form of Calligraphy, or artistic Writing, used for writing the Japanese language. is the Japanese art of Flower arrangement, also known as. Ikebana is the Japanese art of flower arrangement The term aiki refers to the martial arts principle or tactic of blending with an attacker's movements for the purpose of controlling their actions with minimal effort. Aiki is a Japanese martial arts principle or tactic In Japanese Aiki is formed from two Kanji: 合 - ai  One applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique. Historically, aiki was mastered for the purpose of killing; however in aikido one seeks to control an aggressor without causing harm.  The founder of aikido declared: "To control aggression without inflicting injury is the Art of Peace. " A number of aikido practitioners interpret aikido metaphorically, seeing parallels between aikido techniques and other methods for conflict resolution. The term "conflict resolution" refers to a range of processes aimed at alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict  These kanji are identical to the Korean versions of the characters that form the word hapkido, a Korean martial art. Hapkido (also spelled hap ki do or hapki-do) is a dynamic and eclectic Korean martial art. Although there are no known direct connections between the two arts, it is suspected that the founders of both arts trained in Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu.
Aikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, 14 December 1883–26 April 1969), referred to by some aikido practitioners as Ōsensei ("Great Teacher"). Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 1883 ( MDCCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. is a Japanese title used to refer to or address teachers professionals such as lawyers and doctors politicians clergymen and other authority figures  Ueshiba envisioned aikido not only as the synthesis of his martial training, but also an expression of his personal philosophy of universal peace and reconciliation. During Ueshiba's lifetime and continuing today, aikido has evolved from the koryū (old-style martial arts) that Ueshiba studied into a wide variety of expressions by martial artists throughout the world. is a Japanese word that is used in association with the ancient Japanese martial arts. 
Ueshiba developed aikido primarily during the late 1920s through the 1930s through the synthesis of the older martial arts that he had studied.  The core martial art from which aikido derives is Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu, which Ueshiba studied directly with Takeda Sokaku, the revivor of that art. originally called, is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the Headmastership of Takeda Sokaku Takeda Sokaku (武田 惣角 Takeda Sōkaku, October 10, 1859 &ndash April 25, 1943) was known as the founder of a school of Jujutsu Additionally, Ueshiba is known to have studied Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū with Tozawa Tokusaburō in Tokyo in 1901, Gotōha Yagyū Shingan-ryū under Nakai Masakatsu in Sakai from 1903 to 1908, and judo with Kiyoichi Takagi (高木 喜代子 Takagi Kiyoichi, 1894–1972) in Tanabe in 1911. literally meaning "Divine True Willow School" can be classified as a traditional school ( Koryū) of Jujutsu. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. is a traditional school ( Koryū) of Heiho Japanese martial arts. is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. It has been one of the largest and most important Seaports of Japan since the Medieval era meaning "gentle way" is a modern Japanese martial art ( Gendai budō) and Combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late is the second biggest city in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. As of 2008 (after uniting the old Tanabe city with several smaller villages including 
The art of Daitō-ryū is the primary technical influence on aikido. Along with empty-handed throwing and joint-locking techniques, Ueshiba incorporated training movements with weapons, such as those for the spear (yari), short staff (jō), and perhaps the bayonet (銃剣 jūken?). This is an article about a particle accelerator For uses of spear, see Spear or Spear (disambiguation. Yari (槍 is the Japanese term for Spear, or more specifically the straight-headed spear For other uses of the word staff see Staff. A staff is a large thick Stick or stick-shaped object used to help with Walking A is an approximately 1276 m (418 foot) long Wooden staff, used in some Japanese martial arts. A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a Knife - Dagger - or spike-shaped Weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle However, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of swordsmanship (kenjutsu). is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese Sword ( Katana) 
Ueshiba moved to Hokkaidō in 1912, and began studying under Takeda Sokaku in 1915. WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japan 's His official association with Daitō-ryū continued until 1937.  However, during the latter part of that period, Ueshiba had already begun to distance himself from Takeda and the Daitō-ryū. At that time Ueshiba was referring to his martial art as "Aiki Budō". It is unclear exactly when Ueshiba began using the name "aikido", but it became the official name of the art in 1942 when the Greater Japan Martial Virtue Society (Dai Nippon Butoku Kai) was engaged in a government sponsored reorganization and centralization of Japanese martial arts. In 1895, with the sanction of the Emperor Meiji, the was established 
After Ueshiba left Hokkaidō in 1919, he met and was profoundly influenced by Onisaburo Deguchi, the spiritual leader of the Ōmoto-kyō religion (a neo-Shinto movement) in Ayabe. born Ueda Kisaburō (1871-1948 is considered the second spiritual leader of the Oomoto religious movement in Japan. Oomoto (大本 Ōmoto, literally "foundation" also known as Oomoto-kyo (大本教 Ōmoto-kyō) is a Japanese religion, often categorized is the native religion of Japan and was once its State religion. is a city located in Kyoto, Japan. As of 2008, the city has an estimated Population of 36814 and the density of 110  One of the primary features of Ōmoto-kyō is its emphasis on the attainment of utopia during one's life. Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the This was a great influence on Ueshiba's martial arts philosophy of extending love and compassion especially to those who seek to harm others. Aikido demonstrates this philosophy in its emphasis on mastering martial arts so that one may receive an attack and harmlessly redirect it. In an ideal resolution not only is the receiver unharmed but so is the attacker. 
In addition to the effect on his spiritual growth, the connection with Deguchi gave Ueshiba entry to elite political and military circles as a martial artist. As a result of this exposure, he was able to attract not only financial backing but also gifted students. Several of these students would found their own styles of aikido. 
Aikido was first brought to the West in 1951 by Minoru Mochizuki with a visit to France where he introduced aikido techniques to judo students. was a Japanese martial artist who founded the dojo Yoseikan. He held the ranks 10th dan, Aikido (International Martial Arts Federation 9th dan This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  He was followed by Tadashi Abe in 1952 who came as the official Aikikai Hombu representative, remaining in France for seven years. ( 1926 - November 23, 1984) was the first Aikido master to live and teach in the west The is the headquarters of the Aikikai which is an Umbrella organisation of various national as well as smaller Aikido organisations Kenji Tomiki toured with a delegation of various martial arts through fifteen continental states of the United States in 1953. ( March 15, 1900 - December 25, 1979) was a Japanese Aikido and Judo teacher The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Later in that year, Koichi Tohei was sent by Aikikai Hombu to Hawaii, for a full year, where he set up several dojo. (born January 1920 is a 10th Dan Aikidoka and founder of the Ki Society and its style of Aikido, officially Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido (literally The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the A is a Japanese term which literally means "place of the Way" This was followed up by several further visits and is considered the formal introduction of aikido to the United States. The United Kingdom followed in 1955; Italy in 1964; Germany and Australia in 1965. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Designated "Official Delegate for Europe and Africa" by Morihei Ueshiba, Masamichi Noro arrived in France in September 1961. is the founder of Kinomichi and was an internal student of Master Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido Formative Years Masamichi NORO 野呂昌道 Today there are aikido dojo available to train throughout the world.
The biggest aikido organisation is the Aikikai Foundation which remains under the control of the Ueshiba family. There are a variety of aikido styles. The larger and better known styles each have their own headquarters in Japan and an international breadth is the original organisation for the Japanese martial art Aikido, officially recognized by the Japanese government in 1940 However, aikido has many styles, mostly formed by Morihei Ueshiba's major students. 
The earliest independent styles to emerge were Yoseikan Aikido, begun by Minoru Mochizuki in 1931, Yoshinkan Aikido founded by Gozo Shioda in 1955, and Shodokan Aikido, founded by Kenji Tomiki in 1967. Yoseikan Aikido (養正館合気道 Yoseikan Aikidō) is the Aikido taught at the Yoseikan Dojo in Shizuoka, Japan, under the was a Japanese martial artist who founded the dojo Yoseikan. He held the ranks 10th dan, Aikido (International Martial Arts Federation 9th dan (trans Hall for Cultivating the Spirit is a style of Aikido founded by Gozo Shioda (1915-1994 after World War II. Gōzō Shioda (塩田 剛三 Shioda Gōzō, September 9, 1915 &ndash July 17, 1994) was a Japanese Aikido teacher and is the style of Aikido founded by Kenji Tomiki （富木 謙治 Tomiki Kenji, 1900&ndash1979 ( March 15, 1900 - December 25, 1979) was a Japanese Aikido and Judo teacher  The emergence of these styles pre-dated Ueshiba's death and did not cause any major upheavals when they were formalized. Shodokan Aikido, however, was controversial, since it introduced a unique rule-based competition that some felt was contrary to the spirit of aikido. 
After Ueshiba's death in 1969, two more major styles emerged. Significant controversy arose with the departure of the Aikikai Hombu Dojo's chief instructor Koichi Tohei, in 1974. The is the headquarters of the Aikikai which is an Umbrella organisation of various national as well as smaller Aikido organisations (born January 1920 is a 10th Dan Aikidoka and founder of the Ki Society and its style of Aikido, officially Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido (literally Tohei left as a result of a disagreement with the son of the founder, Kisshomaru Ueshiba , who at that time headed the Aikikai Foundation. June 27 1921 &ndash January 4 1999) was the son of the founder of the Japanese martial art of Aikido, and became the international The disagreement was over the proper role of ki development in regular aikido training. After Tohei left, he formed his own style, called Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido, and the organization which governs it, the Ki Society. is the style of Aikido (a modern Japanese martial art) developed by Koichi Tohei. The Ki no Kenkyukai (氣の研究会 often called Ki Society, is an Aikido organization founded by Koichi Tohei in 1971 while he was the chief instructor 
A final major style evolved from Ueshiba's retirement in Iwama, Ibaraki, and the teaching methodology of long term student Morihiro Saito. is a small town in Nishi-ibaraki District, Ibaraki, Japan. On March 19, 2006 Iwama joined with Tomobe to merge with Kasama to form Morihiro Saito (斉藤 守弘 Saitō Morihiro, March 31, 1928 &ndash May 13, 2002) was a teacher of the Japanese martial It is unofficially referred to as the "Iwama style", and at one point a number of its followers formed a loose network of schools they called Iwama Ryu. is a name for the style of aikido that was taught by the Founder at the Iwama dojo, the birthplace of aikido Iwama Ryu is a now defunct informal Aikido organization comprised of one group of the students of Morihiro Saito doing the type of aikido normally referred to as Although Iwama style practitioners remained part of the Aikikai until Saito's death in 2002, followers of Saito subsequently split into two groups; one remaining with the Aikikai and the other forming the independent organization the Shinshin Aikishuren Kai, in 2004 around Saito's son Hitohiro Saito. Hitohiro Saito (斎藤 仁弘 Saitō Hitohiro, born 12 February, 1957) is an Aikido instructor
Today, the major styles of aikido are each run by a separate governing organization, have their own headquarters (本部道場 honbu dōjō?) in Japan, and have an international breadth. 
In aikido, as in virtually all Japanese martial arts, there are both physical and mental aspects of training. Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for Combat. The physical training in aikido is diverse, covering both general physical fitness and conditioning, as well as specific techniques.  Because a substantial portion of any aikido curriculum consists of throws, the first thing most students learn is how to safely fall or roll. A throw (in Japanese martial arts referred to as nage-waza, 投げ技 "throwing technique" is a Martial arts term for a Grappling  The specific techniques for attack include both strikes and grabs; the techniques for defense consist of throws and pins. After basic techniques are learned, students study freestyle defense against multiple opponents, and in certain styles, techniques with weapons.
Physical training goals pursued in conjunction with aikido include controlled relaxation, flexibility, and endurance, with less emphasis on strength training. A Relaxation technique (also known as Relaxation training) is any method process procedure or activity that helps a person to relax to attain a state of increased calmness Flexibility is the absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints and muscles that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment Endurance (also called sufferance) is the ability for humans to exert themselves through aerobic or Anaerobic exercise for relatively long periods of time Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, anaerobic endurance and size of Skeletal muscles There In aikido pushing or extending movements are much more common than pulling or contracting movements. This distinction can be applied to general fitness goals for the aikido practitioner. 
Certain anaerobic fitness activities, such as weight training, emphasize contracting movements. Anaerobic exercise is exercise intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism. Weight training is a common type of Strength training for developing the strength and size of Skeletal muscles It uses the Force of gravity In aikido specific muscles or muscle groups are not isolated and worked to improve tone, mass, and power. Aikido related training emphasizes the use of coordinated whole body movement and balance similar to yoga or pilates. Yoga ( Sanskrit: योग, IAST: yóga, joːgə refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India, to the Pilates, pronounced /pɪˈlɑtiz/ is a Physical fitness system developed in the early 20th century by Joseph Pilates in Germany For example many dojo begin each class with warm-up exercises (準備体操 junbi taisō?), which may include stretching and break falls. The term can also refer to the stretching of Canvas on a frame. In Japanese martial arts the (ɯkɛ is the person who "receives" a technique 
Aikido training is based primarily on two partners practicing pre-arranged forms (kata) rather than freestyle practice. For other uses see Kata (disambiguation. is a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practiced either solo or The basic pattern is for the receiver of the technique (uke) to initiate an attack against the thrower (投げ nage, also referred to as 取り tori, or 仕手 shite, depending on aikido style), who neutralises this attack with an aikido technique. In Japanese martial arts the (ɯkɛ is the person who "receives" a technique is a term used in Japanese martial arts to refer to the executor of a technique in partnered practice 
Both halves of the technique, that of uke and that of nage, are considered essential to aikido training.  Both are studying aikido principles of blending and adaptation. Nage learns to blend with and control attacking energy, while uke learns to become calm and flexible in the disadvantageous, off-balance positions in which nage places them. This "receiving" of the technique is called ukemi.  Uke continuously seeks to regain balance and cover vulnerabilities (e. g. , an exposed side), while nage uses position and timing to keep uke off-balance and vulnerable. In more advanced training, uke will sometimes apply reversal techniques (返し技 kaeshi-waza?) to regain balance and pin or throw nage.
Ukemi (受身?) refers to the act of receiving a technique. Good ukemi involves a parry or breakfall that is used to avoid pain or injury, such as joint dislocations or atemi. 
Aikido techniques are usually a defense against an attack; therefore, to practice aikido with their partner, students must learn to deliver various types of attacks. Although attacks are not studied as thoroughly as in striking-based arts, "honest" attacks (a strong strike or an immobilizing grab) are needed to study correct and effective application of technique. 
Many of the strikes (打ち uchi?) of aikido are often said to resemble cuts from a sword or other grasped object, which may suggest origins in techniques intended for armed combat. A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons  Other techniques, which appear to explicitly be punches (tsuki), are also practiced as thrusts with a knife or sword. is the Japanese word for "thrust" coming from the verb, meaning "to thrust A knife is a handheld sharp-edged instrument consisting of handle attached to a Blade used for cutting Kicks are generally reserved for upper-level variations; reasons cited include that falls from kicks are especially dangerous, and that kicks (high kicks in particular) were uncommon during the types of combat prevalent in feudal Japan. In Martial arts, Combat sports or Violence, a kick is a strike using the Foot, leg, or Knee (also known as a knee Some basic strikes include:
Beginners in particular often practice techniques from grabs, both because they are safer and because it is easier to feel the energy and lines of force of a hold than a strike. Some grabs are historically derived from being held while trying to draw a weapon; a technique could then be used to free oneself and immobilize or strike the attacker who is grabbing the defender.  The following are examples of some basic grabs:
The following are a sample of the basic or widely practiced throws and pins. The precise terminology for some may vary between organisations and styles, so what follows are the terms used by the Aikikai Foundation. Note that despite the names of the first five techniques listed, they are not universally taught in numeric order. 
Aikido makes use of body movement (tai sabaki) to blend with uke. Alternative spellings taisabaki tai sabaki tai-sabaki is a term from Japanese Martial arts and which relates to 'whole body movement' or repositioning For example, an "entering" (irimi) technique consists of movements inward towards uke, while a "turning" (転換 tenkan?) technique uses a pivoting motion. is a Japanese martial arts term used to describe entering straight into a technique as opposed to the more indirect entrance into technique called Tenkan.  Additionally, an "inside" (内 uchi?) technique takes place in front of uke, whereas an "outside" (外 soto?) technique takes place to his side; a "front" (表 omote?) technique is applied with motion to the front of uke, and a "rear" (裏 ura?) version is applied with motion towards the rear of uke, usually by incorporating a turning or pivoting motion. Finally, most techniques can be performed while in a seated posture (seiza). Seiza (正座 literally "correct sitting" is the traditional formal way of Sitting in Japan. Seated techniques are called suwari-waza. 
Thus, from fewer than twenty basic techniques, there are thousands of possible implementations. For instance, ikkyō can be applied to an opponent moving forward with a strike (perhaps with an ura type of movement to redirect the incoming force), or to an opponent who has already struck and is now moving back to reestablish distance (perhaps an omote-waza version). Specific aikido kata are typically referred to with the formula "attack-technique(-modifier)".  For instance, katate-dori ikkyō refers to any ikkyō technique executed when uke is holding one wrist. This could be further specified as katate-dori ikkyō omote, referring to any forward-moving ikkyō technique from that grab.
Atemi (当て身) are strikes (or feints) employed during an aikido technique. In Japanese martial arts, the term designates blows to the body as opposed to twisting of joints, strangleholds, holding techniques and throws. Feint is a French term that entered English from the discipline of Fencing. Some view atemi as attacks against "vital points" meant to cause damage in and of themselves. A pressure point in the field of Martial arts represents an area on the human body that when contacted produces significant pain or some other effect For instance, Gōzō Shioda described using atemi in a brawl to quickly down a gang's leader. Gōzō Shioda (塩田 剛三 Shioda Gōzō, September 9, 1915 &ndash July 17, 1994) was a Japanese Aikido teacher and  Others consider atemi, especially to the face, to be methods of distraction meant to enable other techniques. A strike, whether or not it is blocked, can startle the target and break his or her concentration. The target may also become unbalanced in attempting to avoid the blow, for example by jerking the head back, which may allow for an easier throw.  Many sayings about atemi are attributed to Morihei Ueshiba, who considered them an essential element of technique. 
Weapons training in aikido traditionally includes the short staff (jō), wooden sword (bokken), and knife (tantō). A is an approximately 1276 m (418 foot) long Wooden staff, used in some Japanese martial arts. A bokken (ja 木剣 bok(u, "wood" and ken, "sword" is a Wooden Japanese Sword used for training A is a common Japanese single or occasionally double edged Knife or Dagger with a blade length between 15 and 30 cm (6-12 inches  Today, some schools also incorporate firearms-disarming techniques. Both weapon-taking and weapon-retention are sometimes taught, to integrate armed and unarmed aspects, although some schools of aikido do not train with weapons at all. Others, such as the Iwama style of Morihiro Saito, usually spend substantial time with bokken and jō, practised under the names aiki-ken, and aiki-jō, respectively. is the name given specifically to the set of Sword techniques practiced according to the principles of Aikido, taught first by Morihei Ueshiba (aikido's founder then is the name given specifically to the set of Martial art techniques practiced with a Jō (a wooden staff about four feet long practiced according to the principles The founder developed much of empty handed aikido from traditional sword and spear movements, so the practice of these movements is generally for the purpose of giving insight into the origin of techniques and movements, as well as vital practice of these basic building blocks. 
One feature of aikido is training to defend oneself against multiple attackers. Freestyle (randori, or jiyūwaza) practice with multiple attackers is a key part of most curricula and is required for the higher level ranks. is a term used in Japanese martial arts to describe free-style practice or sparring sometimes with multiple attackers  Randori exercises a person's ability to intuitively perform techniques in an unstructured environment.  Strategic choice of techniques, based on how they reposition the student relative to other attackers, is important in randori training. For instance, an ura technique might be used to neutralise the current attacker while turning to face attackers approaching from behind. 
In Shodokan Aikido, randori differs in that it is not performed with multiple persons with defined roles of defender and attacker, but between two people, where both participants attack, defend, and counter at will. is the style of Aikido founded by Kenji Tomiki （富木 謙治 Tomiki Kenji, 1900&ndash1979 In this respect it resembles judo randori. 
In applying a technique during training, it is the responsibility of nage to prevent injury to uke by employing a speed and force of application that is commensurate with their partner's proficiency in ukemi.  Injuries (especially those to the joints), when they do occur in aikido, are often the result of nage misjudging the ability of uke to receive the throw or pin. 
A study of injuries in the martial arts showed that while the type of injuries varied considerably from one art to the other, the differences in overall rates of injury were much less pronounced. Soft tissue injuries are one of the most common types of injuries found within aikido although a few deaths from repetitive "shihōnage" have been reported. 
Aikido training is mental as well as physical, emphasizing the ability to relax the mind and body even under the stress of dangerous situations.  This is necessary to enable the practitioner to perform the bold enter-and-blend movements that underlie aikido techniques, wherein an attack is met with confidence and directness.  Morihei Ueshiba once remarked that one "must be willing to receive 99% of an opponent's attack and stare death in the face" in order to execute techniques without hesitation.  As a martial art concerned not only with fighting proficiency but also with the betterment of daily life, this mental aspect is of key importance to aikido practitioners. 
The study of ki is a critical component of aikido, and its study defies categorization as either "physical" or "mental" training, as it encompasses both. In traditional Chinese culture, qi (zh [[wikt氣 氣]] Pinyin qì, Wade-Giles ch'i Jyutping The original kanji for ki was 氣 (shown right), and is a symbolic representation of a lid covering a pot full of rice; the "nourishing vapors" contained within are ki. are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with Hiragana (ひらがな 平仮名 Katakana 
The character "ki" is used in everyday Japanese terms, such as "health" (元気 genki?), or "shyness" (内気 uchiki?). Ki is most often understood as unified physical and mental intention, however it is often found in traditional martial arts related with "life energy". Gōzō Shioda's Yoshinkan Aikido, considered one of the 'hard styles', largely follows Ueshiba's teachings from before World War II, and surmises that the secret to ki lies in timing and the application of the whole body's strength to a single point. (trans Hall for Cultivating the Spirit is a style of Aikido founded by Gozo Shioda (1915-1994 after World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  In later years, Ueshiba's application of ki in aikido took on a softer, more gentle feel. This was his Takemusu Aiki and many of his later students teach about ki from this perspective. was the concept developed by Morihei Ueshiba of how the ultimate martial art should be how his Aikido should be an art which may harmonize all living beings and free techniques Koichi Tohei's Ki Society centers almost exclusively around the study of the empirical (albeit subjective) experience of ki with students ranked separately in aikido techniques and ki development. The Ki no Kenkyukai (氣の研究会 often called Ki Society, is an Aikido organization founded by Koichi Tohei in 1971 while he was the chief instructor A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence 
Aikido practitioners, commonly called aikidōka, generally progress by promotion through a series of "grades" (kyū), followed by a series of "degrees" (dan), pursuant to formal testing procedures. is a Japanese term used in Martial arts, chadō, Ikebana, go, Shogi and in other similar Most aikido organisations use only white and black belts to distinguish rank, but some use various belt colors. Testing requirements vary, so a particular rank in one organization is not always comparable or interchangeable with the rank of another. 
The uniform worn for practicing aikido (aikidōgi) is similar to the training uniform (keikogi) used in most other modern martial arts; simple trousers and a wraparound jacket, usually white. is a Japanese term used in Martial arts, chadō, Ikebana, go, Shogi and in other similar The term Black belt has become widely known as way to describe an expert in Martial arts where a practitioner's level is often marked by the color of the belt Aikidogi (合気道着 or 合気道衣 is the formal Japanese name for the uniform used for Aikido training or dōgi ( is a uniform for training used in Japanese martial arts Budo. Both thick ("judo-style"), and thin ("karate-style") cotton tops are used. ( or is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese Kenpō.  Aikido-specific tops are also available with shorter sleeves which reach to just below the elbow.
Most aikido systems also add a pair of wide pleated black or indigo trousers called a hakama. Hakama (袴 are a type of traditional Japanese clothing. They were originally worn only by men but today they are worn by both men and women In many styles its use is reserved for practitioners with black belt (dan) ranks, while others allow all practitioners or female practitioners to wear a hakama regardless of rank. 
The most common criticism of aikido is that it suffers from a lack of realism in training. This generalized observation manifests in several different facets of practice. First, the attacks initiated by uke (and which nage must defend against) have been criticized as being "sloppy," and "little more than caricatures of an attack. " This creates a domino effect of training ineffective defensive techniques by nage, and the underdevelopment of strength and conditioning needed for safe practice.  To counteract this, a number of styles allow both training partners, after having demonstrated proficiency in being able to protect themselves and their training partners, to become less compliant over time. Other styles, most notably Shodokan Aikido, have addressed the issue by introducing fully resistive training and a competitive format. is the style of Aikido founded by Kenji Tomiki （富木 謙治 Tomiki Kenji, 1900&ndash1979 
Another criticism, related to the first, is that after the end of Ueshiba's seclusion in Iwama from 1942 to the mid 1950s, he increasingly emphasized the spiritual and philosophical aspects of aikido. As a result, strikes to vital points by nage, entering (irimi) and initiation of techniques by nage, the distinction between omote and ura techniques, and the practice of weapons, were all deemphasized or eliminated from practice. Lack of training in these areas is thought to lead to an overall loss of effectiveness by some aikido practitioners. 
Alternately, there are some who criticize aikido practitioners for not placing enough importance on the spiritual practices emphasized by Ueshiba. The premise of this criticism is that "O-Sensei’s aikido was not a continuation and extension of the old and has a distinct discontinuity with past martial and philosophical concepts. " That is, that aikido practitioners who focus on aikido's roots in traditional jujutsu or kenjutsu are diverging from what Ueshiba taught. literally meaning the " art of softness " or "way of yielding" is a collective name for Japanese martial art styles consisting of grappling is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese Sword ( Katana) Such critics urge practitioners to embrace the assertion that "[Ueshiba's] transcendence to the spiritual and universal reality was the fundamentals of the paradigm that he demonstrated. "