|Andries Pretorius · Jan Smuts · Petrus Jacobus Joubert|
aprox. Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius ( 27 November, 1798 &ndash 23 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, PC, ED, KC, FRS (24 May 1870 &ndash 11 September 1950 was a prominent Petrus Jacobus Joubert ( 20 January 1834 &ndash 28 March 1900) better known as Piet Joubert was Commandant-General of the South 3. 4 million
|Regions with significant populations|
|South Africa, Namibia, United Kingdom|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Dutch, Flemish, Frisians; Germans, Scots, English; Cape Coloureds, Basters|
The Afrikaner people are an Afrikaans-speaking people who have been established in Southern Africa since the 17th century and are mainly of northwestern European descent. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Afrikaner Calvinism is according to theory a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. The terms Fleming and Flemings ( Vlaming and Vlamingen in Dutch) denote respectively a person and people and the Flemings or The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English The term Cape Coloureds refers to the modern-day descendants of slave labourers imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers as well as to other groups The Basters (also known as Baasters, Rehobothers or Rehoboth Basters) are the descendants of liaisons between the Cape Colony Dutch Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in Southern Africa is the Southernmost Region of the African Continent, variably defined by Geography or Geopolitics.
The Afrikaner people are descended from northwestern European settlers who first arrived in the Cape of Good Hope during the period of administration (1652 – 1795) by the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC). A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian While the original settlers came mainly from the Netherlands, their numbers were also swelled later by French and German religious refugees. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Their ancestors were primarily Dutch Calvinists, Frisians, Germans and French Huguenots, with smaller numbers of Flemish and Walloons. The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth The terms Fleming and Flemings ( Vlaming and Vlamingen in Dutch) denote respectively a person and people and the Flemings or Walloons (Wallons Walons are a Romance people living in Belgium principally in Wallonia. They lost their Dutch citizenship when the Prince of Orange acquiesced to British occupation and control of the Cape Colony in 1795.
The original intention by the Dutch who first settled at the Cape in 1652 was to establish a geographically limited refreshment station for the Dutch East India Company and were not interested in establishing a permanent settlement. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian The arrival in 1688 of French Huguenots who had escaped Catholic religious persecution added new blood and increased the settlers' numbers. The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth Some of the colonists from other parts of Europe (e. g. Scandinavia, Ireland and Scotland) were later also incorporated into what today comprises Afrikaners, as well as some descendents of early unions with slaves of mainly Indian and Malay descent and local Khoi people. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The first person on record as referring to himself as an "Afrikaner" was Hendrik Biebouw, who, in March 1707, stated that he was an Afrikaner and did not want to leave Africa. Biebouw meant by this claim to resist his expulsion from the Cape Colony, as ordered by the magistrate of Stellenbosch. Stellenbosch (ˈstɛlənbɒs is the second oldest European settlement in the Western Cape Province, South Africa after Cape Town, and is situated  The term is intended to indicate a first loyalty and a sense of belonging to the territory of modern South Africa, rather than to any ancestral homeland in Europe. In that regard its usage is similar to the term American, Canadian, Australian etc. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. when applied to the European descended populations of those countries.
Some Afrikaners of frontier Boer / trekker descent refer to themselves as 'Boere'. Boer (ˈbuːr in Dutch ˈbʊɚ/ /boʊɚ or /ˈbɔr/ in English is the Dutch word for Farmer which came to denote the descendants of the proto Afrikaans 'Boer' literally means 'farmer' in Dutch (Afrikaans), but its precise meaning inside South Africa can be ambiguous, and tends to shift depending on the context and the way in which the word is said. Before the former white government transferred power to the newly elected black majority government, Anti-apartheid activists within South Africa referred to the police force (who had to enforce apartheid legislation) as "Boere. " A political slogan of that era urged "Kill the Boer, kill the farmer. " 
Various Afrikaner migrations had a strong impact on the formation and contents of the modern Afrikaner ethnicity. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Human migration denotes any movement by Humans from one locality to another sometimes over long distances or For example, the series of mass migrations from the Cape colony just before the middle of the 19th century was a major contribution. Defining events that affected this was the Great Trek and the Battle of Blood River. The Great Trek was an eastward and north-eastward migration during the 1830s and 1840s of the Boers ( Dutch / Afrikaans for "farmers" who In the Battle of Blood River ( Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier; Zulu: iMpi yaseNcome) on 16 December 1838 470 Voortrekkers
The mass migrations collectively known as the Great Trek were pivotal for the construction of Afrikaner ethnic identity, as it led to the creation of a number of Boer states that were independent of British colonial oversight.
In the 1830s and 1840s an estimated 12,000 Voortrekkers migrated to the future Northern Cape, Natal and Orange Free State provinces. Voortrekkers can also refer to a youth organization see Voortrekkers (youth organization. The Northern Cape is a large sparsely populated province of South Africa, created in 1994 when the Cape Province was split up Natal was a Province of South Africa from 1910 until 1994 with capital in Pietermaritzburg. The Republic of the Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrystaat Dutch: Oranje-Vrijstaat) was an independent Boer republic in southern Africa A variety of factors motivated them, including the desire to escape British rule. The Trek split the white Afrikaans-speaking settlers into two groups: the Trekboers (later called 'Voortrekkers') and the 'Cape Dutch', as they were called by British settlers. The Trekboers were nomadic pastoral descendants of Dutch (often Frisian) settlers of the Cape Colony, Flemish settlers French These distinctions also overlapped with economic differences, as the Trekkers generally had fewer material resources than those who remained behind.
Important as the Trek itself was to the formation of Afrikaner ethnicity, so were the running conflicts with various indigenous groups along the way. None are considered more central to the project of constituting Afrikaner identity than those against the Zulu in what today is Natal.
The Trekkers who entered Natal discovered that the land they wanted to settle fell under the authority of the Zulu chief Dingane ka Senzangakhona. Dingane kaSenzangakhona Zulu (ca 1795-1840—commonly referred to as Dingane or Dingaan —was a Zulu chief who became king in 1828 setting Large-scale hostilities erupted between Zulus and Trekkers after a land treaty delegation under Piet Retief was massacred by Dingane on February 6, 1838. Pieter Retief (usually referred to as Piet Retief (c1780 &ndash 6 February 1838) was a South African Boer leader Dingane kaSenzangakhona Zulu (ca 1795-1840—commonly referred to as Dingane or Dingaan —was a Zulu chief who became king in 1828 setting After the execution, Zulu impis (regiments) attacked Boer encampments in the Drakensberg foothills at what was later called Blaauwkrans and Weenen, killing women and children along with men. An Impi is an isiZulu word for any armed body of men However in English it is often used to refer to a Zulu Regiment, which is called an ibutho in The Drakensberg ( Afrikaans: "Dragon's Mountain" Mountains are the highest mountain range in Southern Africa, rising up to in height Weenen (Dutch for "to weep" is the second oldest European settlement in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. By contrast, in earlier conflicts, the Xhosa along the eastern Cape frontier had refrained from harming women and children. See also Xhosa language The Xhosa (ǁʰɔsɑ( people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two On December 16, 1838 a 470-strong force of Andries Pretorius confronted about 10,000 Zulu at prepared positions. Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius ( 27 November, 1798 &ndash 23 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the  The Boers reputedly suffered 3 injuries without any fatalities. Due to the blood of 3,000 slain Zulus which stained the Ncome River red with blood, the conflict afterwards became known as the Battle of Blood River. In the Battle of Blood River ( Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier; Zulu: iMpi yaseNcome) on 16 December 1838 470 Voortrekkers The Boers' guns offered them an obvious technological advantage over the Zulus' traditional weaponry of short stabbing spears, fighting sticks, and cattle-hide shields.
The Boers attributed their victory to a vow they made to God before the battle: if victorious, they and future generations would commemorate the day as a Sabbath. Thus 16 December was celebrated by Afrikaners as a public holiday, colloquially (and ironically) called "Dingane's Day". After 1952 the holiday was officially known as Day of the Covenant, changed in 1980 to Day of the Vow (Mackenzie 1999:69). The Day of the Vow ( Afrikaans: Geloftedag or Dingaansdag) is the name of a religious public holiday in South Africa until 1994 when it was renamed The Battle of Blood River functioned to support the notion of divine favor for the Boer exodus. Simultaneously it could be appealed to as a sign of Boer superiority over indigenous populations. Dingane's actions were reinterpreted as proving the inherent treachery of the indigenes.
After the defeat of the Zulu forces and the recovery of the treaty between Dingane and Retief, the Voortrekkers proclaimed the Natalia Republic. The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states were independent self-governed Republics created by the Dutch -speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants The Natalia Republic was a short-lived Boer republic established in 1839 by local Afrikaans -speaking Voortrekkers shortly after the famous Battle This Boer state was annexed by British forces in 1843.
Due to the return of British rule, emphasis moved from occupying lands in Natal, east of the Drakensberg mountains, to the north-west of them and onto the highveld (steppes) of the Transvaal and Transorangia (Transoranje), which were lightly occupied due to the devastation of the Mfecane. Natal was a Province of South Africa from 1910 until 1994 with capital in Pietermaritzburg. The Drakensberg ( Afrikaans: "Dragon's Mountain" Mountains are the highest mountain range in Southern Africa, rising up to in height For the Russian theme park see Transvaal Park. The Transvaal (Afrikaans lit Mfecane ( Zulu name also known as the Difaqane or Lifaqane in Sesotho) is an African expression which means something like "the Some trekkers ventured far beyond the present day borders of South Africa, north as far as present day Zambia and Angola, also reaching the Portuguese colony of Delagoa Bay, later Lourenço Marques and now called Maputo, capital of Mozambique. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Maputo Bay (Baia de Maputo formerly Delagoa Bay is an Inlet of the Indian Ocean on the coast of Mozambique, between 25 40 and 26 20 S Maputo, formerly Lourenço Marques, is the Capital and largest city of Mozambique. Maputo, formerly Lourenço Marques, is the Capital and largest city of Mozambique. Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa
Most notable was the Dorsland Trek or "Thirst Land Trek" initiated by Gert Alberts in the 1870s when the first trek departed from Pretoria via the arid Kalahari Desert to Rietfontein on the eastern border of the present day Namibia. Over a period of five years and after a heart breaking odyssey of thirst and malaria these Trekkers arrived and settled on the fertile Humpata Highlands in southwestern Angola on invitation of the Portuguese colonial rulers of the day. Over the years many more Treks from Pretoria followed to Humpata. Reasons for the Thirst Land Trek were assumed by historians to be that the British Empire came too close to their liking with the discovery of diamonds at Kimberley, the exact reason the Boers left the Cape Colony in the first place. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Gert Alberts, the leader of the first Trek, however, once said that it was just a "Wanderlust" which spurred the first group to pack their wagons and to head for the unknown, in search of new horizons.
For more than 50 years these hardy Boers played a pivotal role in helping the Portuguese to open up the hinterland of Angola for trade and hunting. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west Boer settlers from Humpata also helped the Portuguese to subdue warlike indigenous black tribes where necessary. However, relations between the Boers and the Portuguese slowly deteriorated as the Portuguese tried to convert these deeply Protestant Christians to Catholicism. The Portuguese also prohibited them from using their home language – Afrikaans – in the local schools. For a short period a splinter group of these Boers settled in the Otavi Highlands in Northern Trans Gariep - later known as German Southwest Africa, and today Namibia – and declared their own independent Republic of Upingtonia. This small independent state did not last for long as none of the big colonial powers wanted to acknowledge the small republic's sovereignty. In time most of these Boers eventually returned to Humpata.
During World War I German Southwest Africa fell into the hands of the Union of South Africa. South Africa was granted an unlimited "C" Mandate by the League of Nations to administer the country as a fifth province. In an effort to populate Southwest Africa as it was hence known, the South African Government invited the Angola Boers to resettle there. Most of the Angola Boers accepted the offer, while some returned to South Africa. A small group stayed behind in Angola. Today the offspring of the Thirst Land Trek and the Angola Boers form the backbone of all sectors of the Namibian economy.
The Boers created independent states in what is now South Africa: de Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (the South African Republic) and the Orange Free State. Emily Hobhouse ( April 9, 1860 &mdash June 8, 1926) was a British welfare campaigner who is primarily remembered for bringing Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial This article is about the former country in Africa For the present-day country see South Africa; for the region where both are located see Southern Africa The Republic of the Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrystaat Dutch: Oranje-Vrijstaat) was an independent Boer republic in southern Africa The British also annexed these territories, which led to the two Boer Wars: The First Boer War (1880-1881) and the Second Boer War (1899 – 1902) – also called the South African War, which ended with the inclusion of the Boer areas in the British colonies. See also Second Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The First Boer War ( Dutch: Eerste Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: The Boers won the first war, retaining their independence, but lost the second, due mainly to the British's employing scorched earth tactics and their extensive use of concentration camps. A scorched earth policy is a military strategy or operational method (possibly more often referred to as a tactic but this is not entirely correct as there is a difference between Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial An estimated 27,000 Boer civilians (mainly children under sixteen) died in the camps from hunger and disease. Starvation (also called inanition) is a severe reduction in Vitamin, Nutrient, and Energy intake and is the most extreme form of An infectious disease is a clinically evident Disease resulting from the presence of Pathogenic microbial agents including Pathogenic viruses Pathogenic This was 15 percent of the Boer population of the republics. About 15,000 Bantu civilians died in separate concentration camps, also erected by the British forces, but owing to poor records this number may be much larger. Bantu may refer to Bantu expansion, a series of migrations of Bantu speakers Bantu languages Bantu people
Following the British annexation of the Boer republics, the creation of the Union of South Africa (1910) went some way towards blurring the division between the British settlers and the Afrikaners. } The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day state of the Republic of South Africa.
After the second Anglo-Boer War, a Boer diaspora occurred, following a smaller exodus in the 1890s to Mashonaland and Matabeleland (today Zimbabwe), concentrated at the town of Enkeldoorn (Du Toit 1998:47). See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election Starting in 1902 a large group emigrated to the Patagonia region of Argentina. Llao LLaojpg|thumb|250px| Lake Nahuel Huapi, near Bariloche, Argentina For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.  Another group emigrated to British-ruled Kenya, from where most returned to South Africa during the 1930s. A third group under the leadership of General Ben Viljoen emigrated to the north of Mexico and to New Mexico and Texas in the south-western USA. Others migrated to other parts of Africa, including German East Africa (present day Tanzania, mostly near Arusha) and even Angola (where smaller and larger groups settled on the Bihe and the Humpata plateaus, respectively; Du Toit 1998:45).
A relatively large group of Boers settled in Kenya during the first decade of the 20th century. Brian du Toit indicates that the first wave of migrants comprised single families, followed by larger multiple family treks (Du Toit 1998:57). Some must have arrived in 1904 already, when a newspaper photograph identifies a tent town for "some of the early settlers from South Africa" on what today is the campus of the University of Nairobi.  Probably the first to arrive was W. J. Van Breda (1903), followed by John de Waal and Frans Arnoldi at Nakuru (1906). Arnoldi had visited Van Breda and his two brothers in 1905. Jannie De Beer's family already resided at Athi River, while Ignatius Gouws resided at Solai (Du Toit 1998:45,62).
The second wave of migrants is exemplified by Jan Janse van Rensburg's trek. Janse van Rensburg left the Transvaal on an exploratory trip to British East Africa in 1906 from Lourenco Marques (then Mozambique). Janse van Rensburg was inspired by an earlier Boer migrant, Abraham Joubert, who had moved to Nairobi from Arusha in 1906, along with others. When Joubert visited the Transvaal that year, Janse van Rensburg met with him (Du Toit 1998:61). Sources disagree about whether Janse van Rensburg received guarantees for land from the Governor, Sir James Hayes Sadler (Du Toit 1998:62). Colonel Sir James Hayes Sadler, KCMG, CB ( 21 May 1827 &ndash 9 January 1910) was a British diplomat
On his return to the Transvaal, Janse van Rensburg recruited about 280 people (comprising either 47 or 60 families) to accompany him to British East Africa. Most came from districts around Ermelo and Carolina. On 9 July 1908 Janse van Rensburg's party sailed in the chartered boat SS Windhuk from Lourenco Marques to Mombasa, from where they boarded a train for Nairobi. The party travelled by five trains to Nakuru. 
In 1911 the last of the large trek groups departed for Kenya, when some 60 families from the Orange Free State boarded the SS Skramstad in Durban under leadership of C. J. Cloete . But migration dwindled, partly due to stricter cash requirements imposed on migrants by the British secretary of state (then Lord Crewe). The granting of self-government to the former Boer republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State in 1906 and 1907, respectively, also contributed. Yet a trickle of individual trekker families continued to migrate into the 1950s (Du Toit 1998:63).
A combination of factors spurred Boer migration on. Some, like Janse van Rensburg and Cloete, had collaborated with the British, or had surrendered during the Boer War (Du Toit 1998:63). These joiners and hensoppers subsequently experienced hostility from other Boers. Many migrants were extremely poor and had subsisted on others' property.  Collaborators tended to move to British East Africa, while those who had fought to the end (called bittereinders) initially preferred German West Africa (Du Toit 1999:45). Bittereinders refers to those Boers, the Whites in South Africa of mostly Dutch descent who refused to concede defeat to the victorious One of the best known Boer settlements in the British East Africa Protectorate was at Eldoret, in the south west of what became known as Kenya in 1920. Eldoret is a Town in western Kenya and the administrative centre of Uasin Gishu District of Rift Valley Province. By 1934 some 700 Boers lived here, near the Uganda border .
With the onset of the First World War, the Union of South Africa was asked by the Allied forces to attack the German territory of South West Africa, resulting in the South-West Africa Campaign. South-West Africa (Afrikaans Suidwes-Afrika; German Südwestafrika) was the name of what is today the Republic of Namibia. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All } The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day state of the Republic of South Africa. The South-West Africa Campaign was the conquest and occupation of German South West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa Armed forces under the leadership of General Louis Botha defeated the German forces, who were unable to put up much resistance to the overwhelming South African forces.
Many Afrikaners, who had little love or respect for Britain, objected to the use of the “children from the concentration camps” to attack the Afrikaner-friendly Germans, resulting in the Maritz Rebellion of 1914, which was quickly quelled by the government forces. This is a list of Internment and Concentration camps, organized by country The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which
Some Afrikaners subsequently moved to South West Africa, which was administrated by South Africa, until its independence in 1990, after which the country was named Namibia. Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast
Since the first all-inclusive democratic elections in 1994, many well-qualified Afrikaners have been emigrating from South Africa and Namibia to "first world" countries. The term " first world " refers to countries that are capitalist, which are technologically advanced and whose Most are settling in traditionally English-speaking countries, such as the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Canada, but many are also emigrating to Dutch-speaking countries such as the Netherlands and Belgium. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those
A tiny group of Afrikaners has settled in the town of Orania, with the ultimate goal of founding a Volkstaat through a process of Afrikaner demographic consolidation. See other meanings of Volkstaat. Volkstaat ( Afrikaans for "People's state" is a proposal for the establishment of Orania is a South African town that is located along the Orange River in the arid Karoo region of its Northern Cape province See other meanings of Volkstaat. Volkstaat ( Afrikaans for "People's state" is a proposal for the establishment of Some Afrikaners feel that their language and culture face a serious threat in post-apartheid South Africa, due to the relatively small population of Afrikaners, the dominance of the English language and their lack of political power. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States They also fear a repeat of the events in Zimbabwe and many post-colonial one-party dictatorships, especially from the more 'radical' elements within the ruling African National Congress. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions
|Apartheid in South Africa|
|Events and Projects|
P.W Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan
In South Africa, the black majority was excluded from equal participation in the affairs of the State and country (except for the homelands of Qwaqwa, Zululand, Ciskei, Transkei, Venda, and Bophuthatswana which were nominally self governed) until 1994. The Sharpeville Massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police began shooting on a crowd The Soweto uprising or Soweto Riots were a series of clashes in Soweto, South Africa on June 16 1976 between black youths and the South African The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people (105 Blacks 21 Indians 23 Whites and 7 Coloureds including Nelson Mandela, were arrested in a raid and accused of treason The Rivonia Trial was a trial that took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress The Church Street bombing was a 1983 attack by the Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the African National Congress, in the South African capital The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the De Klerk government The St James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated on St James Church in Kenilworth, Cape Town on 25 July 1993 by four cadres The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The Inkatha Freedom Party ( IFP) is a Political party in South Africa. The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement or AWB, is a Political and Paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership The Black Sash was a non-violent white women's resistance organization founded in 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair The South African Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB was a Covert, Special forces organisation during the apartheid era that operated under the authority The Conservative Party of South Africa ( Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a Conservative party formed in 1982 as a breakaway The End Conscription Campaign was an anti- Apartheid organisation allied to the United Democratic Front (UDF and composed of Conscientious objectors and their supporters The Progressive Party was a liberal South African party that opposed the ruling National Party's policies of Apartheid. The Reform Party was a political party that existed for just five months in 1975 The Progressive Federal Party (PFP was a South African Political party formed in 1977. The Herstigte Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (Reconstituted National Party of South Africa was formed as a Right wing splinter group of the South African National Party For other uses of Umkhonto see Umkhonto (disambiguation Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC was a South African liberation movement that South African Communist Party ( SACP) is a Political party in South Africa. The United Democratic Front ( UDF) was one of the most important anti- Apartheid organisations of the 1980s This page refers to the Afrikaner Broederbond For its later incarnation see Afrikanerbond. The National Party ( Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU is a Trade union The South African Defence Force (SADF were the South African Armed forces from 1957 until 1994 For the post-apartheid police force see South African Police Service. Pieter Willem Botha (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006 commonly known as "P Joshua Oupa Gqozo (ɔupʼa ɡǃʱɔz̤ɔ ( 10 March 1952 -) was the military ruler of the former Homeland of Ciskei in South Africa Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 &ndash 7 February 1959 more commonly known as D Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Cleric and activist who rose to Worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu ( May 18, 1912 &ndash May 5, 2003) was a South African anti- Apartheid activist and member of the Helen Suzman, born Helen Gavronsky ( 7 November, 1917 in Germiston Gauteng, South Africa) was an anti- Apartheid Harry Heinz Schwarz (born May 13, 1924) is a former South African anti- Apartheid politician diplomat and jurist Andries Petrus Treurnicht ( February 19, 1921, Piketberg, Cape Province – April 22, 1993, Cape Town) was the Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd ( Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 &ndash Cape Town, 6 September 1966 was Prime Minister of South Africa from Oliver Reginald Tambo ( 27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti- Apartheid politician and a central figure Balthazar Johannes Vorster (13 December 1915 - 10 September 1983 better known as John Vorster ("FOUR-stir" served as the Prime Minister of South Africa Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima ( June 15 1915 - June 15 2003) was a former leader of the then- Bantustan of Transkei in James Thomas "Jimmy" Kruger (1917 — May 9, 1987) was a South African Politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice Stephen Bantu Biko December 1946 &ndash 12 September 1977 was a noted anti-[[apartheid] activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Ernest Urban Trevor Huddleston KCMG ( June 15, 1913 – April 20, 1998) was an Anglican priest one-time Archbishop A bantustan or more commonly black african homeland or simply homeland, was territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South-West District Six ( Afrikaans Distrik Ses) is the name of a former inner-city residential area in Cape Town, South Africa. Robben Island ( Afrikaans Robbeneiland) is an Island in Table Bay, some seven kilometres off the coast of the Cape Town bay South Sophiatown (pronounced with a long stressed i) (also known as Sof'town or Kofifi) is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa South-West Africa (Afrikaans Suidwes-Afrika; German Südwestafrika) was the name of what is today the Republic of Namibia. Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. Vlakplaas is a farm 20km west of Pretoria that served as the headquarters of the South African Police Counterinsurgency unit C10 (later called C1 working The Freedom Charter was the statement of core principles of the South African Congress Alliance which consisted of the African National Congress and its allies the South The Sullivan Principles are the names of two corporate codes of conduct, developed by the African-American preacher Rev The Kairos Document (KD is a theological statement issued in 1985 by a group of black South African theologians based predominantly in the black Townships of Disinvestment (or divestment from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant For the post-apartheid police force see South African Police Service. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa A bantustan or more commonly black african homeland or simply homeland, was territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South-West QwaQwa was a Bantustan, or homeland in the eastern part of South Africa. Zululand, the Zulu -dominated area of northern KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa, extends along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. It consisted of two separate blocks of land covering 2970 square miles (7700 km³ almost entirely The Transkei —which means "the area beyond the Kei River"—is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Venda was a Bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo province Bophuthatswana (meaning gathering of the Tswana people) was a Bantustan ("homeland" in the northwest of South Africa. Apartheid laws were first enacted by the British controlled government when the Pass Laws were passed in 1923. The status quo was maintained and restrictions on non-whites' social and political freedoms further tightened when Afrikaner-led political parties gained control of government since 1948.
The South African referendum, 1992 was held on 17 March 1992. The South African referendum of 1992 was held on 17 March 1992 in South Africa. Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) In it, South Africans were asked to vote in the last tricameral election held under the apartheid system, in which the Coloured and Indian population groups could also vote, to determine whether or not they supported the negotiated reforms begun by then State President F.W. de Klerk two years earlier. The Tricameral Parliament was the name given to the South African Parliament and its structure from 1984 to 1994. In the South African Namibian Zambian Botswanan and Zimbabwean context the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 The result of the election was a large victory for the "yes" side. Election analysts however reported that support to dismantle Apartheid among the Afrikaners was actually slightly higher than among English speakers. Anglo-Africans are people of primarily Sub-Saharan Africa whose first language is English.  This assertion is questionable given that statistical analysis published by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation(CSVR) has shown that Afrikaners supported apartheid policies to a greater extent than English-speakers from the 1970s to the 1990s. (Between Acknowledgement and Ignorance:How white South Africans have dealt with the apartheid past)
In recent years there has been a tendency within South Africa to describe the mixed race ("coloured") population of South Africa, most of whom speak Afrikaans as their first language, as Afrikaners or 'coloured Afrikaners'. In the South African Namibian Zambian Botswanan and Zimbabwean context the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense However the Afrikaans-speakers of mixed race in South Africa and Namibia usually refer to themselves as "kleurlinge" ('coloureds') and "bruinmense" ('brown people'). Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast In the South African Namibian Zambian Botswanan and Zimbabwean context the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense "Basters" ('of mixed race', literally 'bastards') is a term that was formerly common but is now rarely encountered due to its pejorative nature. The Basters (also known as Baasters, Rehobothers or Rehoboth Basters) are the descendants of liaisons between the Cape Colony Dutch Other non-white Afrikaans-speaking groups are the "Griqua", "Namaqua", and "Khoikhoi". The Griqua ( Afrikaans Griekwa, sometimes incorrectly called Korana) are a subgroup of South Africa 's heterogeneous and Multiracial Nama (in older sources also called Namaqua) are an African Ethnic group of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana.
The switch from 'coloured' to 'Afrikaner' has seen some success despite the history of exclusion during the colonial and apartheid eras. However, many Afrikaans-speaking coloureds feel they have developed a separate identity from white Afrikaners due to the strict racial segregation policies of the apartheid years, and there are marked colloquial differences between the languages as spoken by whites and Cape coloureds. Some Afrikaans-speaking coloureds also practise the Islamic religion, due to their Malay roots. The concept of a Malay race ( Bangsa Melayu) was proposed by the German scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840
Recently, some liberal Afrikaans-speaking South Africans and Namibians have rejected the label 'Afrikaner', because of its negative connotations of racial and religious intolerance. Some use the neologism and racially neutral term "Afrikaanses" to refer to themselves as persons whose mother tongue is Afrikaans, disregarding the supposed – and hard to define – ethnic identity or apartheid-era racial categorisation. A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been
While some conservative trekker and frontier descended Afrikaners still cherish the nametag "Boer", others view it as an obsolete and even pejorative term when used in an ethnic context.
Efforts are being made by a few Afrikaners to secure minority rights even though protection of minority rights is fundamental to the new 1996 post-apartheid Constitution of South Africa. The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts first normal individual Rights as applied to members of racial Ethnic, class religious linguistic or The current and official Constitution of the Republic of South Africa was adopted on 8 May 1996. These efforts include the Volkstaat movement. See other meanings of Volkstaat. Volkstaat ( Afrikaans for "People's state" is a proposal for the establishment of In contrast, a handful of Afrikaners have joined the ruling African National Congress party, which is overwhelmingly supported by South Africa's black majority. The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions However, the vast majority of Afrikaners have joined white English-speakers in supporting South Africa's official opposition, the Democratic Alliance, indicating their acceptance of non-racism within a free enterprise economy. The Democratic Alliance (DA is a liberal South African political party and the official opposition to the ruling African National Congress.
The new phenomenon of white poverty is often blamed on the government’s Affirmative Action employment legislation, which reserves 80% of new jobs for blacks and favours black owned companies. Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and Affirmative action in the United States|Employment equity (Canada|Reservation in India|Numerus clausus The term affirmative action describes many policies aimed at a historically Over 350,000 Afrikaners may be classified as poor, with some research claiming that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival. 
Genocide Watch has theorised that farm attacks constitute early warning signs of genocide against Afrikaners and has criticised the South African government for its inaction on the issue, pointing out that the murder rate for them ("ethno-European farmers" in their report, which would also included non Afrikaner farmers of European ethnicity) is four times that of the general South African population. Genocide Watch is an international organization based in the United States which attempts to predict prevent limit eliminate and punish genocides throughout the world through Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries . There are 40,000 white farmers in South Africa. Since 1994 close to two thousand farmers have been murdered in tens of thousands farm attacks in South Africa, many brutally tortured and/or raped. The South African farming community has suffered from attacks for many years Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person Some victims have been burned with smoothing irons or had boiling water poured down their throats. 
The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization(UNPO)awarded the Afrikaner people membership during it's IX General Assembly on 16 – 17 May 2008 in Brussels, Belgium. The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization ( UNPO) formed in 1991 is a democratic International organization.
The UNPO is a democratic, international organization. Its members are indigenous peoples, occupied nations, minorities and independent states or territories which lack representation internationally.
UNPO is dedicated to the five principles enshrined in its Covenant:
This successful application for membership represents a formal acknowledgment by an international organisation of the fact the Afrikaner people have since 1994 become a stateless nation. The Freedom Front leader, dr. The Freedom Front Plus ( FF+; Afrikaans: Vryheidsfront Plus, VF+) is a South African political party that aims to protect Afrikaner Pieter Mulder accepted membership of UNPO on behalf of the Afrikaner people. Dr Pieter Mulder is a South African politician and the leader of the Freedom Front Plus. 
There were 133,324 speakers of Afrikaans in Namibia, forming 9. Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast 5% of the total national population, according to the 1991 census. Afrikaners are mostly found in Windhoek and in the Southern provinces. 
A significant number of Afrikaners have migrated to countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Netherlands, Belgium, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Argentina, and Mexico. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
A large number of young Afrikaners are taking advantage of working holiday visas made available by the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries, as well as the Netherlands and Belgium, to gain work experience. A working holiday visa is a travel permit which allows travellers to undertake employment in the country issuing the visa for the purpose of supplementing their travel funds The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The favourable exchange rate with the South African Rand (ZAR) also increases the attractiveness of international experience.
Predominantly Christian, the Calvinism of Afrikaners in South Africa developed in a different way from its European and American counterparts. Afrikaner Calvinism is according to theory a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the This uniqueness is generally regarded as a direct result of geographical isolation and political and cultural estrangement, which shut out the influences of the Enlightenment. The cross-currents of change which arose within the Protestant cultures of Europe in response to the eighteenth century Enlightenment had minimal effect upon the development of religious thought among the Afrikaners. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century
This view of Afrikaner Calvinism implies that it is a purer expression of what Calvinism originally was, without the diluting effects of the Enlightenment. Particularly, this view implies that cultural development under the influence of Afrikaner civil religion is an illustration of the cultural implications of Calvinism. The intended meaning of the term civil religion often varies according to whether one is a sociologist of religion or a professional political commentator
The Afrikaans language changed over time from the Dutch spoken by the first white settlers at the Cape. Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in From the late 17th century, the form of Dutch spoken at the Cape developed differences, mostly in morphology but also in pronunciation and accent and, to a lesser extent, in syntax and vocabulary, from that of the Netherlands, although the languages are still similar enough to be mutually intelligible. Settlers who arrived speaking German and French soon shifted to using Dutch and later Afrikaans. The process of language change was influenced by the languages spoken by slaves, Khoikhoi and people of mixed descent, as well as by Cape Malay, Zulu, English and Portuguese. While the Dutch of the Netherlands remained the official language, the new dialect, often known as Cape Dutch, African Dutch, "Kitchen Dutch", or "Taal" (meaning language in Afrikaans) developed into a separate language by the 19th century, with much work done by the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners and other writers such as Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven. The Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners ( Afrikaans for "Society of Real Afrikaners" was formed on 14 August 1875 in the town of Paarl "Langenhoven" redirects here For the Namibian rugby player see Bratley Langenhoven Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven ( 13 August 1873 – In a 1925 act of Parliament Afrikaans replaced standard Dutch as one of the two official languages of the Union of South Africa. } The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day state of the Republic of South Africa. There was much objection to the attempt to legislate the creation of Afrikaans as a new language. Marthinus Steyn, a prominent jurist and politician, and others were vocal in their opposition. Martinus (or Marthinus) Theunis Steyn ( October 2, 1857 &ndash 28 November 1916) was a South African They perceived that legalization of Afrikaans as an official language would only serve to isolate the Afrikaners, as they would be the only people in the world to speak Afrikaans. Steyn, who died before 1925, had been educated in Holland and England and was a worldly cosmopolitan figure. Today, Afrikaans is recognised as one of the eleven official languages of the new South Africa, and is widely accepted as an appropriate means of communication for a large number of South Africans.
Afrikaners have a long literary tradition, and have produced a number of notable novelists and poets, including Uys Krige, Elisabeth Eybers, Breyten Breytenbach, André Brink, and Athol Fugard. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Uys Krige (christened Mattheus Uys Krige ( 4 February 1910 - 10 August 1987) was a South African Writer, Poet Elisabeth Françoise Eybers ( 16 February 1915 &ndash 1 December 2007) was a South African Poet. Breyten Breytenbach (born September 16, 1939) is a South African Writer and painter with French Citizenship. André Philippus Brink (born 29 May 1935 in Vrede) is a South African Novelist He writes in Afrikaans and English Athol Fugard (born 11 June 1932 is a South African playwright novelist actor and director who writes in, best known for his political plays opposing the South African system
Music is probably the most popular artform among Afrikaners. While the traditional Boeremusiek (Boer Music) and Volkspele (literally, People Games) folk dancing enjoyed popularity in the past, most Afrikaners today favour a variety of international genres and light popular Afrikaans music. Boeremusiek ( Boer music is a type of South African instrumental Folk music. Volkspele is a South African Folk dance tradition Directly translated Volkspele means "folk games" and can be translated to folk dance Some also enjoy a social dance event called a sokkie. A sokkie is a Social dance with a partner popular with some Afrikaners It is also referred to in Afrikaans as "langarm" a term The South African rock band, Seether, has a hidden track on their album, Karma and Effect, that is sung in the Afrikaan language. Seether is a Post-grunge band from South Africa. They are currently signed to Wind-up Records. Karma and Effect is the second Album by the South African Hard rock band Seether. It is titled, Kom Saam Met My, which is translated as Come With Me.
Rugby union, cricket and golf are generally considered to be the most popular sports among Afrikaners. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Rugby in particular is considered one of the central pillars of the Afrikaner community.
"Boere-sport" also played a very big role in the Afrikaner history. It consisted of a variety of sports like 'tug of war', three-legged races, jukskei, skilpadloop (tortoise walk) and other games.
The world's first ounce-denominated gold coin, the Krugerrand was struck at the South African Mint on the third of July 1967. A Krugerrand is a South African Gold coin, first minted in 1967 in order to help market South African gold The name Krugerrand was derived from KRUGER (President Paul Kruger) and RAND the monetary unit of South Africa. Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger ( October 10, 1825 &ndash July 14, 1904) better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom The Rand is associated with the area called Witwatersrand, "the ridge of white water" an important gold producing area.
In April 2007, the South African Mint coined a collectors R1 gold coin commemorating the Afrikaner people as part of its cultural series, depicting the Great Trek across the Drakensberg mountains.
The Afrikaanse Taal en Kultuurvereniging (ATKV) (Afrikaans Language and Culture Society) is responsible for promoting the Afrikaans language and culture.
The Freedom Front is an Afrikaner ethnic political party in the Republican tradition, which lobbies for minority rights to be granted to all of the South African ethnic minorities. The Freedom Front Plus ( FF+; Afrikaans: Vryheidsfront Plus, VF+) is a South African political party that aims to protect Afrikaner The Freedom Front is also leading the Volkstaat initiative and is closely associated to the small town of Orania. See other meanings of Volkstaat. Volkstaat ( Afrikaans for "People's state" is a proposal for the establishment of Orania is a South African town that is located along the Orange River in the arid Karoo region of its Northern Cape province However, this party has only minority support among Afrikaners, with most supporting the Democratic Alliance. The Democratic Alliance (DA is a liberal South African political party and the official opposition to the ruling African National Congress.
Differences of opinion about who qualifies as an Afrikaner arise from two opposing assumptions about the nature of ethnicity. A complicating factor is that ethnicity can be self-claimed, or can be ascribed by outsiders.
A first understanding of ethnicity is that it primarily describes relatively static inherent qualities that define exclusive groups based on common descent. Accordingly, individuals are born into distinct ethnic groups which share distinctive characteristics such as culture, religion, and language. From this perspective, you are born an Afrikaner; once an Afrikaner, always an Afrikaner. This perspective tends to be a-historical, in as far as it ignores the transmission of culture over time. Ethnicity is seen as a given.
A second assumption is that ethnicity comprises more fluid identity elements that create rather open-ended groups for particular purposes. Accordingly, ethnic groups form to meet particular needs, often to forge a superficial nationalistic unity out of rather disparate groups in order to gain material, social, or political advantages. From this viewpoint, ethnic groups exhibit great fluidity over time. Simply put, someone who is French can become an Afrikaner, for instance by learning the language and identifying with others who claim to be Afrikaners. In an extreme form, this argument leads to the conclusion that the commonalities within ethnic groups are largely imagined, and may in fact hide huge differences of dialect, religion, and historical experience. Proponents of this viewpoint may find it difficult to account for the stability of certain ethnic groups over time.
A commonly-understood--but seldom-mentioned--factor is that the definition of Afrikaner hinged on racial and linguistic components. While both were present from the start, the linguistic element received particular emphasis under British rule, and the racial element during apartheid. The project of forging an ethnic group arose among some non-British settlers who wanted to organize nationalistic opposition against the restrictive political oversight of first, their Dutch, and, later, their British rulers. Another purpose was to distinguish Afrikaans-speakers of European descent from indigenous groups (such as the Khoi) and slaves who may well have coined the language. Consequently, the meaning of "Afrikaner" was restricted to those who were both white and Afrikaans-speaking.
Changes in how "Afrikaner" is understood can clearly be traced through South African history in a way that incorporates elements of both static and fluid assumptions about ethnicity. During the 18th century the term was initially used by Dutch colonists to indicate their unique rootedness in Africa, even though they actually still spoke Dutch. The initial assumption of Dutch descent became irrelevant later when German and French settlers were incorporated into the 19th century definition. At this time the definition depended largely (but not completely) on uniting disparate settlers in opposition to British rule. The challenge was to forge an Afrikaner ethnic group from different economic classes and divergent levels of support for the British regime. What qualified one as belonging to an Afrikaner ethnic group varied somewhat according to historical period, .
While it may seem that the definition of "Afrikaner" is currently more problematic than before, such complexities were already present in colonial periods, as discussed below. Some have argued that the exclusive, racial overtones inherent in "Afrikaner" should be abandoned in favor of the linguistically more inclusive term, Afrikaanses.
The early Dutch colonists who claimed to be Afrikaners at the beginning of the 18th century did not constitute a distinct and new ethnic group. As first generation immigrants, they were culturally closer to their original ethnicities, (Dutch and later French and German). (Note that while the linguistic categories "Dutch", "French," and "German" are used as though they were homogeneous, they, too, comprised quite distinct dialects forged into unity through political and social projects, as indicated by the need to impose "Algemeen Beschaafd Nederlands" in the Netherlands, for instance) see Dutch language. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname From the first assumption about ethnicity described above, this group over time formed a shared identity with a common language (Afrikaans), Protestant religious orientation, and cultural traits, distinct from--yet often borrowed from--their respective ancestors and British colonists. Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in Yet while the early Afrikaners were largely Protestants, the Great Trek soon divided them into opposing religious factions. Economic differences existed which largely overlapped with regional variations between the western and eastern parts of the Cape colony, for instance.
Currently it is difficult to classify anyone as an Afrikaner – whether as ethnic or cultural group – based solely on a combination of language and race, just as it is difficult to classify someone as Anglo-African based solely on language (English) and race. Anglo-Africans are people of primarily Sub-Saharan Africa whose first language is English.
Even if a person is of obvious European descent and speaks Afrikaans as a first language, it is difficult to claim a genealogical link to the original Afrikaners of the Cape Colony due to intermarriage with other European settlers, especially the large number of British descent, but also newer European immigrants including Italians, Portuguese and Germans, among others. A simple example of this would be a quite common occurrence of someone of British descent marrying someone of Afrikaner descent and raising their children in a bilingual home. Would these children be considered Anglo-African or Afrikaner?
The population of white or European Afrikaans first-language speakers are also far from homogenous with regard to religion, politics or cultural practices. Anglo-Africans are people of primarily Sub-Saharan Africa whose first language is English. The last census of 2001, reported a "white" population of 4. 4 million, of which 2. 5 million spoke Afrikaans as a first language and 1. 4 million belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church (traditionally a church associated with Afrikaners, see Afrikaner Calvinism). Afrikaner Calvinism is according to theory a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking  From these numbers it is clear that a combination of factors have to be taken into account and these factors vary for each person as there is no one-to-one relationship between language, race, religion and ethnicity.
In 2004, South African journalist, Jani Allan, appeared as the guest on The Jeff Rense Show to a listenship of 17million. Jani Allan (born 11 September, 1953) is a former South African journalist and radio commentator best known for an alleged affair with right-wing AWB During the interview, Allan discussed the threats to the Afrikaners well-being in South Africa, particularly noting the South African farm attacks as well as poverty among Afrikaners. The South African farming community has suffered from attacks for many years She went on to encourage Americans to sponsor Afrikaners' emigration to the US. Allan noted as the Afrikaners had roots in South Africa, dating back to 1650, they were trapped in South Africa. Unlike Anglo-Africans, Allan argued that emigration would be more difficult for Afrikaners. 
Even Afrikaner historian Hermann Giliomee described the classification – perhaps casually – as: (Afrikaans) "enige iemand wat lief is vir die land en wat lief is vir Afrikaans" (English: "anyone who loves the land and who loves Afrikaans"). 
Another typical comment on the question of the supposed "Afrikaner" ethnic group from Harald Pakendorf an Afrikaans journalist: "To have a debate about Afrikaners seems almost absurd. Which Afrikaners? Who is an Afrikaner? Who will speak on their behalf? Hopefully, there will never be a debate about Afrikaners again. They are not separate enough from the rest of South Africa to be discussed as such. " 
Another context for the current (in democratic South Africa post 1994) efforts to establish a clear and distinct ethnic group called "Afrikaner", is that of a small conservative group seeking self determination in the form of an independent country or territory which they call a Volkstaat. White nationalism is a political Ideology which advocates a racial definition (or redefinition of national identity for White people, in opposition to Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their See other meanings of Volkstaat. Volkstaat ( Afrikaans for "People's state" is a proposal for the establishment of In order to be counted as a valid instances of ethnic nationalism, these groups must establish the existence of an easily identifiable and homogeneous ethnic group, because such a territory derives its legitimacy from the fact that it is a homeland for such an ethnic group. Ethnic nationalism is a form of Nationalism wherein the " Nation " is defined in terms of Ethnicity. A homeland (rel Country of origin and native land) is the concept of the territory ( Cultural geography) to which an Ethnic group
Instances of ethnic nationalism which include a "white" race qualification or component is referred to as white nationalism. White nationalism is a political Ideology which advocates a racial definition (or redefinition of national identity for White people, in opposition to Such white nationalist groups often rely on controversial fields of study such as race science, population genetics and eugenics. Scientific racism denotes the use of scientific or ostensibly scientific findings and methods to support or validate racist attitudes and worldviews Population genetics is the study of the Allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four evolutionary forces Natural selection, Genetic Eugenics is a social Philosophy which advocates the improvement of Human Hereditary traits through various forms of intervention
It is to this political background of an attempt at self determination that many descriptions or definitions of "Afrikaner" must be viewed. One example is the official newspaper of the right wing political party, the Herstigte Nasionale Party (HNP), with the Afrikaans Die Afrikaner (English: "The Afrikaner"). The Herstigte Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (Reconstituted National Party of South Africa was formed as a Right wing splinter group of the South African National Party It declares its goal as the "unashamed promotion of afrikaner nationalism". The modern context of Afrikaner nationalism for the term "Afrikaner" is therefore unquestionable.