Agia Marina beach overlooked by local restaurants
|Island Chain:||Saronic Islands|
|Area:||87. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. The Saronic Islands are so named because they lie in the Saronic Gulf just off the Greek mainland 410 km² (34 sq.mi.)|
|Highest Mountain:||Mt. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Oros (531 m (1,742 ft))|
|Population:||13,552 (as of 2001)|
|Density:||155 /km² (402 /sq. Attica (Αττική Attikí;) is a periphery (subdivision in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece Piraeus is one of the Prefectures of Greece. It is part of the periphery of Attica and the Athens-Piraeus super-prefecture. mi. )|
|Postal Code:||180 10|
Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 17 miles (30 km) from Athens. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Greek Islands are a collection of over 6000 Islands and Islets that belong to Greece. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Saronic Gulf ( Greek: Σαρωνικός κόλπος Saronikós kólpos) or Gulf of Aegina in Greece forms part of the Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Tradition derives the name from Aegina, the mother of Aeacus, who was born in and ruled the island. The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of Aeacus (also spelled Eäcus, Greek, "bewailing" or "earth borne" was a mythological king of the island of Aegina During ancient times, Aegina was a rival to Athens, the great sea power of the era. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's
The island, along with offshore islets, comprises the Municipality of Aegina in Piraeus Prefecture, a part of the Attica region. Piraeus is one of the Prefectures of Greece. It is part of the periphery of Attica and the Athens-Piraeus super-prefecture. Attica (Αττική Attikí;) is a periphery (subdivision in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece The capital is the town of Aegina (pop. 7,410 in 2001 census), situated at the northwestern end of the island. Due to its proximity to Athens, it is a popular quick getaway during the summer months, with quite a few Athenians owning second houses on the island. Besides the town of Aegina, the largest other towns and villages on the island are Kypséli (pop. 1,949), Vathý (1,474), Mesagrós (682), Pérdika (682), Agía Marína (426), Vaïa (239), Álones (233), and Kontós (178).
Aegina is roughly triangular in shape, approximately 15 km (9 miles) from east to west and 10 km (6 miles) from north to south, with an area of about 87 km² (34 square miles).
An extinct volcano constitutes two thirds of Aegina . The northern and western side consist of stony but fertile plains, which are well cultivated and produce luxuriant crops of grain, with some cotton, vines, almonds, olives and figs, but the most characteristic crop of Aegina today (2000s) is pistachio. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp A vine is any plant of Genus Vitis (the Grape plants or by extension any similar climbing or trailing plant The Almond ( Prunus dulcis, syn Prunus amygdalus Batsch Amygdalus communis L The Olive ( Olea europaea) is a Species of small Tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Ficus is a Genus of about 850 Species of woody Trees Shrubs Vines Epiphytes and hemi-epiphytes in the family The pistachio ( Pistacia vera L Anacardiaceae or sometimes Pistaciaceae) is a small Tree native to mountainous regions of Economically, the sponge fisheries are of notable importance. The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus "pore" and ferre "to bear" are Animals The southern volcanic part of the island is rugged and mountainous, and largely barren. Its highest rise is the conical Mount Oros (531 m) in the south, and the Panhellenian ridge stretches northward with narrow fertile valleys on either side.
The beaches are also a popular tourist attraction. Hydrofoil ferries from Piraeus take only forty minutes to reach Aegina; the regular ferry takes about an hour, with ticket prices for adults within the 4-15 euro range. A hydrofoil is a Boat with wing-like foils mounted on struts below the hull. Piraeus (pɪˈræʊs Πειραιάς, piɾeˈas Πειραιεύς, piɾeˈefs is a city in the periphery of Attica, Greece, and a Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e There are regular bus services from Aegina town to destinations throughout the island such as Agia Marina. The Greek Islands are a collection of over 6000 Islands and Islets that belong to Greece.
Prehistoric archaeological findings of settlements with obsidian tools points to an early inhabitation of the island.
Mycenaean and Minoan influence
Aegina, according to Herodotus, was a colony of Epidaurus, to which state it was originally subject. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Epidaurus (Ἐπίδαυρος Epidavros) was a small city ( Polis) in ancient Greece, at the Saronic Gulf. Its placement between Attica and the Peloponnesus made it a center of trade even earlier, and its earliest inhabitant came from Asia Minor. Attica (Αττική Attikí;) is a periphery (subdivision in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus ( Greek: Πελοπόννησος Pelopónnisos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large Peninsula  Minoan ceramics have been found in contexts of ca. 2000 BC. The discovery in the island of a number of gold ornaments belonging to the latest period of Mycenaean art suggests the inference that the Mycenaean culture held its own in Aegina for some generations after the Dorian conquest of Argos and Lacedaemon. Mycenaean Greece is a cultural period of ancient Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese The Dorians or Dorian Greeks ( Greek:, Dōrieis singular, Dōrieus were Argos ( Greek: Ἄργος, Árgos ˈaɾɣos is a city in Greece in the Peloponnese near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor  It is probable that the island was not doricized before the 9th century BC. The 9th century BC started the first day of 900 BC and ended the last day of 801 BC
One of the earliest historical facts is its membership in the League of Calauria (Calaurian Amphictyony, ca. Kalaureia or Calauria is an island close to the coast of Troezen in the Peloponnesus of mainland Greece, part of the modern island-pair Poros 8th century BC), which included, besides Aegina, Athens, the Minyan (Boeotian) Orchomenos, Troezen, Hermione, Nauplia and Prasiae, and was probably an organization of city-states that were still Mycenaean, for the purpose of suppressing piracy in the Aegean that arose as a result of the decay of the naval supremacy of the Mycenaean princes. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's According to Greek mythology, the Minyans ( Greek: Μινύες were an Autochthonous group inhabiting the Aegean region Troezen (ˈtriːzən Τροιζήν modern Troizina or Trizina, Turkish: Damala is a small town (pop Hermione (Greek grc ῾Ερμιόνη English pronunciation /hɚ Nafplion (Ναύπλιο in the Peloponnese in Greece, is a seaport town that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf
Aegina appears to have belonged to the Eretrian league during the Lelantine War; hence, perhaps, we may explain the war with Samos, a leading member of the rival Chalcidian league in the reign of King Amphicrates (Herod. This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria on Euboea It should not be confused with Eretria in western Magnesia, Greece or the modern African nation The Lelantine War was a long military conflict between the two ancient Greek city states Chalkis and Eretria that took place in the early Samos (Σάμος is a Greek island in the North Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off iii. 59), i. e. not later than the earlier half of the 7th century BC. The 7th century BC started the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC.
It follows, therefore, that the maritime importance of the island dates back to pre-Dorian times. Tortoises or land Turtles are land-dwelling Reptiles of the family of Testudinidae', order Testudines. The Dorians or Dorian Greeks ( Greek:, Dōrieis singular, Dōrieus were It is usually stated on the authority of Ephorus, that Pheidon of Argos established a mint in Aegina. Ephorus or Ephoros ( Ancient Greek:, c 400 - 330 BC) of Cyme in Aeolia, in Asia Pheidon ( 8th or 7th century BC, gr Φειδων was king of Argos. For example, Kydonia on Crete began minting coins by overstriking Aeginian specimens. Cydonia or Kydonia was an important ancient City-state on the northwest coast of the island of Crete. Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the Thus it was the Aeginetes who, within 30 or 40 years of the invention of coinage by the Lydians (c. Defining Lydia Aside from a legend related by Herodotus, who states that the name Lydia came from king Lydus at the time of the fall of Troy 700 BC), introduced coinage to the western world. The fact that the Aeginetan scale of coins, weights and measures (developed in the mid-7th century) was one of the two scales in general use in the Greek world (the other being the Euboic-Attic) is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island.
During the naval expansion of Aegina during the Archaic Period, Kydonia was an ideal maritime stop for Aegina's fleet on its way to other Mediterranean ports controlled by the emerging sea-power Aegina.  During the next century Aegina is one of the three principal states trading at the emporium of Naucratis, and it is the only state of European Greece that has a share in this factory. Naucratis or Naukratis, (Ναύκρατις loosely translated as "(the city that wields power over ships" (Piemro in Egyptian, now Kom Gieif was a  At the beginning of the 5th century it seems to have been an entrepôt of the Pontic grain trade, at a later date an Athenian monopoly
Unlike the other commercial states of the 7th and 6th centuries BC, such as Corinth, Chalcis, Eretria and Miletus, Aegina founded no colonies. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. Chalcis or Chalkida, Halkida, Halkis or Chalkis ( Greek, Modern Χαλκίδα xal'ciða Ancient/ Katharevousa: -ίς This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria on Euboea It should not be confused with Eretria in western Magnesia, Greece or the modern African nation Miletus (mī lē' təs ( Ancient Greek: Μίλητος literally Transliterated Milētos, Latin Miletus) was an Ancient The settlements to which Strabo refers (viii. 376) cannot be regarded as any real exceptions to this statement.
The history of Aegina, as it has come down to us, is almost exclusively a history of its relations with the neighbouring state of Athens, which began to compete with the thalassocracy of Aegina at the beginning of the sixth century. The term thalassocracy (from the θάλασσα meaning sea and κρατείν meaning "to rule" giving θαλασσοκρατία "rule of the sea" Solon passed laws limiting Aeginetan commerce in Attica. Solon ( ancient Greek:, c 638 BC&ndash558 BC was an Athenian Statesman, Lawmaker and Lyric poet. The legendary history of these relations, as recorded by Herodotus (v. 79-89; vi. 49-51, 73, 85-94), involve critical problems of some difficulty and interest. He traces back the hostility of the two states to a dispute about the images of the goddesses Damia and Auxesia, which the Aeginetes had carried off from Epidauros, their parent state. Epidaurus (Ἐπίδαυρος Epidavros) was a small city ( Polis) in ancient Greece, at the Saronic Gulf. The Epidaurians had been accustomed to make annual offerings to the Athenian deities Athena and Erechtheus in payment for the Athenian olive-wood of which the statues were made. Upon the refusal of the Aeginetes to continue these offerings, the Athenians endeavoured to carry away the images. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Their design was miraculously frustrated – according to the Aeginetan version, the statues fell upon their knees – and only a single survivor returned to Athens, there to fall a victim to the fury of his comrades' widows, who pierced him with their brooch-pins. No date is assigned by Herodotus for this old feud; recent writers, e. g. J. B. Bury and R. John Bagnell Bury ( 16 October 1861 &ndash 1 June 1927) known as J W. Macan, suggest the period between Solon and Peisistratus, circa 570 BC. Events and trends 579 BC — Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as the sixth King of Rome. It may be questioned, however, whether the whole episode is not mythical. A critical analysis of the narrative seems to reveal little else than a series of aetiological traditions (explanatory of cults and customs, e. g. of the kneeling posture of the images of Damia and Auxesia, of the use of native ware instead of Athenian in their worship, and of the change in women's dress at Athens from the Dorian to the Ionian style. Geography Physical Ionia was of small extent not exceeding 90 geographical miles in length from north to south with a breadth varying from 40 to 55 miles but to this
The account which Herodotus gives of the hostilities between the two states in the early years of the 5th century BC is to the following effect. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. Thebes, after the defeat by Athens about 507 BC, appealed to Aegina for assistance. The Aeginetans at first contented themselves with sending the images of the Aeacidae, the tutelary heroes of their island. A tutelary spirit or patron deity serves as the guardian of or an entity to watch over and protect a particular site person culture or nation Subsequently, however, they entered into an alliance, and ravaged the sea-board of Attica. The Athenians were preparing to make reprisals, in spite of the advice of the Delphic oracle that they should desist from attacking Aegina for thirty years, and content themselves meanwhile with dedicating a precinct to Aeacus, when their projects were interrupted by the Spartan intrigues for the restoration of Hippias. Delphi ( Greek,) ( pronounce and dialectal forms) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western Hippias can also refer to the tyrant of Athens son of Peisistratus In 501 BC Aegina was one of the states which gave the symbols of submission (earth and water) to Persia. Athens at once appealed to Sparta to punish this act of medism, and Cleomenes I, one of the Spartan kings, crossed over to the island, to arrest those who were responsible for it. Cleomenes (kliːˈɑməniːz Greek Κλεομένης (d c 489 BC was an Agiad King of Sparta in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC His attempt was at first unsuccessful; but, after the deposition of Demaratus, he visited the island a second time, accompanied by his new colleague Leotychides, seized ten of the leading citizens and deposited them at Athens as hostages. Demaratus was a king of Sparta from 515 until 491 BC of the Eurypontid line, successor to his father Ariston.
After the death of Cleomenes and the refusal of the Athenians to restore the hostages to Leotychides, the Aeginetans retaliated by seizing a number of Athenians at a festival at Sunium. Thereupon the Athenians concerted a plot with Nicodromus, the leader of the democratic party in the island, for the betrayal of Aegina. He was to seize the old city, and they were to come to his aid on the same day with seventy vessels. The plot failed owing to the late arrival of the Athenian force, when Nicodromus had already fled the island. An engagement followed in which the Aeginetans were defeated. Subsequently, however, they succeeded in winning a victory over the Athenian fleet. All the incidents subsequent to the appeal of Athens to Sparta are expressly referred by Herodotus to the interval between the sending of the heralds in 491 BC and the invasion of Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC (cf. Events By place Greece Darius I sends envoys to all Greek cities demanding "earth and water for vassalage" Events By place Greece Darius I sends an expedition under Artaphernes and Datis the Mede across Herod. vi. 49 with 94). There are difficulties in this story, of which the following are the principal elements: – (i. ) Herodotus nowhere states or implies that peace was concluded between the two states before 481 BC, nor does he distinguish between different wars during this period. Events By place Persian Empire The Persian King Xerxes I arrives at Sardis and begins to build Hence it would follow that the war lasted from shortly after 507 BC down to the congress at the Isthmus of Corinth in 481 BC (ii. ) It is only for two years (490 and 491) out of the twenty-five that any details are given. Events By place Greece Darius I sends an expedition under Artaphernes and Datis the Mede across Events By place Greece Darius I sends envoys to all Greek cities demanding "earth and water for vassalage" It is the more remarkable that no incidents are recorded in the period between Marathon and Salamis, since at the time of the Isthmian Congress the war is described as the most important one then being waged in Greece (Herod. The Battle of Marathon ( Greek: Μάχη τοῡ Μαραθῶνος Machē tou Marathōnos) during the Greco-Persian Wars took place in 490 The Battle of Salamis ( Ancient Greek:) was a decisive naval battle between the Greek City-states and Persia in September 480 BC in the vii. 145). (iii. ) It is improbable that Athens would have sent twenty vessels to the aid of the Ionians in 499 BC if at the time she was at war with Aegina. Events By place Greece After a failed attack on the rebellious island of Naxos in 502 BC (on behalf of (iv. ) There is an incidental indication of time, which points to the period after Marathon as the true date for the events which are referred by Herodotus to the year before Marathon, viz. the thirty years that were to elapse between the dedication of the precinct to Aeacus and the final victory of Athens (Herod. v. 89).
As the final victory of Athens over Aegina was in 458 B. C. , the thirty years of the oracle would carry us back to the year 488 BC as the date of the dedication of the precinct and the outbreak of hostilities. Events By place Greece The Athenians ostracise Hipparchos for his favouring of appeasement This inference is supported by the date of the building of the 200 triremes for the war against Aegina on the advice of Themistocles, which is given in the Constitution of Athens as 483-482 BC (Herod. Themistocles ( Greek:; c 524&ndash459 BC was an Athenian soldier and statesman vii. 144; Ath. Pol. r2. The Constitution of the Athenians (or Athenaion Politeia, or The Athenian constitution) is the name of either of two texts from Classical antiquity one 7). It is probable, therefore, that Herodotus is in error both in tracing back the beginning of hostilities to an alliance between Thebes and Aegina (c. 507 BC) and in putting the episode of Nicodromus before Marathon. Overtures were unquestionably made by Thebes for an alliance with Aegina c. 507 BC, but they came to nothing. The refusal of Aegina was veiled under the diplomatic form of sending the Aeacidae. The real occasion of the outbreak of the war was the refusal of Athens to restore the hostages some twenty years later. There was but one war, and it lasted from 488 to 481. That Athens had the worst of it in this war is certain. Herodotus had no Athenian victories to record after the initial success, and the fact that Themistocles was able to carry his proposal to devote the surplus funds of the state to the building of so large a fleet seems to imply that the Athenians were themselves convinced that a supreme effort was necessary. It may be noted, in confirmation of this view, that the naval supremacy of Aegina is assigned by the ancient writers on chronology to precisely this period, i. e. the years 490-480 (Eusebius, Chron. Can. p. 337).
Persian, Peloponnesian, & Corinthian wars
In the repulse of Xerxes I it is possible that the Aeginetans played a larger part than is conceded to them by Herodotus. Xerxes I of Persia was a King of Persia (reigned 485–465 BC of the Achaemenid dynasty. The Athenian tradition, which he follows in the main, would naturally seek to obscure their services. It was to Aegina rather than Athens that the prize of valour at Salamis was awarded, and the destruction of the Persian fleet appears to have been as much the work of the Aeginetan contingent as of the Athenian (Herod. viii. 91). There are other indications, too, of the importance of the Aeginetan fleet in the Greek scheme of defence. In view of these considerations it becomes difficult to credit the number of the vessels that is assigned to them by Herodotus (30 as against 180 Athenian vessels, cf. Greek History, sect. The History of Greece traditionally encompasses the study of the Greek people, the areas they ruled historically and the territory now composing the modern state of Authorities). During the next twenty years the Philo-laconian policy of Cimon secured Aegina, as a member of the Spartan league, from attack. Cimon (in Greek, Κίμων &mdash Kimōn) (510 Athens - 450 BC Citium, Cyprus) was an Athenian The change in Athenian foreign policy, which was consequent upon the ostracism of Cimon in 461, led to what is sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War, in which the brunt of the fighting fell upon Corinth and Aegina. The latter state was forced to surrender to Athens after a siege, and to accept the position of a subject-ally (c. 456 BC). Events By Place Greece The first of the Athenian sculptor Phidias ' monuments to Athena, the bronze Athena Promachos The tribute was fixed at 30 talents.
By the terms of the Thirty Years' Truce (445 BC) Athens covenanted to restore to Aegina her autonomy, but the clause remained a dead letter. Events By place Greece Pericles, concerned over the draining effect of years of war on Athenian manpower looks for peace with In the first winter of the Peloponnesian War (431 BC) Athens expelled the Aeginetans, and established a cleruchy in their island. Events By place Greece Athens enters into an alliance with King Sitalkes of Thrace, after Nymphodorus an influential Athenian The exiles were settled by Sparta in Thyreatis, on the frontiers of Laconia and Argolis. Even in their new home they were not safe from Athenian rancour. 1 A force landed under Nicias in 424, and put most of them to the sword. Events By place Persian empire Xerxes II rules as King of Persia for only about 45 days until he is killed At the end of the Peloponnesian War Lysander restored the scattered remnants of the old inhabitants to the island, which was used by the Spartans as a base for operations against Athens in the Corinthian War. Its greatness, however, was at an end. The part which it plays henceforward is insignificant.
It would be a mistake to attribute the fall of Aegina solely to the development of the Athenian navy. It is probable that the power of Aegina had steadily declined during the twenty years after Salamis, and that it had declined absolutely, as well as relatively, to that of Athens. Commerce was the source of Aegina's greatness, and her trade, which appears to have been principally with the Levant, must have suffered seriously from the war with Persia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Her medism in 491 is to be explained by her commercial relations with the Persian Empire. Events By place Greece Darius I sends envoys to all Greek cities demanding "earth and water for vassalage" She was forced into patriotism in spite of herself, and the glory won by Salamis was paid for by the loss of her trade and the decay of her marine. Salamis ( Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient / Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest The completeness of the ruin of so powerful a state – we should look in vain for an analogous case in the history of the modern world – finds an explanation in the economic conditions of the island, the prosperity of which rested upon a basis of slave-labour. It is impossible, indeed, to accept Aristotle's (cf. Athenaeus vi. 272) estimate of 470,000 as the number of the slave-population; it is clear, however, that the number must have been out of all proportion to that of the free inhabitants. In this respect the history of Aegina does but anticipate the history of Greece as a whole. The constitutional history of Aegina is unusually simple. So long as the island retained its independence the government was an oligarchy. There is no trace of the heroic monarchy and no tradition of a tyrannis. The story of Nicodromus, while it proves the existence of a democratic party, suggests, at the same time, that it could count upon little support.
Pericles called Aegina the eye-sore (leme) of the Peiraeus.
Aegina passed with the rest of Greece under the successive dominations of Macedon, the Aetolians, Attalus of Pergamum and Rome. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
Church construction activity in the 9th century AD provides evidence of a flourishing economy on the island before its eventual abandonment sometime in the second half of the ninth century as a consequence of Arab raids. 12th c. Emigration and the exactions of the Byzantine officials completed the tales of Michael Choniates in the late 12th century. In 1198, he addressed a memorial to the Emperor Alexios Komnenos III, on behalf of the Athenians, from which we learn that the city was free from the jurisdiction of the provincial governor, who resided at Thebes and who was not even allowed to enter the city, which like Patras and Monemvasia was governed by its own άρχοντες. Piracy Benedict of Peterborough gives a graphic account of Greece, as it was in 1191, that many of the islands were uninhabited from fear of pirates and that others were their chosen lairs. The islands of Aegina, Salamis and Makronesos were strongholds of corsairs. They injured the property of the Athenian Church and dangerously wounded the nephew of Michael Choniates, who found it almost impossible to collect the ecclesiastical revenues of Aegina. Most of the Aeginetan population had fled therefore, while those who remained had fraternized with the pirates. At the time of the Latin conquest most Greece was still nominally under the authority of the Byzantine Emperor. Continental Greece, from the Isthmus to the river Peneios in the north, and to Aetolia in the west, composed the «Θέμα Ελλάδος», which thus included Attica, Boeotia, Phokis, Lokris, part of Thessaly and the islands of Euboea and Aegina. This Theme was at the time administrated together with the Theme of Peloponnese by the same official.
Venetians took all the best harbors and markets in the Levant:
Aegina and its external history
All the commercial privileges, which they had enjoyed in the time of the Byzantine Empire should be continued to them. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the Burgundian Athens embraced Attica, Boeotia, the Megarid, the ancient Opuntian Lokris and the fortresses of Nauplia and Argos and at least 4 ports ( Piraeus, Nauplia, Atalante, Livadostro ( Corinth )). Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Attica (Αττική Attikí;) is a periphery (subdivision in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece Boeotia, Beotia, or Bœotia ( Greek: Βοιωτία - English biːˈoʊʃiə formerly Cadmeis was a region of Ancient Greece, north of the Locris ( Greek, Modern Lokrida, Ancient Lokris) was a region of Ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of two districts Nafplion (Ναύπλιο in the Peloponnese in Greece, is a seaport town that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf Piraeus (pɪˈræʊs Πειραιάς, piɾeˈas Πειραιεύς, piɾeˈefs is a city in the periphery of Attica, Greece, and a Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. They did a little amateur piracy. Thebes was the capital.
In 1225 Othon de la Roche departed for Burgundy, leaving his nephew Guy as Duke. The Duchy of Athens was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade, For 50 years, Athens enjoyed peace, till a fratricidal war between Guillaume de Villeardouin (Prince of Achaia) and the great Barons of Euboea involved Guy, who took the side of the Barons. Prince, from the Latin root Princeps, is a general term for a Monarch, for a member of a monarch's or former monarch's family and is a Achaea (Αχαΐα Achaïa, axaˈia in Polytonic orthography) is an ancient province and a present prefecture of Greece, on the northern Baron is a specific Title of nobility. The word baron comes from Old French baron, itself from Old High German and Latin (liber For the mythological figure see Euboea (mythology Euboea ( Modern Greek, Εύβοια - Évia &mdash He became regent of Achaia after the end of it.
Guillaume de Villeardouin was captured by the Byzantines and when he was freed, he was accepted by the Duke of Athens in Thebes. The Duchy of Athens was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade, There the Treaty of Thebes was signed between the Prince of Achaia, Venice and the Triarchs. William recognized Guglielmo da Verona, Narzotto dale Carceri and Grapella as Triarchs and they in turn recognized him as their suzerain and promised to destroy the Castle of Negroponte. Venice engaged to cancel all her fiefs by her Bailie since the death of Carintana. A baillie (alternative spelling bailie, from Old French) was a local civic officer in Scottish Burghs approximately equivalent to the post of
When the Latin Empire of Constantinople fell, the Emperor Baldwin II spend time in the Duchy of Athens. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Baldwin II may refer to Baldwin II of Constantinople, Latin Emperor of Constantinople Baldwin II of Jerusalem, King of Jerusalem Othon de Cicon, Lord of Karystos and Aegina came to attend him along with other lords. He had played so active a part in the Euboean war and had lent him 5000 Hyperpera in his sore need. Baldwin liquidated his dept to the baron of Karystos with an arm of St. John the Baptist, which the pious Othon subsequently presented to the Burgundian Abbey of Citeaux. Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. Cîteaux Abbey (French Abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Roman Catholic Abbey located in Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, south of Dijon,
John (son of Guy) got involved in the war of Thessaly and Constantinople. He helped the Sevastokrator of Thessaly Ioannes I` Angelos against Emperor Michael VIII and he wan the imperial army. The Angelos family (pl Angeloi, Greek: Ἄγγελος fem Άγγελίνα was a noble Byzantine lineage which gave rise to three Byzantine emperors Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Μιχαήλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos) (1223 &ndash December 11 As a reward he took Ioannes’ daughter, Helena, as a bride for his younger brother William and he extended his influence as far as north as Thessaly. At a battle at Negroponte he was caught prisoner by the Greeks and was carried to Constantinople. Michael took ransom. A year later (1280) he died.
William (Guy’s brother) reigned the next 7 years as the leading figure of Frankish Greece. [The Angevin Kings of Naples had become overlords of Achaia by the treaty of Viterbo. ] He spent money on the defense of Peloponnese and Euboea.
Helena Angelina (William’s Greek wife) left to rule after William’s death. She married his brother-in-law Hugh de Brienne. Helena's son Guy II, at the ceremony of his coming of age and becoming Duke of Athens (1294), made Bonifate of Verona a knight and as a reward for his service, he gave him 13 castles on the mainland and Salamis (to bring him in revenue 50,000 sols ) and he bestowed the hand of Agnes de Cicon (daughter of Othon de Cicon), cousin of the Duke of Athens, lady of Euboea, Karystos (was at the time in the hands of Greeks) and Aegina. For the educational standards in Virginia see Standards of Learning. Attica now for the first time supplies Euboea with corn. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Guy II died in 1308.
Walter de Brienne (Count of Lecce ) became the new Duke. This is about the Italian city of Lecce For the football club see U He thought he might use the coming Catalans against the Duke of Thessaly (Ioannes II`), who made alliance with the Despot of Epeiros and the Emperor. The Catalans won but at the end turned against their employer and occupied the regions from Thessaly to Athens (1311). Only four survived: Boniface of Verona, Roger Deslaur, the eldest son of the Duke of Naxos and Jean de Maisy ( άρχοντας of Euboea).
The Catalan company annexed to Attica and Boeotia the Duchy of Neopatras, including part of Thessaly, while Catalan lords held the castles of Salona and Karystos and the island of Aegina. The Company needed a leader and they offered the post to Boniface, but he refused. Then they turned to Roger Deslaur, who accepted for a while. King Frederick II of Sicily sent as their Duke his (bastard) son Manfred Fadrigo. He was among the Principal Catalans in 1335 and he died in 1338 leaving castles to his sons: His second son, Don Jaime, succeeded his elder brother (or cousin?) Don Pedro in his estates, held for a time the island of Aegina—because the people of the island rebelled against him—and became later on vicar-general of the Company.
Yet another son, Bonifacio, inherited Karystos and Lamia and received from Don Jaime, with certain reservations, Aegina, thereby reuniting the old possessions of his namesake and grandfather, Bonifacio da Verona. [The island of Salamis seems to have been subdued by the Greeks and paid taxes to the Byzantine governor of Monemvasia. ]
The feudal system continued to exist, but not anymore under the Assizes, but under the Customs of Barcelona. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed And the official common language was now Catalan and not French. Catalan ˈkætəˌlæn ( català kətəˈla or) is a Romance language, the national and official language of Andorra, and a co-official French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Fiefs of the Duchies of Athens and Neopatras (over the last years)
Count Ludwig Fadrique (1365-1381) was master of Lidoriki and Zetouni and later of Siderokastron (Delphoi) and Aegina. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's The Duchy of Neopatria or Neopatras was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin
Stefan Melissenos (1318-1333) => Othon de Novelles, marshal of the Duke, husband of Stefan’s sister => Count Ludwig Fadrique (1365-1381) => Maria Fadrique Cantacouzena (1382-1384?)
Chief-officials = vicar-general , marshal in Thebes. A vicar general (often abbreviated VG) is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority Always chosen from the ranks of the Company and particularly from the house of de Novelles since 1363. Soon both offices were represented by one man, beginning at 1368 with Roger de Lluria. They minted no coins and they had no ducal Aula. Each city and district—on the example of Sicily—had its own local governor (veguer, castellano, capitan), whose term of office was fixed at 3 years and who was nominated by the Duke, the vicar or the local representatives. A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom The principal towns and villages were represented by the sindici, which had their own councils and officers. Judges and notaries were elected for life or even as inherited offices. The Catalan state was declining under the Turkish and the Venetian (of Negroponte) threats; and also a new threat by Nerio Acciajuoli, Baron of Corinth.
The Catalan company disappeared from the face of Attica, while 2 branches of the Fadrique family lingered on for a time, the one at Salona, the other at Aegina, where we find their connections, the family of Caopena, ruling till 1451. From John Fadrique, it passed—presumably by the marriage of his daughter—to the family of Caopena, then settled at Nauplia, whose name undoubtedly points to a Catalan origin. Nafplion (Ναύπλιο in the Peloponnese in Greece, is a seaport town that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf The Catalans conveyed the head of St. George and thence the Venetians found it in Aegina when they became possessed of the island and transported it to Venice—to the church of St. In Christian hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Anglican Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Giorgio Maggiore—in 1462. In 1425, Alioto Caopena, at that time ruler of Aegina, placed himself with treaty under the protection of Venice in order to escape the danger of a Turkish raid. The island must then have been fruitful, for one of the conditions under which Venice accorded him her protection, was that he should supply corn her colonies. He agreed to surrender the island to Venice if his family became extinct. Antonio Acciajuoli was against the treaty for one of his adopted daughters had married the future lord of Aegina, Antonello Caopena.
In 1451, Aegina became Venetian. The islanders welcomed the Venetian rule; the claims of Antonello’ s uncle Arnà, who had lands in Argolis, were satisfied by a pension. Argolis (Αργολίδα Argolída, aɾɣo̞ˈliða Argolís in Ancient Greek and Katharevousa) is one of the fifty-one Prefectures of A Venetian governor (rettore) was appointed, who was dependent on the authorities of Nauplia. The word rector ("ruler" from the Latin regere and Rector meaning "Teacher" In Latin has a number of different meanings but all of them indicate an academic After Arnà's death, his son Alioto renewed his claim to the island but was told that the republic was firmly resolved to keep it. He and his family were pensioned and one of them aided in the defence of Aegina against the Turks, in 1537, was captured with his family and died in a Turkish dungeon.
Ιn 1463 came the Turco-Venetian war, which was destined to cost the Venetians: Aegina, Myconos, the Northern Sporades and their colonies in Morea. Mykonos ( Greek: Μύκονος is a Greek island and a mass tourist destination renowned for its cosmopolitan character and its intense nightlife The (Northern Sporades (Βόρειες Σποράδες are an Archipelago along the east coast of Greece, northeast of the island of Euboea, in Morea ( Greek: Μορέας or Μοριάς) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages Peace was concluded in 1479. Venice still retained: Lepanto, Nauplia, Monemvasia, Coron, Modon, Navarino, Northern Sporades, Crete, Myconos and Tenos. Monemvassia (Μονεμβασία Μονεμβάσια Μονεμβασιά and known by the Franks as Malvasia, is a well-known Medieval fortress with an adjacent Methoni (Greek Μεθώνη alternative form Mothoni (Μοθώνη from Mothona, a mythical rock is a town on the southwestern coast of the prefecture of Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the Tinos (Τήνος Italian: Tine) is a Greek island situated in the Aegean Sea. Aegina remained subject of Nauplia.
Aegina obtained money for her defences by the unwilling sacrifice of her cherished relic, the head of St. George, which had been carried there from Livadia by the Catalans. In 1462, the Venetian Senate ordered the relic to be removed to St. Giorgio Maggiore in Venice. On 12 November, it was transported from Aegina, by Vettore Cappello, the famous Venetian commander. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days The Senate gave the Aeginetans 100 ducats apiece towards fortifying the island. The ducat (ˈdʌkət is a Gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I.
In 1519, the government was reformed. The system of having two rectors was found to lead in frequent quarrels and the republic thenceforth sent out a single official styled Bailie and Captain, assisted by two councilors, who performed the duties of camerlengo by turns. A councillor or councilor ( Cllr, Coun, Clr or Cr for short is a member of a Local government council such as a The Bailie’ s authority extended over the rector of Aegina, whereas Kastri (opposite Hydra) had been granted to two families, the Palaiologoi and the Alberti. Kastri, older forms Kastrio and Kastrion may refer to several places in Greece Kastri Evrymenes, a village in the Ioannina Hydra (Ύδρα ˈiðra is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece, located in the Aegean Sea between the Saronic Gulf and the Argolic The Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Παλαιολόγος pl
A democratic wave passed over the colony. Society at Nauplia was divided into 3 classes: nobles, citizens and plebeians; and it had been the ancient usage that the nobles alone should hold the much-coveted local offices, such as the judge of the inferior court ad inspector of weights and measures. The populace now demanded its share and the Home Government ordered that at least one of the 3 inspectors should be a man of the people.
Aegina had always been exposed to the raids of the corsairs and was cursed with oppressive governors during these last 30 years of Venetian rule. Corsairs were French Privateers from the north-western French port of St-Malo, located on the northern coast of Brittany. Venetian nobles weren't willing to go to this island. In 1533, three rectors of Aegina were punished for their acts of injustice and we have a graphic account of the reception given by the Aeginetans to the captain of Nauplia, who came to hold and enquiry into the administration of these delinquents. [Vid. Inscription over the entrance of St. George the Catholic in Paliachora. ] The rectors had spurned their ancient right to elect islander to keep one key of the money-chest. They had also threatened to leave the island in a body with the commissioner, unless the captain avenged their wrongs. In order to spare the pockets of the community, it was ordered that appeals from the governor’ s decision should lie to Crete, instead of Venice. The republic should pay a bakshish to the Turkish governor of the Morea and to the Voevode who was stationed at the frontier of Thermisi (opposite Hydra). A voivode or waywode is a Slavic title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force The fortifications too, were allowed to fall into despair and were inadequately guarded.
After the fall of the Duchy of Athens and the principality of Achaia, the only Latin possessions left on the mainland of Greece were the papal city of Monemvasia, the fortress of Vonitsa, the Messenian stations Coron and Modon, Navarino, the castles of Argos and Nauplia, to which the island of Aegina was subordinate, Lepanto and Pteleon. Settlements Aktio the ancient Actium Nea Kalamaria Nearest places Aktio or the ancient
In 1502/03, the new peace left Venice with nothing but Cephalonia, Monemvasia and Nauplia, with their appurtenances in the Morea. And against the sack of Megara, she had to set the temporary capture of the castle of Aegina by Kemal Reis and the carrying off of 2000 Aeginetans. Kemal Reis (c 1451 &ndash 1511 was a Turkish Privateer and Ottoman Admiral. This treaty was renewed in 1513 and 1521. All the supplies of corn of Nauplia and Monemvasia had now to be imported from the Turkish possessions, while corsairs rendered dangerous all traffic by sea.
In 1537, Suleyman the Magnificent declared war upon Venice and his admiral Khairedin Barbarossa spread fire and sword upon the Ionian Islands and in October fell upon the island of Aegina. Suleiman I (سليمان Sulaymān, Süleyman almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) ( 6 November 1494 5/ 6 September 1566 This article is about the group of islands west of Greece For the ancient region in western Anatolia see Ionia. On the 4th day Palaiochora fell, but the church of St George (Latin church) was spared. Palaiochora (Παλαιόχωρα or Παλιόχωρα is a small town in Chania prefecture. He massacred all the adult male population and took away 6000 women and children as slaves. So complete was the destruction of the Aeginetans, that when a French admiral, Baron de Blancard, touched the island soon afterwards, he found it devoid of inhabitants.
There, as usual, an Albanian immigration replenished, at least to some extent, the devastated sites, but Aegina couldn’t recover its former prosperity. Thence Barbarossa sailed to Naxos, whence he carried off an immense booty, compelling the Duke of Naxos to purchase his further independence by a tribute of 5000 ducats.
With the peace of 1540, Venice ceded Nauplia and Monemvasia. For nearly 150 years after, Venice did not own an inch of soil on the mainland of Greece, except the Ionian dependencies of Parga and Butrinto, but of her insular dominions Cyprus, Crete, Tenos and 6 Ionian islands still remained. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Tinos (Τήνος Italian: Tine) is a Greek island situated in the Aegean Sea.
In 1684, the outbreak of war between Venice and the Ottoman Empire led to the temporary re-conquest of a large part of the country by the soldiers of the West and the reappearance of the lion of St. Mark in the South of Greece. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish "Saint Mark" redirects here For other uses see Saint Mark (disambiguation.
In 1687 the Venetian army arrived in Piraeus and took command of Attica. The number of the Athenians at that time exceeded 6000, the Albanians from the villages of Attica excluded, and whilst in 1674 the population of Aegina did not seem to exceed 3000 inhabitants, 2/3 of which were women. The Aeginetans had been led to seediness to pay their taxes. The most significant plague epidemic though began in Attica in 1688, an occasion that caused the massive migration of all the Athenians toward south; most of them settled in Aegina. In 1693 Morosini resumed the command, but his only acts were to refortify the castle of Aegina, which he had demolished during the Cretan war in 1655, the cost of upkeep being paid, as long as the war lasted, by the Athenian, and to place it and Salamis under Malipiero as Governor. The Cretan War (205 BC–200 BC was fought by King Philip V of Macedon, the Aetolian League, several Cretan cities (of which Olous and Hierapytna This led the Athenians to send him a request for the renewal of Venetian protection and an offer of an annual tribute. He died in 1694 and Zeno was appointed at his place.
In 1699, thanks to the English mediation, the war ended with the peace of Carlovitz by which Venice retained possession of the 7 Ionian islands, Butrinto and Parga, Morea, Spinalonga and Suda, Tenos, Santa Maura and Aegina and ceased to pay a tribute for Zante, but restored to Sultan Lepanto. Parga (Πάργα Pargë is a town and a municipality located in the northwestern part of Preveza in northwestern Greece being surrounded entirely by the prefecture The island of Spinalonga (official name Kalidon is located at the eastern section of Crete, near the town of Elounda. The Suda or Souda ( also, Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean Lefkada, or Leucas (Λευκάδα le̞fˈkaða Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Λευκάς Leukás; Santa Maura is a Greek Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings The burden of having to contribute to the maintenance of Cerigo and Aegina, both united administratively with the Morea since the peace, the peninsula not only paid all the expenses of administration, but furnished a substantial balance to the naval defence of Venice, in which it was directly interested. Kythira (Κύθηρα Cythera, Kythera, Cerigo is an Island of Greece, historically part of the Ionian Islands.
After the Greek revolution of 1821, in the year 1828 Aegina becomes for 2 years the first capital of the new Greek State, under the Governor John Capodistria(Ioannes Kapodistrias). Year 1821 ( MDCCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Count Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias (Κόμης Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας - Komis Ioannis Kapodistrias in Giovanni Capo d'Istria Conte Capo d'Istria
In Greek mythology, Aegina was a daughter of the river god Asopus and the nymph Metope. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Aegina Αἴγινα was a figure of Greek mythology, the Nymph of the island that bears her name Aegina, lying in the Saronic Gulf between Asopus or Asôpos (Greek Ασωπός) is the name of five different Rivers in Greece and Turkey and also in Greek mythology In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of mythological entities in human female form In Greek mythology, Metope ( Greek: Μετώπη was a river Nymph, the daughter of the river Ladon. She bore at least two children: Menoetius by Actor, and Aeacus by Zeus. Actor ( Greek:) is a very common name in Greek mythology. Here is a selection of characters that share this name (which means 'leader' from the verb άγω to lead Aeacus (also spelled Eäcus, Greek, "bewailing" or "earth borne" was a mythological king of the island of Aegina Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology When Zeus abducted Aegina, he took her to Oenone, an island close to Attica. In Greek mythology, Oenone ( pronounced in English iˈnoni, in Ancient Greek oi'nōnē, meaning " wine woman " Attica (Αττική Attikí;) is a periphery (subdivision in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece This island would later be called Aegina. Here, Aegina gave birth to Aeacus, who would later become king of Oenone; henceforth, the island's name Aegina.
Aegina is the gathering place of Myrmidons, in Aegina they gathered and they trained. Zeus needed an elite army and at first thought that Aegina who at the time did not have any villagers was the perfect place. So he turned the ants (Greek: Μυρμύγκια, Myrmigia) into warriors who had 6 hands and wore black armors. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Later on Myrmidons were known as the most fearsome fighting unit in Greece leaded by Achilles. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία "Achilleus" redirects here For the emperor with this name see Achilleus (emperor.
The influential Leoussi family has originated from the isle of Aigina and their roots go as far as the 15th century. Aeacus (also spelled Eäcus, Greek, "bewailing" or "earth borne" was a mythological king of the island of Aegina Onatas was an ancient Greek sculptor of the time of the Persian Wars and a member of the flourishing school of Aegina. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. Ptolichus ( Greek:) is a name attributed to two individuals from Classical antiquity Ptolichus of Aegina was an Ancient Greek sculptor The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Paul of Aegina or Paulus Aegineta ( Aegina, 625?–690? was a 7th-century Byzantine Greek Physician best known for writing the medical The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
|Year||Town population||Change||Municipal/Island population||Change||Density|
|1981||6,730||-||11,127||-||127. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 3/km²|
|1991||6,373||-357/-5. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. 30%||11,639||+512/+4. 60%||133. 2/km²|
|2001||7,410||+1,037/+16. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. 27%||13,552||+1,913/+16. 44%||155. 0/km²|
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone