Adolfo Farsari (11 February 1841 – 7 February 1898) was an Italian photographer based in Yokohama, Japan. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. For the game see 1841 (board game. Year 1841 ( MDCCCXLI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing is the capital of Kanagawa Prefecture, located in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshū and is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Following a brief military career, including service in the American Civil War, he became a successful entrepreneur and commercial photographer. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome His photographic work was highly regarded, particularly his hand-coloured portraits and landscapes, which he sold mostly to foreign residents and visitors to the country. Hand-colouring refers to any of a number of methods of manually adding colour to a Black-and-white Photograph or other image to heighten its realism Farsari's images were widely distributed, presented or mentioned in books and periodicals, and sometimes recreated by artists in other media; they shaped foreign perceptions of the people and places of Japan and to some degree affected how Japanese saw themselves and their country. His studio – the last notable foreign-owned studio in Japan – was one of the country's largest and most prolific commercial photographic firms. A photographic studio is both a workspace and a corporate body Largely due to Farsari's exacting technical standards and his entrepreneurial abilities it had a significant influence on the development of photography in Japan.
Adolfo Farsari was born in Vicenza, Lombardy–Venetia (then part of the Austrian Empire, now in Italy). Vicenza, a city in northern Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Veneto region at the northern base of the Monte Berico The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto Lombardo-Venezianisches Königreich was a kingdom in northern Italy, and part of the Austrian Empire. For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. He began a career in the Italian military in 1859 but emigrated to the United States in 1863 and, a fervent abolitionist, Farsari served with the Union Army as a New York State Volunteer Cavalry trooper until the end of the American Civil War. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South He married an American, but the marriage failed and in 1873 he left his wife and two children and moved to Japan. 
Based in Yokohama, Farsari formed a partnership with E.A. Sargent. E A Sargent was a partner with Adolfo Farsari in the Yokohama -based firm of Sargent Farsari & Co Their firm, Sargent, Farsari & Co. , dealt in smokers' supplies, stationery, visiting cards, newspapers, magazines and novels, Japanese and English conversation books, dictionaries, guidebooks, maps, and photographic views of Japan. The creator of these photographs remains unknown, but Farsari was the maker of at least some of the maps, notably of Miyanoshita (in the Hakone resort area) and Yokohama. is an Onsen in the town of Hakone, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. is a town in Japan, in Kanagawa Prefecture, in Ashigarashimo District, located on the eastern foot of Hakone Pass.  After his partnership with Sargent ended, the company, now A. Farsari & Co. , published successive editions of Keeling's Guide to Japan and Farsari himself wrote and published Japanese Words and Phrases for the Use of Strangers. Keeling's Guide to Japan was a tourist guidebook published in several editions during the 19th century by the Yokohama -based firm A  The firm was among the most prolific publishers of materials to aid travellers, having produced its first guidebook to Japan by July 1880. 
Farsari expanded his business interests into commercial photography and taught himself photography in 1883. In 1885 he formed a partnership with photographer Tamamura Kozaburō to acquire the Stillfried & Andersen studio (also known as the Japan Photographic Association), which had some 15 Japanese employees. Tamamura Kozaburō (玉村 康三郎 (born 1856 date of death unknown was a Japanese photographer The firm of Stillfried & Andersen, also known as the Japan Photographic Association, was a Photographic studio founded by Baron Raimund von Stillfried and  The studio's stock included images by Felice Beato that it had acquired along with Beato's studio in 1877. Felice Beato (born 1833 or 1834 died c 1907 sometimes known as Felix Beato, was a Corfiote Photographer.  It is not clear how long the partnership of Tamamura and Farsari lasted, for within a few years they were in competition with each other. Farsari further expanded his business in 1885 when the Yokohama Photographic Company (owned by David Welsh) folded and Farsari acquired its premises (next door to his own) and moved in.  In addition to his Yokohama studio, Farsari likely had agents in Kobe and Nagasaki. is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture and a prominent port city in Japan with a population of about 1 ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan.  By the end of 1886, Farsari and Chinese photographer Tong Cheong were the only foreign commercial photographers still operating in Japan, and by the following year even Tong Cheong had gone. Tong Cheong was a Chinese photographer who operated in Yokohama, Japan in the 19th century 
In February 1886 a fire destroyed all of Farsari's negatives, and he then toured Japan for five months taking new photographs to replace them. In photography a negative may refer to three different things although they are all related He reopened his studio in 1887. Despite his losses in the fire, by 1889 Farsari's stock comprised about 1,000 Japanese landscapes and genre portraits. Genre works, also called genre scenes or genre views, are pictorial representations in any of various media that represent scenes or events from everyday life 
Following the innovations of Felice Beato and Baron Raimund von Stillfried, Farsari further developed the trade in photograph albums. Felice Beato (born 1833 or 1834 died c 1907 sometimes known as Felix Beato, was a Corfiote Photographer. Baron Raimund von Stillfried, also known as Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Rathenitz ( 6 August 1839 - 12 August 1911) was an A photographic album, or photo album, is a collection of a series of Photographs generally in a Book. His studio generally produced sepia monochrome albumen prints that were hand-coloured and mounted on album leaves. The albumen print, also called albumen silver print, was invented in 1850 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, and was the first commercially exploitable method Hand-colouring refers to any of a number of methods of manually adding colour to a Black-and-white Photograph or other image to heighten its realism These pages were often hand decorated and bound between covers of silk brocade or lacquer boards inlaid with ivory, mother-of-pearl and gold.  Like his contemporaries, Farsari usually captioned and numbered his photographs in the images, often in white lettering on a black background. 
Farsari sold many of these photograph albums, particularly to foreign residents and visitors. He employed excellent artists who each produced high-quality work at a pace of two or three hand-coloured prints per day.  Farsari ensured that the colours were true to life and that the best materials were used. Accordingly, his work was expensive, yet popular and often praised by clients and visitors to Japan, even receiving a glowing reference by Rudyard Kipling following his 1889 visit to Yokohama. Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936 was an English Author and poet  That same year, Farsari presented a deluxe photograph album to the King of Italy.  By the 1890s, the studio's high reputation earned it exclusive rights to photograph the Imperial Gardens in Tokyo. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. 
Prospective colourists at A. Farsari & Co. were interviewed by Farsari himself, who ensured they were familiar with Japanese painting techniques. is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts encompassing a wide variety of genre and styles Once hired, they were given unpaid instruction for several months, and then a basic salary that steadily increased as Farsari became satisfied with their work. A capable and loyal colourist could earn twice the rate offered at other Yokohama studios and double his own daily rate for work on Sundays. Colourists also received regular bonuses and gifts. On the other hand, Farsari complained in a letter to his sister that to motivate his employees he had to rage, swear and beat them, which he did according to a fixed schedule. By 1891 A. Farsari & Co. had 32 employees, 19 of whom were hand-colouring artists. 
In 1885 Farsari had a daughter, Kiku, by a Japanese woman whom he may not have married. He described himself as living like a misanthrope, associating with very few people outside of business, and his correspondence indicates that he increasingly hoped to return to Italy. He tried to regain the Italian citizenship lost when he emigrated to the United States, and he even hoped to be made a cavaliere and thereby join the Italian aristocracy. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations His success in these endeavours is not clear. Nevertheless, in April 1890 he and his daughter left Japan for Italy. On 7 February 1898 Farsari died in his family home in Vicenza. Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Vicenza, a city in northern Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Veneto region at the northern base of the Monte Berico 
Following Farsari's departure from Japan in 1890, his studio continued to operate and even listed him as proprietor until 1901, when Tonokura Tsunetarō became the owner. Tonokura Tsunetarō was the owner of the A Farsari & Co Photographic studio. Tonokura, whom Farsari had known since the mid-1870s, had long managed the day-to-day operations of the studio. In 1904 Tonokura left the business to start his own studio and another of Farsari's former employees, Watanabe Tokutarō, became the new owner, only to be succeeded by the former secretary, Fukagawa Itomaro. Watanabe Tokutarō was the owner of the A Farsari & Co Photographic studio. Fukagawa Itomaro was the secretary and owner of the A Farsari & Co The business was finally registered as a Japanese company in 1906 and it continued to operate until at least 1917 and possibly as late as 1923, the year in which Yokohama was largely destroyed by the Great Kantō Earthquake. The struck the Kantō plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 1158 on the morning of September 1, 1923. A. Farsari & Co. was the last notable foreign-owned photographic studio to operate in Japan. 
Farsari expressed his view of photography in a letter to his sister, writing, "taking pictures is just a mechanical thing. " In describing his development as a photographer, he wrote, "I have had no real teachers, I have learned everything from books. I bought all the necessary equipment and with no help from anyone, I printed, took photographs and so on. Then I taught others. "
Of course, Farsari did not work in isolation. The works (particularly those that were hand-coloured) and practices of the many foreign and Japanese commercial photographers who operated in Yokohama from the 1860s to the 1880s have been termed Yokohama shashin (literally, "Yokohama photographs" or "photography"). Farsari and its other practitioners – notably Beato, Stillfried, Tamamura, Kusakabe Kimbei, Ogawa Kazumasa, and Uchida Kuichi – produced works that in their subject matter, composition and colouring present a striking combination of the conventions and techniques of Western photography with those of Japanese artistic traditions, particularly ukiyo-e. Kusakabe Kimbei (日下部 金幣| (1841 — 1934 was a Japanese Photographer. also known as Ogawa Kazuma or Ogawa Isshin, was a Japanese Photographer, printer and publisher who was a pioneer in Photomechanical printing Uchida Kuichi (内田 九一 Uchida Kuichi) (1844 - 1875 was a pioneering Japanese Photographer from Nagasaki. "pictures of the floating world" is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or Woodcuts) and Paintings produced between the 17th  These photographers also provided the key images by which Meiji-era Japan and the Japanese were known to people in other countries. The, or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor, running in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July  Interestingly, their images also changed the ways in which Japanese saw their own country. Through their images, foreign photographers publicised sites that interested them, sometimes drawing Japanese attention to hitherto neglected locations. One was the now-important "Daibutsu" (great Buddha) at Kōtoku-in, Kamakura. is a Buddhist temple of the Jōdo shū Sect in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo.  In a similar vein, Farsari's and others' photographs of the mausoleums of Tōshō-gū made the once restricted site familiar to a wider audience. Tōshō-gū (東照宮 is any Shinto shrine in which Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the last shogunate of Japan, is enshrined with the 
Farsari and other nineteenth-century commercial photographers generally concentrated on two types of subject matter: the scenery of Japan and the “manners and customs” of its inhabitants. Such subjects, and the ways in which they were literally and figuratively framed, were chosen to appeal to foreign taste; and the reason for this, apart from the photographer's individual aesthetics, vision and preconceptions, had much to do with economics.  Photographs were expensive to make and accordingly expensive to buy. In 1870s Japan, a portrait photograph usually cost half a ryō “per head”, about a month's pay for an artisan.  Given such pricing, few Japanese could afford photographs and a photographer's clientele was largely drawn from the foreign residents of the European and American enclaves: colonial administrators, missionaries, merchants and the military. By the early 1870s, tourists had joined their number. To appeal to this clientele, photographers often staged and contrived the scenes they photographed, particularly the portraits depicting “manners and customs”. 
In 1885, Charles J. S. Makin used some of Farsari's views to illustrate his travel account Land of the Rising Sun, Being a Short Account of Japan and the Japanese.  As photomechanical printing was still in its infancy, it was common for artists and illustrators to create works derived from photographs. For example, Charles Wirgman's numerous engravings for the Illustrated London News were made from views by Wirgman's friend and sometime partner Felice Beato. Charles Wirgman ( 31 August 1832 - 8 February 1891) was an English artist and Cartoonist, the creator of the Japan Punch The Illustrated London News was a Magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch Occasionally the link between a work of art and its photographic source material was less overt: Louis-Jules Dumoulin's 1888 oil painting Boys' Festival from the Bluff, Yokohama [sic] (now called Carp Banners in Kyoto) draws heavily from Farsari's photograph Gionmachi, Kioto (now often called View of Shijō-dōri, Kyoto); although the painted image strongly resembles the photographic source, the location of the subject has been changed in the title. Louis-Jules Dumoulin (1860 - 1924 was a French artist and painter
During the era of the collodion process, before the arrival of less demanding photographic technology (the gelatin silver process, photographic film, and smaller cameras) and the consequent rise of amateur photography, commercial photographers like Farsari had a particular importance for recording events and views. The collodion process is an early photographic process which was quickly replaced at the end of the 19th century with today's gelatin emulsion process The gelatin-silver process is the photographic process used with currently available black-and-white films and printing papers This article is mainly concerned with Still photography film For Motion picture film please see Film stock. In Japan before 1899 such photographers were even more significant because the government required foreigners to obtain passes to journey to the interior, and commercial photographers based in Japan could more easily gain access and provide rare images of restricted areas.  By 1889, however, Farsari estimated that about half of all visitors to Yokohama were amateur photographers; even if this was an exaggeration, the presence of increasing numbers of amateur photographers was obviously having an impact on the commercial photography business. is the capital of Kanagawa Prefecture, located in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshū and is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area To encourage amateur photographers to visit his studio and possibly buy his merchandise, Farsari provided free use of a darkroom. 
Attribution is often difficult with Farsari's photographs because 19th-century photographers frequently acquired each others' images and sold them under their own names. This may be due to the commonplace exchange of stock and negatives between various commercial photographers, or due to the number of freelance amateurs who sold their work to more than one studio.  Thus a photograph identified as by Farsari might actually be by Beato, Stillfried & Andersen or Kusakabe.  A case in point is the photograph of an Officer's Daughter, variously attributed to Farsari, Stillfried or Kusakabe. 
The lifetime of A. Farsari & Co. spanned the transition of Japanese photography from the early involvement and influence of foreign photographers to the emergence of an independent, native Japanese photographic identity. Coming after the first generation of photographers, the firm made significant contributions to the development of commercial photography in Japan by emphasising the excellence of materials, refining the practice of presenting photographs in albums (which became art objects in themselves), and making effective use of Farsari's own tourist-oriented publications to promote his photographic studio's work – an early, minor example of vertical integration. In Microeconomics and Management, the term vertical integration describes a style of Management control. 
In its time, the work of A. Farsari & Co. was highly regarded and popular. Besides Kipling's endorsement, photographer and prolific photography writer W. K. Burton published an appraisal in an 1887 article: "I have seen no better work in the way of coloured photographs anywhere than some of Farsari's productions". William Kinnimond Burton ( 11 May 1856 &ndash 5 August 1899) was a British engineer photographer and photography writer born in  In the same year, an admiring review of Farsari's work appeared in the journal Photographic Times and American Photographer, describing it as "technically almost perfect" and showing "artistic proportion" in the selection of subjects, depicting Japanese life and providing images of the natural beauty of a country that was admittedly unfamiliar to Americans. 
Later opinions have been divided. In a 1988 article, art and photography historian Ellen Handy described A. Farsari & Co. as having become "well-known for issuing albums of landscape views in great quantity, but without regard for print quality and delicacy of hand-colouring".  Terry Bennett, a specialist in the early photography of Asia, refers to Farsari's work as "inconsistent and lacking the quality found in the photography of Beato, Stillfried or Kusakabe. " But Bennett also notes that Farsari employed excellent artists, used the best paper and produced some "stunningly coloured photographs".  For historian Sebastian Dobson, the artistic and historical significance of the work of Farsari (and other Yokohama photographers of his era, particularly Kusakabe and Tamamura) is rightly undergoing re-evaluation after many years in which it was dismissed as tourist kitsch and "perceived by some as pandering to nineteenth-century Western notions of exoticism". Kitsch /kɪtʃ/ is a term of German or Yiddish origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior tasteless copy of an existing  Farsari's photographs and albums are included in numerous museums and private collections around the world, and a selection of his works was exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 2004. 
Photographs are indicated by Farsari's titles, followed by the date of exposure, the photographic process, and a descriptive title.
Jinriki, 1886. Hand-coloured albumen print on a decorated album page.
Rooms, 1886. Hand-coloured albumen print on a decorated album page.
Tennonji, Osaka, between 1885 and 1890. Hand-coloured albumen print on a decorated album page.
Shiba Chokugaku Mon (back), between 1885 and 1890. Hand-coloured albumen print.
Japan, between 1885 and 1890. Albumen print.
A. Farsari & Co. , c. 1890.
Advertisement for A. Farsari & Co. , 1887. In Keeling's Guide to Japan, 4th Edition, 2nd Issue, 1890.
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Italian photographer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||11 February 1841|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vicenza, Lombardy-Venetia|
|DATE OF DEATH||7 February 1898|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Vicenza, Lombardy-Venetia|