President of Syria (military Rule)
July 11, 1953 – February 25, 1954
|Preceded by||Fawzi Selu (Military Rule)|
|Succeeded by||Hashim al-Atassi|
July 19, 1953 – March 1, 1954
|Preceded by||Fawzi Selu|
|Succeeded by||Sabri al-Assali|
|Died||September 5, 1964 (aged 55)|
Adib ibn Hasan Shishakli born 1909, in Hamah, Syria, died Sept. This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Fawzi Selu (1905-1972 (فوزي السلو was a Syrian military leader politician and head of state ( December 3, 1951 - July 11, Hashim Bay Khalid al- Atassi ( 1875 - December 5, 1960) ( هاشم الأتاسي was a Syrian nationalist, statesman and its President This page lists prime ministers of Syria. Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Syria 1920 Rida Pasha al-Rikabi: March - May 1920 Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Fawzi Selu (1905-1972 (فوزي السلو was a Syrian military leader politician and head of state ( December 3, 1951 - July 11, Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Hama (ancient Hamath; Arabic: حماة meaning fortress is a city on the banks of the Orontes river in central Syria north of Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (or SSNP ( Arabic: الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي al-Hizb as-Sūrī al-Qawmī al-Ijtimā`ī) often referred For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. 27, 1964 in Ceres, Brazil, assassinated. (Arabic: أديب بن حسن الشيشكلي) was a Syrian military leader. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية President of Syria (1953-54).
Born to Kurdish parents in the western town of Hama, Syria, Shishakli served with the French Army during the mandate era. Hama (ancient Hamath; Arabic: حماة meaning fortress is a city on the banks of the Orontes river in central Syria north of Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Land Army is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and its largest He studied at the Military Academy of Damascus (which later was relocated to Homs) and became an early member of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) of Antun Saadeh, promoting the concept of a Greater Syria. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (or SSNP ( Arabic: الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي al-Hizb as-Sūrī al-Qawmī al-Ijtimā`ī) often referred Antun Sa'adah (انطون سعادة (March 1 1904-July 8 1949 was a Syrian nationalist thinker from Lebanon and founder of the Syrian Social Nationalist Greater Syria (سوريّة الكبرى also known (in a historic context simply as Syria, is a term that denotes a historic region in the Middle East bordering His brother Salah was also a prominent member of the SSNP. After independence, Shishakli fought in a volunteer Arab army, known as the Army of Deliverance, against the Zionist militias in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the
The Arab in that war was a motivating factor for the military coup d'êtat of Husni al-Za'im which had taken place soon after in 1949, shattering Syria's weak parliamentary system. Husni al-Za'im (1897 - 1949 (حسني الزعيم was a Syrian military man and politician Only months after al-Za'im's takeover, the weak ruler was overthrown by a group of officers connected to the SSNP, including Shishakli and Col. Sami al-Hinnawi, who led the new military junta. Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country Colonel Sami Hilmy al-Hinnawi (1898 - 1950 ( Arabic: محمد سامي حلمي الحناوي was a Syrian politician and military man Za'im had betrayed the SSNP leader Antune Saadah, giving him to Lebanese authorities where he was tried and executed for wanting to destroy the modern state of Lebanon. Antun Sa'adah (انطون سعادة (March 1 1904-July 8 1949 was a Syrian nationalist thinker from Lebanon and founder of the Syrian Social Nationalist Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية An infuriated Shishakli co-launched the coup of 1949 to revenge Saadeh's killing, and reportedly ripped off Za'im's bloodstained shirt and took it to Saadeh's widow, who was still in Syria, telling her: "We have avenged his murder!"
Shishakli worked with Sami al-Hinnawi, the new de facto ruler of Syria who refused to assume power on his own and restored Syria's parliamentary system. Hinnawi became chief-of-staff of the Syrian Army and the veteran nationalist Hashem al-Atassi, who had been president in the 1930s, to become prime minister, and then president of Syria. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Hashim Bay Khalid al- Atassi ( 1875 - December 5, 1960) ( هاشم الأتاسي was a Syrian nationalist, statesman and its President Atassi wanted to create union with Hashemite Iraq, something which Shishakli greatly opposed, claiming that Hinnawi was the drive behind pro-Hashemite sentiment in Syria. Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic: هاشمي ( Transliteration: Hāšimī and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.
In December 1949, Shishakli launched another coup, the third in 1949, arresting Hinnawi to break Hashemite influence in Syria, but keeping Atassi at his post. He then ordered the assassination of Colonel Mohammad Nasser, the Air Force Commander, because he threatened Shishakli's popularity in the Syrian Army. Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country The President of Syria is commander in chief of the Syrian armed forces comprising some 400000 troops upon mobilization All of this greatly weakened the pro-union elements in Syria but they continued to try working for union through the cabinets of Prime Minister Nazim al-Kudsi. Nazim al-Kudsi, also spelled "al-Qudsi" or "al-Cudsi" (February 14 1906 - February 6 1998 (ناظم القدسي was a Syrian politician and head of state Shishakli conditioned that all governments must include his right-hand-man Fawzi Selu as minister of defense, to curb Hashemite influence in the Syrian government. Fawzi Selu (1905-1972 (فوزي السلو was a Syrian military leader politician and head of state ( December 3, 1951 - July 11, When Prime Minister Maarouf al-Dawalibi, a pro-Iraq politician from Aleppo, refused, Shishakli responded on November 28, 1951. He arrested Dawalibi and his entire cabinet, in addition to all pro-Iraq politicians in Syria, including the leaders of the People's Party, Nazim al-Kudsi and Rushdi al-Kikhiya. In protest, Atassi resigned from office and moved into the opposition. Pleased to get rid of this stubborn nationalist, who rejected officer intervention in political affairs, Shishakli made his comrade Selu the Chief-of-Staff of the Army, the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defense, and the Head of State. But in effect, Selu was nothing but a figurehead. Real powers lay in the hands of Adib al-Shishakli.
Shishakli then dissolved all political parties and banned many newspapers, in a return to military rule. Among those to suffer persecution under his rule were the National Party of Damascus, the People's Party of Aleppo, the Communist Party, the Baath Party, and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood. The Syrian Communist Party ( Arabic: الحزب الشيوعي السوري transliterated as Al-hizb ash-shuyū'ī as-sūrī The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus The Muslim Brothers ( Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان He also outlawed all newspapers that were not pro-Shishakli, and banished the Baath leaders Akram al-Hawrani, Michel Aflaq, and Salah al-Bitar to Lebanon, where they then actively worked against his regime. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Akram al-Hawrani (أكرم الحوراني also Transcribed Hourani or Hurani) (1912 – 1996 was a Syrian Politician who played Michel Aflaq ( Arabic: ميشيل عفلق Mīšīl ʿAflaq, born Damascus 1910 died Paris June 23, 1989) was the Salah ad-Din al-Bitar ( صلاح الدين البيطار) (born Damascus 1912 died Paris 21 July 1980) was a Syrian He was a skilled public speaker, however, and relied greatly on the radio to transmit his speeches to every-day Syrians. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. In August 1952 he established an official government party, the Arab Liberation Movement, but it was boycotted by powerful representatives of the civilian political society, such as Hashim al-Atassi. A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of Hashim Bay Khalid al- Atassi ( 1875 - December 5, 1960) ( هاشم الأتاسي was a Syrian nationalist, statesman and its President The party was progressive, accepting women among its ranks and calling for a limited degree of socialism. Arab Socialism (الاشتراكية العربية al-ishtirākīya al-‘arabīya) is a political ideology based on an amalgamation of Pan-Arabism and Some said that he viewed himself as "an Arab Caesar. " In mid-1953 Shishakli staged a referendum to elect himself President, but he was by now facing mounting dissent. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria.
As leader of Syria, Shishakli sought good relations with Western countries, and maintained Syria's uncompromising stance towards Israel. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Syrian relations with the Hashemite monarchies of Jordan and Iraq were poor during his presidency, but he also looked with distrust at the rapid spread of Nasserism. Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic: هاشمي ( Transliteration: Hāšimī and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Nasserism is an Arab nationalist Political ideology based on the thinking of the former Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser. Many believe that Nasser's Free Officer Revolution of 1952 in Egypt had been modeled after Shishakli's own coups of 1949 and 1951. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Shishakli's relations were strong, however, with King Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia, his son King Saud, and King Talal of Jordan. The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia 's Head of state and Absolute monarch. King Saud King Faisal Mohammed King Khaled Nasr Saad The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Abdullah Khalid Mishari Faisal Saud ibn Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud ( Arabic The Jordanian monarchy was set up in 1921 with help from the British. Talal I bin Abdullah King of Jordan ( Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله Ṭalāl ibn `Abd Allāh) born February 26, 1909 Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Shishakli greatly liked King Talal, saying that he had no ambitions in Syria, unlike his father King Abdullah I or his son, King Hussein. Abdullah I bin al-Hussein King of Jordan (1882 – July 20 1951 was born in Mecca, Ottoman Empire, (in modern-day Saudi Arabia) as ( Arabic Hussein bin Talal King of Jordan (حسين بن طلال Ḥusayn bin Ṭalāl) ( November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was Despite this, and in contrast with his pro-Western outlook and Kurdish background, Shishakli recognized the desires of Syria's Arab majority, and accordingly adopted a policy of pan-Arabism. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Pan-Arabism is a movement for Unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the He clashed frequently with the independent-minded Druze minority on the Jabal Druze mountain, accusing them of wanting to topple his regime using funds from Jordan, and in 1954 resorted to shelling Druze strongholds to put down resistance to his rule. The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon Jabal ad-Duruz ( جبل الدروز) also known as Jabal al-Arab (Arabic جبل العرب) is an elevated volcanic region in southern Syria
His relations with both Britain and the US ran hot and cold. Britain courted Shishakli during the early period of his rule in the hope that Syria would join plans for a British-led Middle East Defense Organization. The United States offered Shishakli considerable sums of money to settle Palestinian refugees in Syria and turn them into Syrians. Shishakli, although tempted by these offers of Western arms and money, did not take them. The Palestinian situation had soured Syrians on relations with the West. Syria wanted revenge rather than to accept defeat and repair Syria's damaged relations with the West and make peace with Israel. 
Growing discontent eventually led to another coup, in which Shishakli was overthrown in February 1954. The plotters included members of the Syrian Communist Party, disgruntled Druze officers, Baath Party members, and possibly had Iraqi backing. The Syrian Communist Party ( Arabic: الحزب الشيوعي السوري transliterated as Al-hizb ash-shuyū'ī as-sūrī The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus He had also arrested a lot of active officers in the Syrian Army, including the rising young Adnan al-Malki, also a prominent Baathist. Leading the anti-Shishakli movement were former President Atassi and the veteran Druze leader Sultan al-Atrash. Family Sultan al-Atrash was born in Al-Qrayya, a village 20 km south of Sweida known for the famous Druze family of Al-Atrash, which had nominally The largest anti-Shishakli conference had been held in Atassi's home in Homs. For military actions near the city see Battle of Homs. Homs ( حمص,, anciently called Emesa (ἡ Ἔμεσα or "La Chamelle" Shishakli had responded by arresting Atassi and Atrash's sons, Adnan and Mansur (both of whom were ranking politicians in Syria). The Atrash family (الأطرش (Alternate spellings (with the prefix of al al- el or el- Atrache Attrache Atrach Attrach and Attrash) is a famous
When the insurgency reached its peak, Shishakli backed down, refusing to drag Syria into civil war. An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state He fled to Lebanon, but when the Druze leader Kamal Jumblat threatened to have him killed, he fled to Brazil. Kamal Jumblatt ( كمال جنبلاط); ( December 6, 1917 – March 16, 1977) was an important Lebanese Politician |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Prior to the union between Syria and Egypt in 1958, Shishakli toyed with the idea of returning to Syria to launch a coup d'état, using funds - ironically - provided by Iraq. The United Arab Republic ( الجمهورية العربية المتحدة al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah / al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah The coup was foiled by Syrian intelligence and Shishakli was sentenced to death in absentia, although he never attended its hearings.
On September 27, 1964, Shishakli was assassinated in Brazil by Nawaf Ghazaleh, a Syrian Druze who sought revenge for the bombardments of Jabal Druze. Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar.
The assailant was considered a national hero by the Druze. When he died in 2005, thousands of people attended his funeral.
In the 1990s, he was depicted on screen for the first time in a TV series, played by the Syrian actor Usama al-Roumani.
|President of Syria|