Turkey's formal application to join the European Community—the organisation that has since developed into the European Union—was made on 14 April, 1987. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992 The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Turkey has been a European Union (then the European Economic Community) associate member since 1963. The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992  Turkey is also a founding member of the Council of Europe since 1949, a founding member of the OECD since 1961, a founding member of the OSCE since 1973 and an associate member of the Western European Union since 1992. The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 The Western European Union ( WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 Turkey signed a Customs Union agreement with the EU in 1995 and was officially recognised as a candidate for full membership on December 12th, 1999, at the Helsinki summit of the European Council. On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Helsinki (in Finnish;) or Helsingfors (in Swedish;) is the Capital and largest city of Finland. The European Council (referred to as a European Summit) is the highest political body of the European Union. Negotiations were started on October 3rd, 2005, and the process is likely to take at least a decade to complete. Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's The membership bid has become the central controversy of the ongoing enlargement of the European Union. Enlargement of the European Union is the process of expanding the European Union (EU through the accession of new member states.
The modern Republic of Turkey is the successor state to the Ottoman Empire, an Islamic power in Europe between the late 14th and the early 20th centuries, before it sank into a decline that led some to call it the "sick man of Europe. The Marshall Plan (from its enactment officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. For Turkey in the European Union see Accession of Turkey to the European Union European Turkey or Turkey in Europe was the term used The term "Sick man of Europe" is a Nickname associated with a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty and/or poverty " After the Empire's collapse following World War I, Turkish revolutionaries led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emerged victorious in the Turkish War of Independence, establishing Turkey as it currently exists today. The Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire was a political event that occurred after World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Turkish revolutionaries ( Turkish: Kuvâyi Milliye or Kuvva-i Milliye) were Patriots of the Turkish national movement who rebelled against Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı May 19, 1919 October 29, 1923) refers to the political and military resistance developed Atatürk, then Prime Minister and later President of Turkey, implemented a series of reforms that modernized the country and moved it more towards European culture. This is a chronological list of Prime Ministers of Turkey, since the establishment of that position in 1920, during the Turkish War of Independence. The President of Turkey ( Cumhurbaşkanı) is the Head of state of the Republic of Turkey. Atatürk's Reforms ( Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri or Atatürk İnkılapları) were a series of significant political legal cultural social and economic The culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures  During World War II, Turkey remained neutral until February 1945, when it joined the Allies. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including During the Cold War, Turkey allied itself with the United States, taking part in the Marshall Plan in 1947, joining as a member state the Council of Europe in 1949, and joining NATO in 1952. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The Marshall Plan (from its enactment officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 The North Atlantic Treaty 
Turkey first applied for associate membership in the European Economic Community in 1959, and on September 12, 1963 signed the "Agreement Creating An Association Between The Republic of Turkey and the European Economic Community", also known as the Ankara Agreement. The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992 Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Agreement Creating An Association Between The Republic of Turkey and the European Economic Community (the " Ankara Agreement " made on December 1, This agreement came into effect the following year on December 12, 1964. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The Ankara Agreement sought to integrate Turkey into a customs union with the EEC whilst acknowledging the final goal of membership.  In November 1970, a further protocol called the "Additional Protocol" established a timetable for the abolition of tariffs and quotas on goods traded between Turkey and the EEC. 
1980 saw a temporary stop in relations as a result of the 1980 Turkish military coup following political and economic instability, though the recommencement of multiparty elections in 1983 saw Turkish-EEC relations fully restored. The September 12 1980 Turkish coup d'état, headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third Coup d'etat in the history of On 14 April, 1987, Turkey submitted its application for formal membership into the European Community. Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in The European Commission responded in December 1989 by confirming Ankara’s eventual membership but also by deferring the matter to more favourable times, citing Turkey’s economic and political situation, as well its poor relations with Greece and the conflict with Cyprus as creating an unfavourable environment with which to begin negotiations. The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. Greece-Turkey relations have been marked by alternating periods of mutual hostility and reconciliation ever since Greece won its independence from the Ottoman Empire The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, launched on July 20 1974, was a Turkish Military operation against a coup which had been staged by the Cypriot  This position was confirmed again in the Luxembourg European Council of 1997 in which accession talks were started with central and eastern European states and Cyprus, but not Turkey. During the 1990s, Turkey proceeded with a closer integration with the European Union by agreeing to a customs union in 1995. On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect Moreover, the Helsinki European Council of 1999 proved a milestone as the EU recognised Turkey as a candidate on equal footing with other potential candidates.
The next significant step in Turkish-EU relations came with the December 2002 Copenhagen European Council. According to it, "the EU would open negotiations with Turkey 'without delay' if the European Council in December 2004, on the basis of a report and a recommendation from the Commission, decides that Turkey fulfils the Copenhagen political criteria. "
With the 2002 election of the pro-European Justice and Development Party (AKP) led by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, a number of reforms led to increasing stability both politically and economically. The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi or AK Parti, or AKP) is the incumbent Turkish Political party, which describes "Erdoğan" redirects here For the Turkish Helicopter Erdoğan see Kamov Ka-50. In 2004, as part of the drive to enter a reunified Cyprus into the EU, the Turkish government supported the UN-backed Annan Plan for Cyprus. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to settle the Cyprus dispute of the divided island nation of Cyprus as the United Cyprus Republic This plan was accepted by Turkish Cypriots, but rejected by the Greek Cypriots. The two major communities of the ''de facto'' divided Island nation of Cyprus held a referendum on settling the Cyprus dispute on 24 At the same time, a three-decade-long period of hyperinflation ended, with inflation reduced to 6% from annual levels of 75% during the mid-1990s. Certain figures in this article use Scientific notation for readability 
The political reform program of the Erdoğan government continued. This included the abolition of capital punishment, crackdown on torture, and more rights for its Kurdish population. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. In response to these developments, the European Commission recommended that the negotiations should begin in 2005, but also added various precautionary measures. The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. The EU leaders agreed on 16 December, 2004 to start accession negotiations with Turkey from 3 October, 2005. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Despite an offer from the Austrian Österreichische Volkspartei, and the German Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands of a privileged partnership status, a less than full membership, EU accession negotiations were officially launched. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Austrian People's Party ( German: Österreichische Volkspartei, or ÖVP) is an Austrian Political party. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest Political party in Germany. Privileged partnership is the term coined by the German conservative party CDU for their model of the future relation between Turkey and the European Union
Turkey's accession talks have since been dogged by a number of domestic and external problems. Several European states such as Austria have made their reluctance to allow Turkey into Europe clear. The issue of Cyprus continues to be a major obstacle to negotiations. European officials have commented on the slowdown in Turkish reforms which, combined with the Cyprus problem, has led the EU’s enlargement commissioner Olli Rehn to warn of an impeding ‘train crash’ in negotiations with Turkey. Olli Ilmari Rehn ( (born 31 March 1962) is a Finnish politician currently serving as European Commissioner for Enlargement.  Despite these setbacks, Turkey closed its first chapter of negotiations in June 2006.
The earliest date that Turkey could enter the EU is 2013, the date when the next financial perspectives (the EU's six year budgetary perspectives) will come into force. Ankara is currently aiming to comply with EU law by this date, but Brussels has refused to back 2013 as a deadline.  It is believed that the accession process will take at least fifteen years. 
|Acquis chapter||EC assessment at start||Screening started||Screening completed||Chapter opened||Chapter closed||Chapter Frozen|
|1. The term acquis communautaire, or (EU acquis (aˈki is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated thus far Free Movement of Goods||Further efforts needed||16. 1. 2006||24. 2. 2006||-||-||11. 12. 06|
|2. Freedom of Movement for Workers||Very hard to adopt||19. 7. 2006||11. 9. 2006||-||-||-|
|3. Right of Establishment for companies & Freedom to provide Services||Very hard to adopt||21. 11. 2005||20. 12. 2005||3. 10. 2005||-||11. 12. 06|
|4. Free Movement of Capital||Further efforts needed||25. 11. 2005||22. 12. 2005||-||-||-|
|5. Public Procurement||Totally incompatible with acquis||7. 11. 2005||28. 11. 2005||-||-||-|
|6. Company Law||Considerable efforts needed||21. 6. 2006||20. 7. 2006||3. 10. 2005||-||-|
|7. Intellectual Property Law||Further efforts needed||6. 2. 2006||3. 3. 2006||-||-||-|
|8. Competition Policy||Very hard to adopt||8. 11. 2005||2. 12. 2005||-||-||-|
|9. Financial Services||Considerable efforts needed||29. 3. 2006||3. 5. 2006||3. 10. 2005||-||11. 12. 06|
|10. Information Society & Media||Further efforts needed||12. 6. 2006||14. 7. 2006||3. 10. 2005||-||-|
|11. Agriculture & Rural Development||Very hard to adopt||5. 12. 2005||26. 1. 2006||-||-||11. 12. 06|
|12. Food safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy||Very hard to adopt||9. 3. 2006||28. 4. 2006||-||-||-|
|13. Fisheries||Very hard to adopt||24. 2. 2006||31. 3. 2006||-||-||11. 12. 06|
|14. Transport Policy||Considerable efforts needed||26. 6. 2006||28. 9. 2006||-||-||11. 12. 06|
|15. Energy||Considerable efforts needed||15. 5. 2006||16. 6. 2006||-||-||-|
|16. Taxation||Considerable efforts needed||6. 6. 2006||12. 7. 2006||-||-||-|
|17. Economic & Monetary Policy||Considerable efforts needed||16. 2. 2006||23. 3. 2006||-||-||-|
|18. Statistics||Considerable efforts needed||19. 6. 2006||18. 7. 2006||25. 06. 2007||-||-|
|19. Social Policy & Employment||Considerable efforts needed||8. 2. 2006||22. 3. 2006||-||-||-|
|20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy||No major difficulties expected||27. 3. 2006||5. 5. 2006||29. 03. 2007||-||-|
|21. Trans-European Networks||Considerable efforts needed||30. 6. 2006||29. 9. 2006||19. 12. 2007||-||-|
|22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments||Considerable efforts needed||11. 9. 2006||10. 10. 2006||-||-||-|
|23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights||Considerable efforts needed||7. 9. 2006||13. 10. 2006||-||-||-|
|24. Justice, Freedom & Security||Considerable efforts needed||23. 1. 2006||15. 2. 2006||-||-||-|
|25. Science & Research||No major difficulties expected||20. 10. 2005||14. 11. 2005||12. 06. 2006||12. 06. 2006||-|
|26. Education & Culture||Further efforts needed||26. 10. 2005||16. 11. 2005||-||-||-|
|27. Environment||Totally incompatible with acquis||3. 4. 2006||2. 6. 2006||-||-||-|
|28. Consumer & Health Protection||Further efforts needed||8. 6. 2006||11. 7. 2006||19. 12. 2007||-||-|
|29. Customs Union||No major difficulties expected||31. 1. 2006||14. 3. 2006||-||-||11. 12. 06|
|30. External Relations||No major difficulties expected||10. 7. 2006||13. 9. 2006||-||-||11. 12. 06|
|31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy||Further efforts needed||14. 9. 2006||6. 10. 2006||-||-||-|
|32. Financial Control||Further efforts needed||18. 5. 2006||30. 6. 2006||3. 10. 2005||-||-|
|33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions||No major difficulties expected||6. 9. 2006||4. 10. 2006||-||-||-|
|35. Other Issues||-||-||-||-||-||-|
In order to accede to the EU, Turkey must first successfully complete negotiations with the European Commission on each of the 35 chapters of the EU's acquis and then the member states must unanimously agree to Turkish membership. Public opinion in EU countries generally opposes Turkish membership, though with varying degrees of intensity, although political leaders and politicians of the European Union generally support it. Some countries, notably France and Austria, have discussed putting the decision to a referendum.
Turkey’s entry into the EU may have profound consequences on the future direction of the EU. The issues mentioned by some of those objecting to Turkey's EU candidacy can be divided among those inherent to Turkey's situation, those that involve internal issues about human rights, democracy, and related matters, and those concerning Turkey's open external disputes with its neighbours. There is much contention over whether some of these arguments are used by people more as a proxy against peoples true feelings about Turkish membership in the sense that the country is not culturally European and therefore should be denied entry at all.
Proponents of Turkey's membership argue that it's a key regional power with a large economy and the second largest military force of NATO that will enhance the EU's position as a global geostrategic player; given Turkey's geographic location and economic, political, cultural and historic ties in regions with large natural resources that are at the immediate vicinity of the EU's geopolitical sphere of influence; such as the East Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts, the Middle East, the Caspian Sea basin and Central Asia. The Turkish State Railways started building High-speed rail lines in 2003 WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is Turkish Aerospace Industries Inc Turkish Aerospace Industries Inc Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. İzmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the country's largest port after İstanbul. In International relations, a regional power is a State that has power within a geographic Region. Turkey 's Economy is a complex mix of traditional Craftsmanship and modern industries, increasingly dominated by the latter The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF (Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri or TSK consist of the Army, the Navy (including naval aviation and naval infantry and the Air Force The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south 
According to Carl Bildt, Swedish foreign minister, "[The accession of Turkey] would give the EU a decisive role for stability in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, which is clearly in the strategic interest of Europe. KCMG (born 15 July 1949) is a Swedish Politician and Diplomat. The Minister for Foreign Affairs (utrikesminister is the Foreign minister of Sweden and the head of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. " One of Turkey's key supporters for its bid to join the EU is the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In May 2008, Queen Elizabeth II said during a visit to Turkey, that "Turkey is uniquely positioned as a bridge between the East and West at a crucial time for the European Union and the world in general. International holidays May 1 - Labour Day ( Pakistan) May 1 - Labour Day ( Singapore) For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II "
Upon joining the EU, Turkey's 70 million inhabitants would bestow it the second largest number of MEPs in the European Parliament. A Member of the European Parliament ( English abbreviation MEP) is a member of the European Union 's legislative body the European Parliament. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU  Demographic projections indicate that Turkey would surpass Germany in the number of seats by 2020. 
Turkey's membership would also affect future enlargement plans, especially the number of nations seeking EU membership, grounds by which Valéry Giscard d'Estaing has opposed Turkey's admission. Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926 is a French centre - right politician who was President of the French d'Estaing has suggested that it would lead to demands for accession by Morocco. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Morocco's application is already rejected on geographic grounds, and Turkey, unlike Morocco, has territory in Europe. For Turkey in the European Union see Accession of Turkey to the European Union European Turkey or Turkey in Europe was the term used French President Nicholas Sarkozy (then a candidate) has stated in January 2007 that "enlarging Europe with no limit risks destroying European political union, and that I do not accept. The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France 's elected Nicolas Sarkozy (pronounced, . . I want to say that Europe must give itself borders, that not all countries have a vocation to become members of Europe, beginning with Turkey which has no place inside the European Union. "
EU member states must unanimously agree on Turkey's membership for the Turkish accession to be successful. A number of nations can oppose it, notably Austria, which historically served as a bulwark for Christian Europe against the Ottoman Empire; and France, which is fearful of the prospect of another wave of Muslim immigrants, especially given the poor integration of its existing Muslim minority. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Attempts to change the French constitution to remove the compulsory referendum on all EU accessions after Croatia resulted in a new clause requiring compulsory referendums on the accession of all countries with a population of more than 5% of the EU's total population; this clause would apply to Turkey and Ukraine. 
Turkey, a developed country, has the seventh largest economy in the Council of Europe and the fifteenth largest economy in the world. Turkey 's Economy is a complex mix of traditional Craftsmanship and modern industries, increasingly dominated by the latter On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect Levent is one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of the city Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 Turkey is a founding member of the OECD and the G20 industrial nations. The G20 ( Group of 20) is a group consisting of 19 of the world's largest economies together with the European Union.
Turkey's GDP growth rate from 2002 to 2007 averaged 7. 4%, which made it one of the fastest growing economies in the world during that period. The World Bank forecasts a 5. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e 4% GDP growth rate for Turkey in 2008.  Turkey's economy is no longer dominated by traditional agricultural activities in the rural areas, but more so by a highly dynamic industrial complex in the major cities, mostly concentrated in the western provinces of the country, along with a developed services sector. In 2007, the agricultural sector accounted for 8. 9% of the GDP, while the industrial sector accounted for 30. 8% and the services sector accounted for 59. 3%.  The tourism sector has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy. In 2007, there were 27,214,988 visitors to the country, who contributed 18. Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of archaeological and historical sites and on Seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean 5 billion USD to Turkey's revenues.  Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, construction, automotive, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, and machine industry.
Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country. On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect  In 2007, Turkey's exports reached 110. 5 billion USD (main export partners: Germany 11. 2%, UK 8%, Italy 6. 95%, France 5. 6%, Spain 4. 3%, USA 3. 88%; total EU exports 56. 5%. ) However, larger imports amounting to about 156. 9 billion USD threaten the balance of trade (main import partners: Russia 13. 8%, Germany 10. 3%, China 7. 8%, Italy 6%, USA 4. 8%, France 4. 6%, Iran 3. 9%, UK 3. 2%; total EU imports 40. 4%; total Asia imports 27%). 
Turkey's per-capita GDP places it among the upper-middle income countries. In 2006, Eurostat calculated the minimum monthly wage in Turkey as €331, which was larger than the minimum monthly wage in nine European Union member states, namely Bulgaria (€82), Romania (€90), Latvia (€129), Lithuania (€159), Slovakia (€183), Estonia (€192), Poland (€234), Hungary (€247) and the Czech Republic (€261); while lower than the minimum wage in Portugal (€437). The Statistical Office of the European Communities ( Eurostat) is the Statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. 
According to Forbes magazine, Istanbul, Turkey's financial capital, had a total of 35 billionaires as of March 2008 (up from 25 in 2007), ranking 4th in the world behind Moscow (74 billionaires), New York City (71 billionaires) and London (36 billionaires), while ranking above Hong Kong (30 billionaires), Los Angeles (24 billionaires), Mumbai (20 billionaires), San Francisco (19 billionaires), Dallas (15 billionaires) and Tokyo (15 billionaires). Forbes is an American Publishing and media company Its flagship publication Forbes magazine is published bi-weekly Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of The City of New York London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. 
The opening of talks regarding the Economic and Monetary Policy acquis chapter of Turkey's accession bid was expected to begin in June 2007, but were stalled by France. The term acquis communautaire, or (EU acquis (aˈki is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated thus far This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 
Statistics show that the birth rate is declining in the entire continent of Europe. As of 2007 the population of Turkey stood at 705 million The Turkish population is relatively young with 25 İstiklal Avenue ( Turkish: İstiklal Caddesi, Greek: Μεγάλη Οδός του Πέραν, French: Grand Rue de Pera Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Beyoğlu is a district located on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Bağdat Avenue (Bağdat Caddesi literally Baghdad Avenue) is a notable High street located in the Anatolian part of İstanbul, Turkey See Kadikoi for the village on the Crimean peninsula in Ukraine. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Especially in Eastern Europe and Russia population growth is in minus stage. The EU member states already set a goal to solve the impact of the aging population.  Turkey has a young population. This might act as a balance for the increasingly aging populations of the current EU. 
As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. 6 million with a growth rate of 1. 5% per annum.  The Turkish population is relatively young, with 25. 5% falling within the 0–15 age bracket. 
According to statistics released by the government in 2005, life expectancy stands at 68. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age 9 years for men and 73. 8 years for women, with an overall average of 71. 3 years for the populace as a whole.  Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 15.
The Turkish people (Türk Halkı), are a nation (millet) in the meaning an ethnos (Halk in Turkish), defined more by a sense of sharing a common Turkish culture and having a Turkish mother tongue, than by citizenship, religion or by being subjects to any particular country. The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Millet is an Ottoman Turkish term for a Confessional community in the Ottoman Empire. The culture of Turkey is diverse combining elements derived from Ottoman, European and Middle Eastern traditions Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity
The word Turk or Turkish also has a wider meaning in an historical context because, at times, especially in the past, it has been used to refer to all Muslim inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire irrespective of their ethnicity. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish  The question of ethnicity in modern Turkey is a highly debated and difficult issue. Figures published in several different sources prove this difficulty by varying greatly.
West Germany suffered an acute labour shortage after the Second World War and, in 1961, the Bundesrepublik officially invited Turkish workers to Germany to fill in this void, particularly to work in the factories underpinning the boom, the Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle") of the 1960s and 1970s. Turks in Germany (occasionally German Turks or Turkish Germans, German: Deutschtürken) are people of Turkish ethnicity living The Turkish-Dutch (Turkse Nederlander are citizens of the Netherlands of Turkish ancestry numbering 357900 people in 2006 according to the Dutch Census The term Turkish diaspora (Türk diyasporası refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world migrated outside of Turkey. Since the 19th century an Exodus by the large portion of Turkish ( Turkic) and Muslim peoples (who are termed " Muhacir " under World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Turkish citizens soon became the largest group of Gastarbeiter — literally, guest workers — in West Germany. (native pronunciation /ˈɡastˌʔaːbaɪtɐ/ is German for "guest worker" (or "guest workers" - the plural is the same as the singular The perception at the time on the part of both the West German Government and the Gastarbeiter themselves was that working in Germany would only be temporary. As in the rest of Western Europe, though, most of the Gastarbeiter became settled permanent residents of their adopted country, bringing over spouses and relatives from Turkey and raising families.
The Merkel government has taken action to slow down Turkish immigration to Germany.
In 1964, due to a severe labor shortage, the Dutch government formally invited Turkish men and women to come and work in the Netherlands. Most of the guest workers ended up in those places where there was a labour shortage, mostly in low educated jobs.
The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape. Turkey is situated in Anatolia and Southeastern Europe (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosphorus is geographically part of Europe and Anatolia Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Източна Тракия Iztochna Trakiya; Ανατολική Θράκη or Turkish Thrace, is the part of the modern Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge ( Turkish: Boğaziçi Köprüsü or 1 The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States  Turkey's area, inclusive of lakes, occupies 783,562 square kilometres (300,948 sq mi), of which 755,688 square kilometres (291,773 sq mi) are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) in Europe, thus making Turkey a transcontinental country. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia (largely overlapping with the Middle East) is the southwestern portion of Asia. This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent, sometimes referred to as transcontinental states. Turkey's area makes it the world's 37th-largest country, and is about the size of Metropolitan France and the United Kingdom combined. This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole, or colloquially l'Hexagone) is the part of France located in Europe, including The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Ankara, the Turkish capital, is in Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Istanbul, Turkey's most populous city, and its cultural and financial center, is the only metropolis in the world which is situated on two continents. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey A metropolis (from the Greek μήτηρ mētēr meaning 'mother' and πόλις pólis meaning 'city/town' is a big City, in most cases with A continent is one of several large Landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by Convention rather than any strict criteria with seven regions Istanbul was chosen a European Capital of Culture for 2010. The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one Calendar year during which it is given a chance to showcase its For the film see 2010 The Year We Make Contact. For the book see 2010 Odyssey Two.
Turkey's membership would mean that the European Union's external borders would reach the Middle Eastern neighbours of Turkey, such as Syria, Iraq and Iran. This is a list of countries bordering the European Union, and its predecessor the European Community, both at its current geographical extent and after Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.
The island of Cyprus is still divided after the Turkish invasion in 1974, following a coup d'etat by Nikos Sampson against the Cypriot government of Makarios III and fully supported by the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 under its de facto leader Dimitrios Ioannides. Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are the Turkish government's policies in its external relations with the International community. The Cyprus dispute is a territorial conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, launched on July 20 1974, was a Turkish Military operation against a coup which had been staged by the Cypriot Nikos Sampson (Νίκος Σαμψών December 16, 1935 &ndash May 9 2001) was the de facto president of Cyprus Makarios III (Μακάριος Γ born Mihail Christodoulou Mouskos (Greek Μιχαήλ Χριστοδούλου Μούσκος) on August 13, Regime of the Colonels redirects here For the Polish regime of colonels see Colonels' group. Dimitrios Ioannides (also Dimitris Ioannidis, Greek Δημήτρης Ιωαννίδης) (born March 13, 1923) was a Greek military officer who Turkey's original intention, which was declared by the Prime Minister of that period, Bülent Ecevit, was to avoid the island's annexation to Greece and to bring an end to the Cypriot intercommunal violence which took place between 1963 and 1974. Mustafa Bülent Ecevit ( May 28, 1925 in Istanbul – November 5, 2006 in Ankara) was a Turkish Politician For the Genus of Grass skipper Butterflies, see Enosis (butterfly. Cypriot intercommunal violence refers to periods of inter-ethnic conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots on the island of Cyprus from  Since 1974, Turkey refuses to acknowledge the Republic of Cyprus (an EU member since 2004) as the sole authority on the island, and recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the north. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus ( TRNC) (Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti KKTC) commonly called Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs though its Turkey and Turkish Cypriots backed the 2004 Annan Plan for Cyprus aimed at the reunification of the island, but the plan was subsequently rejected by Greek Cypriots on the grounds that it did not meet their needs. The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to settle the Cyprus dispute of the divided island nation of Cyprus as the United Cyprus Republic According to Cypriots, the latest proposal included maintained residence rights for the many Anatolian Turks that were brought to Cyprus after the invasion and their descendants, and Greek-Cypriots who lost their property after the Turkish invasion would be granted only a restricted right of return. Although the outcome received much criticism in the EU as well, the Republic of Cyprus was admitted into the EU a week after the referendum. The Turkish government has refused to officially recognise the state of Cyprus (a current EU member state) until the removal of the political and economic blockade on the TRNC. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus ( TRNC) (Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti KKTC) commonly called Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs though its One possible solution, apart from an unlikely change of strategy by the Turkish government, would be the introduction of a bureaucratic or diplomatic circumvention or escamotage, such as the EU adopting special negotiation rules for Turkey. The other 'solution', or rather outcome, is that the EU prefers to stick with its existing rules, known as the acquis communautaire, and further delay Turkey's accession. The term acquis communautaire, or (EU acquis (aˈki is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated thus far Turkey's non-recognition of the Republic of Cyprus has led to complications within the Customs Union. Under the customs agreements Turkey already signed as a precondition to start negotiations in 2005, it is obliged to open its ports to Cypriot planes and vessels, but Turkey refuses this and insists it will only do so after the EU proposal to open up direct trade with the Turkish Cypriots and provide €259,000,000 in funds to help them upgrade their infrastructure is fulfilled. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e Greek Cypriots have subsequently threatened to veto accession talks unless Turkey complies.
Greece has had a history of rejecting Turkey's membership. Greece-Turkey relations have been marked by alternating periods of mutual hostility and reconciliation ever since Greece won its independence from the Ottoman Empire  Greece has been supportive overall of Turkish membership, with Greek Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis declaring, "Full compliance, full accession" in December 2006. The Prime Minister of Greece ( Πρωθυπουργός της Ελλάδος) is the Head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of Konstantínos Alexandrou Karamanlís (Κωνσταντίνος Αλεξάνδρου Καραμανλής (alt  In 2005 the European Commission referred to relations between Turkey and Greece as "continuing to develop positively" while also citing the lack of progress made by Turkey in dropping their claim of casus belli over a dispute about territorial waters boundaries. Casus belli is a Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war 
Turkey, with 99% of the population nominally Muslim, would be the first Muslim-majority country to join the European Union, although Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina, also Muslim-majority, have been recognized as potential candidate countries. Islam is the largest religion of Turkey More than 99 percent of the population is Muslim, mostly Sunni. Secularism in Turkey was introduced with the Turkish Constitution of 1924 and later the Atatürk's Reforms set the administrative and political requirements to create For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan  The majority of Turkey's Muslims belong to the Sunni branch of Islam, while a sizable minority of the population is affiliated with the Alevi sect, which is sometimes regarded as a subdivision of the Shia branch, but with its own distinct characteristics. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Alevis (Aleviler Elewî are a religious sub-ethnic and cultural community in Turkey, numbering in the millions  The Bektashi belong to a Sufi order of Islam that is indigenous to Turkey, but also has numerous followers in the Balkan peninsula, particularly in Albania, Kosovo, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria. Bektashism (Bektaşilik is an Islamic Sufi order ( Tariqat) considered to be a distinct branch of Shi'a Islam Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan The Republic of Macedonia (Република Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian The Christians (Eastern Orthodox, Catholic, Gregorian, Syriac, Protestant) and Jews (Sephardic, Ashkenazi) are the two other sizable religious minorities in the country. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth PLEASE TAKE NOTE************
There is a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. Secularism in Turkey was introduced with the Turkish Constitution of 1924 and later the Atatürk's Reforms set the administrative and political requirements to create The state has no official religion nor promotes any, and actively monitors the area between the religions. 
The EU was especially critical of Article 301 of the Turkish penal code during the September 2005 trial of novelist Orhan Pamuk, with enlargement commissioner Olli Rehn calling the case "regrettable". Article 301 is a controversial article of the Turkish Penal code making it illegal to insult Turkey the Turkish ethnicity or Turkish government institutions Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on 7 June 1952 in Istanbul) generally known simply as Orhan Pamuk, is a Turkish Novelist and professor of Comparative  After the case was dropped three months later, Turkey's Foreign Minister Abdullah Gül indicated that Turkey may abandon or modify Article 301, stating that "there may be need for a new law". Abdullah Gül PhD GCB, (born October 29, 1950) is the 11th President of the Republic of Turkey, serving in that office since  In September 2006, the European Parliament called for the abolition of laws, such as Article 301, "which threaten European free speech norms".  In April 2008, the law was amended. Article 301 states that "A person who publicly insults the Turkish nation, the State of the Republic of Turkey, or the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, shall be punishable by imprisonment of between six months and two years. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi - TBMM, usually referred to simply as Meclis - "the Parliament" is the Unicameral " and also that "Expressions of thought intended to criticise shall not constitute a crime. "'
Kemal Kerinçsiz, an ultra-nationalist lawyer, and other members of Büyük Hukukçular Birliği ("Great Jurists Union") headed by Kerinçsiz, have been "behind nearly all of [Article 301] trials". Kemal Kerinçsiz is a Turkish Ultra-nationalist lawyer famous for filing complaints against more than 40 Turkish journalists and authors (including Orhan Pamuk,  In January 2008, Kerinçsiz was arrested for participating in an ultra-nationalist underground organisation, allegedly behind the attacks on Turkish Council of State and Cumhuriyet newspaper, assassination of several Christian missionaries and Armenian-Turkish intellectual Hrant Dink, and also plotting the assassination of Nobel laureate Orhan Pamuk. The Turkish Council of State (Danıştay is the highest Administrative court in the Republic of Turkey and is based in Ankara. Cumhuriyet (English Republic) is a centre-left Turkish daily Newspaper, founded on May 7, 1924 by Journalist Hrant Dink (Հրանդ Տինք həɹɑnt diːnk (September 15 1954 – January 19 2007 was a Turkish-Armenian editor, Journalist and Columnist 
In its second report on women's role in social, economic and political life in Turkey, the European Parliament emphasised that respecting human rights, including women’s rights, is a condition sine qua non for Turkey's membership of the EU. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Please do NOT add the Battlestar Galactica episode According to the report, Turkey's legal framework on women's rights "has in general been satisfactory, but its substantive implementation remains flawed". 
Turkey is one of the two states (with Azerbaijan) among the 46 members of the Council of Europe which has refused to recognise the status of conscientious objectors or give them an alternative to military service. A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support 
Public opinion in EU countries generally opposes Turkish membership, though with varying degrees of intensity. The Eurobarometer September-October 2006 survey  shows that 59% of EU-27 citizens are against Turkey joining the EU, while only about 28% are in favour. Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973 Nearly all citizens (about 9 in 10) expressed concerns about human rights as the leading cause. In the earlier March-May 2006 Eurobarometer, citizens from the new member states were more in favour of Turkey joining (44% in favour) than the old EU-15 (38% in favour). Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973 At the time of the survey, the country whose population most strongly opposed Turkish membership was Austria (con: 81%), while Romania was most in favour of the accession (pro: 66%). Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania On a wider political scope, the highest support comes from the Turkish Cypriot Community (pro: 67%) (which is not recognised as sovereign state and is de facto not EU territory and out of the European institutions). Turkish Cypriots ( Turkish: Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler Greek: Τουρκοκύπριοι are the ethnically Turkish inhabitants of the These communities are even more in favour of the accession than the Turkish populace itself (pro: 54%).  Opposition in Denmark to Turkish membership was polled at 60% in October 2007, despite the Danish government's support for Turkey's EU bid. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe October 2007 is the tenth month of that year It began on a Monday and 31 days later ended on a Wednesday. 
The opening of membership talks with the EU in December 2004 was celebrated by Turkey with much fanfare, but the Turkish populace has become increasingly eurosceptic as negotiations are delayed. Euroscepticism Euro (disambiguation --> has become a general term for opposition to the process Based on what it views as lukewarm support for its accession to the EU and alleged double standards in its negotiations (France and Austria have indicated they will hold referendums on Turkey's membership), the Turkish public has become increasingly eurosceptic in recent times. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita A mid-2006 Eurobarometer survey revealed that 43% of Turkish citizens view the EU positively; just 35% trust the EU, 45% support enlargement and just 29% support an EU constitution. Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973 
"On 29 July 2005, Turkey signed the Additional Protocol adapting the EC Turkey Association Agreement to the accession of 10 new countries on 1 May 2004. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. At the same time, Turkey issued a declaration stating that signature of the Additional Protocol did not amount to recognition of the Republic of Cyprus. On 21 September, the EU adopted a counter-declaration indicating that Turkey’s declaration was unilateral, did not form part of the Protocol and had no legal effect on Turkey’s obligations under the Protocol. The EU declaration stressed that recognition of all Member States was a necessary component of the accession process. It also underlined the need for supporting the efforts of the Secretary General of the UN to bring about a comprehensive settlement of the Cyprus problem which would contribute to peace, stability and harmonious relations in the region. "