Acadia (in the French language l'Acadie) was the name given to lands in a portion of the French colonial empire in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Year 1713 ( MDCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's The flag of Acadia was adopted on August 15, 1884, at the Second Acadian National Convention held in Miscouche Prince Edward Island by nearly 5 000 This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order Annapolis Royal ( 2006 Population 444 is a Canadian town located in the western part of Annapolis County The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, rather than a single document comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch Year 1713 ( MDCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people France was a dominant empire in the world from the 1600s to the late 1960s possessing many colonies in various locations around the world Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The Maritime provinces, called the Maritimes in local English (or the Canadian Maritimes by non-Canadians is a region of Eastern Canada History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə
The actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels. Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies which were to become Canadian provinces and American states. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government
The origin of the name Acadia is credited to the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano (1480–1527), who, on his sixteenth century map applied the Greek term "Arcadie", meaning the proverbial land of plenty, to the entire Atlantic coast north of Virginia. Giovanni da Verrazzano (c 1485 &ndash c 1528 was an Italian Explorer of North America, in the service of the French crown. Arcadia or Arkadía ( Greek Αρκαδία is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. Another theory is that Acadia is derived from the Mi'kmaq term akadi, still found in place names like Tracadie and Shubenacadie (or, in the related Maliseet language, the term quoddy, seen in Passamaquoddy Bay), both meaning a "fertile place". The Míkmaq or Mi'kmaq (miːgmax sometimes spelled Micmac in English and formerly Mìgmaq ( Mi'gmaq) in Míkmaw) are a Maliseet (or Wolastoqiyik) are a Wabanaki Native American / First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley Passamaquoddy Bay is an Inlet of the Bay of Fundy, between the U
The Dictionary of Canadian Biography says "'Arcadia,' the name Giovanni gave to Maryland or Virginia 'on account of the beauty of the trees,' made its first cartographical appearance in the 1548 Gastaldo map and is the only name to survive in Canadian usage. It has a curious history. In the 17th century Champlain fixed its present orthography, with the 'r' omitted, and Ganong has shown its gradual progress northwards, in a succession of maps, to its resting place in the Atlantic Provinces. William Francis Ganong MA PhD LLD FRSC, ( 19 February 1864 - 7 September 1941) was a Canadian botanist "
The Acadian peninsula was a series of coastal lowlands ringed by salt marshes. The area is subject to very high tides – regularly as much as 25 feet in change. The interior of the peninsula was heavily wooded and crisscrossed with creeks, lakes, and bogs.  Acadia was very geographically isolated, as transportation overland was difficult and the peninsula was not near the shipping lanes to Quebec or Boston. 
Median temperatures in January and February were often 15 to 20 degrees colder than western France, where many of the settlers were from. 
Early European colonists, who would later become known as Acadians, were French subjects primarily from the Pleumartin to Poitiers in the Vienne département of west-central France. The Acadians (Acadiens are the descendants of the original French settlers and often Métis, of parts of Acadia (French Acadie Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. This article is about the Acadian people and culture The Acadians (Acadiens are the descendants of the seventeenth-century French Pleumartin is a Village and commune of the Vienne département, in France. Poitiers is a town on the Clain River in west central France. This article is about the French department Do not confuse with the Austrian capital Vienna. In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative The first French settlement was established by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts, Governor of Acadia, under the authority of King Henry IV, on Saint Croix Island in 1604. Pierre du Gua de Monts, (c 1558 - 1628 was a French merchant explorer and colonizer The following is a list of the names of the Governors representing the Crown of France in Acadia. Henry IV (Henri IV ( 13 December 1553 &ndash 14 May 1610) ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and as Henry III Saint Croix is also an island in the United States Virgin Islands Saint Croix The following year, the settlement was moved across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal after a difficult winter on the island and deaths due to scurvy. Tides Folklore in the Mi'kmaq First Nation claims that the tides in the Bay of Fundy are caused by a giant whale splashing in the water Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Scurvy (NLat scorbutus is a disease resulting from a deficiency of Vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of Collagen in humans In 1607 the colony received bad news: King Henry had revoked Sieur de Monts' royal fur monopoly, citing that the income was insufficient to justify supplying the colony further. Thus recalled, the last of the Acadians left Port Royal in August of 1607. Their allies, the native Mi'kmaq nation, kept careful watch over their possessions, though. The Míkmaq or Mi'kmaq (miːgmax sometimes spelled Micmac in English and formerly Mìgmaq ( Mi'gmaq) in Míkmaw) are a When the former Lieutenant Governor, Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt et de Saint-Just, returned in 1610, he found Port Royal just as it was left. Jean de Biencourt (1557&ndash1615 was a member of the French nobility best remembered as a commander of the French colonial empire responsible for establishing the 
The French took control of the Abenaki First Nations territory. The Abenaki ( or Abnaki) are a Tribe of Native American and First Nations people belonging to the Algonquian peoples First Nations is a term of Ethnicity that refers to the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people In 1654, King Louis XIV of France appointed aristocrat Nicolas Denys as governor of large portions of Acadia and granted him the confiscated lands and the right to all its minerals. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Nicolas Denys (1598? &ndash 1688 was a French aristocrat who became an explorer colonizer soldier and leader in New France. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific
The Netherlands asserted sovereignty over Acadia in 1674 after privateer Jurriaen Aernoutsz captured the forts at Pentagoet and Jemseg. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Jurriaen Aernoutsz (or Aernouts) was a Dutch colonial navy captain who briefly captured part of the French colony of Acadia in 1674 Fort Pentagouet was a French constructed fort from the early times of Acadia. Jemseg is a Canadian rural community in Queens County, New Brunswick. Control over the region reverted to France when Aernoutsz's appointed administrator, John Rhoades, was captured by New England within a few months. John Rhoades was a Fur trader from New England, who was part of Jurriaen Aernoutsz 's shortlived conquest of Acadia in 1674 The Dutch West India Company continued to assert a paper claim over Acadia until 1678, appointing Cornelius Van Steenwyk as its governor, although they never successfully recaptured actual control of the territory. Dutch West India Company ( Dutch: Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie or GWC; English: Chartered West India Company was a company of Cornelius Steenwyck or Cornelius Steenwyk and others including Van Steenwyk)served two terms as Mayor of New York City, the first from 1668 to 1672 (or
British colonists captured Acadia in the course of King William's War (1690–97), but Britain returned it to France at the peace settlement. The first of the French and Indian Wars, King William's War ( 1689 – 1697) was the name used in the English colonies in America to refer to the North It was recaptured in the course of Queen Anne's War (1702–13), and its conquest was confirmed in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). Queen Anne's War ( 1702 &ndash 1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and England (later The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, rather than a single document comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch
On June 23 that year, the French residents of Acadia were given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's In the meantime, the French signalled their preparedness for future hostilities by beginning the construction of Fortress Louisbourg on Isle Royale, now Cape Breton Island. Fortress of Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction Cape Breton Island ( French: île du Cap-Breton - formerly île Royale, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, The British grew increasingly alarmed by the prospect of disloyalty in wartime of the Acadians now under their rule.
In the summer of 1755, the British attacked Fort Beauséjour and burned Acadian homes at the outbreak of the French and Indian War between Britain and France (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War), accusing Acadians of disloyalty (for not having taken the oath) and guerrilla action. The Great Upheaval, also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation, the Acadian Expulsion, or to the deportees Le Grand Dérangement, was Fort Beauséjour, also referred to as Fort Cumberland, is a National Historic Site located in Aulac, New Brunswick, Canada. The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Those who still refused to swear loyalty to the British crown then suffered what is referred to as the Great Upheaval when, over the next three years, some 6,000–7,000 Acadians were expelled from Nova Scotia to France or the lower British American colonies. The Great Upheaval, also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation, the Acadian Expulsion, or to the deportees Le Grand Dérangement, was Others fled deeper into Nova Scotia or into French-controlled Canada. Canada was the name of the French colony that once stretched along the St The Quebec town of L'Acadie (now a sector of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu) was founded by expelled Acadians. Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu is a city in the province of Quebec, Canada about southeast of Montreal. 
After 1764, many exiled Acadians finally settled in Louisiana, which had been transferred by France to Spain before the end of the French and Indian War. The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America The name Acadian was corrupted to Cajun, which was first used as a pejorative term until its later mainstream acceptance. Cajuns ('keʒən les Cadiens are an Ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other Britain allowed some Acadians to return to Nova Scotia, but these were forced to settle in small groups, and were not permitted to reside in their former settlements such as Grand-Pré, Port Royal, and Beaubassin. Grand-Pré National Historic Site is a park set aside to commemorate the Grand-Pré area of Nova Scotia as a center of Acadian settlement from 1682 to 1755 Annapolis Royal ( 2006 Population 444 is a Canadian town located in the western part of Annapolis County The Tantramar Marshes are a National Wildlife Area on the southern part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, which joins
Acadia was located in territory disputed between France and Great Britain. England controlled the area from 1654 until 1670 and permanently regained control in 1713. Although France controlled the territory in the remaining periods, French monarchs consistently neglected Acadia, failing to contribute much, if at all, to its defence, development, colonization, or administration, leaving the colonists to rely on themselves.  The government of New France was located in Quebec, but it had only nominal authority over the Acadians.  Landlords owned wide swaths of the land, and while they sometimes collected dues from the settlers, they exercised no other legal powers. 
With no strong royal authority, the Acadians implemented village self-rule.  Even after Canada had given up its elected spokesmen, the Acadians continued to demand a say in their own government, as late as 1706 petitioning the monarchy to allow them to elect spokesmen each year by a plurality of voices. In a sign of his indifference to the colony, Louis XV agreed to their demand. Louis XV (15 February 1710 &ndash 10 May 1774 ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774  Male elders of the community settled internal disputes and spoke to the government on behalf of their neighbours, sometimes with the help of the priests. 
Most of the immigrants to Acadia were French peasants whose oppression by the noble landholders had left them with a deep suspicion of those in authority. This suspicion was transplanted to those in authority in Acadia as well, be they French or English.  Acadians regularly protested the actions of local administrators and clergymen to higher authorities in Quebec and France. If their appeals failed, which they usually did, the Acadians would procrastinate or resort to passive resistance techniques, including subterfuge, to continue defying the authorities.  Administrators complained of constant in-fighting among the population, which filed many petty civil suits with colonial magistrates. Most of these were over boundary lines, as the Acadians were very quick to protect their new lands. 
After a 1692 visit, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, described the Acadian men as "'well-built, of good height, and they would be accepted without difficulty as soldiers in a guards' regiment. Antoine Laumet de La Mothe sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730 was the founder of Detroit, Michigan. [They are] well-proportioned and their hair is usually blond. [They are] robust, and will endure great fatigue; [they] are fine subjects of the king, passionately loving the French of Europe'".  Most Acadians were illiterate, and many of the records, including notarial deeds, were destroyed or scattered during the Great Expulsion. For a time, Port Royal did have schools, but these were closed when the British excluded Roman Catholic religious orders from operating in Acadia.  While Acadia was under French rule, all settlers were required to be baptised in the Roman Catholic faith.  Despite their nominal faith, Acadians often worked on Sundays and religious holidays. 
Before 1654, trading companies and patent holders recruited men in France to come to Acadia to work at the commercial outposts, most of which were concerned with fishing.  The original Acadian population was a small number of indentured servants and soldiers brought by the fur-trading companies. Gradually, fishermen began settling in the area as well, rather than return to France with the seasonal fishing fleet.  The majority of the recruiting took place at La Rochelle. La Rochelle is a city in western France, and a Seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1653 and 1654, 104 men were recruited at La Rochelle. Of these, 31% were builders, 15% were soldiers and sailors, 8% were food preparers, 6. 7% were farm workers, and an additional 6. 7% worked in the clothing trades.  Fifty-five percent of Acadia's first families came from the Centre-Ouest region of France, primarily from Poitou, Aunis, Angoumois, and Saintonge. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers. Aunis is a former province of France. It extended to Marais Poitevin in the north Basse Saintonge (and Niortais) in the east and Angoumois was an old province of France, nearly corresponding today to the Charente département. Saintonge is a small region on the Atlantic coast of France within the département Charente-Maritime, west and south of Charente Over 85% of these (47% of the total), were former residents of the La Chausée area of Poitou.  Many of the families who arrived in 1632 with Razilly shared some blood ties; those not related by blood shared cultural ties with the others.  The number of original immigrants was very small, and only about 100 surnames existed within the Acadian community. 
Some of the earliest settlers married women of the local Micmac tribe who had converted to Roman Catholicism. The Míkmaq or Mi'kmaq (miːgmax sometimes spelled Micmac in English and formerly Mìgmaq ( Mi'gmaq) in Míkmaw) are a  The French immigrants accepted and worked closely with the natives, whose black hair, brown eyes, and dark skin were similar to those of the Mediterranean peoples near France.  A Parisian lawyer, Marc Lescarbot, who spent several months in Acadia in 1606, described the Micmac as having "'courage, fidelity, generosity, and humanity, and their hospitality is so innate and praiseworthy that they receive among them every man who is not an enemy. They are not simpletons. . . . So that if we commonly call them Savages, the word is abusive and unmerited. '"
Most of the immigrants to Acadia were peasants in Europe, making them social equals in the New World. The colony had limited economic support or cultural contacts with France, leaving a "social vacuum" that allowed "individual talents and industry . . . [to supplant] inherited social position as the measure of a man's worth. " Acadians lived as social equals, with the elderly and priests considered slightly superior.  Unlike the French colonists in Canada and the early English colonies in Plymouth and Jamestown, Acadians maintained an extended kinship system, and the large extended families assisted in building homes and barns, as well as cultivating and harvesting crops. Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth or The Old Colony) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 until 1691  They also relied on interfamily cooperation to accomplish community goals, such as building dykes or reclaiming tidal marshes. 
Marriages were generally not love matches but were arranged for economic or social reasons. Parental consent was required for anyone under 25 who wished to marry, and both the mother's and father's consent was recorded in the marriage deed.  Divorce was not permitted in New France, and annulments were almost impossible to get. Legal separation was offered as an option, but was seldom used. 
The Acadians were suspicious of outsiders, and did not readily cooperate with census takers. The first reliable population figures for the area came with the census of 1671, which noted fewer than 450 people. By 1714, the Acadian population had expanded to 2,528 individuals, mostly from natural increase rather than immigration.  Most Acadian women in the 18th century gave birth to living children an average of eleven times. Although these numbers are identical to those in Canada, 75% of Acadian children reached adulthood, many more than in other parts of New France. The isolation of the Acadian communities meant the people were not exposed to many of the imported epidemics, allowing the children to remain healthier.  Immigrants from Europe tended to be less fertile, probably due to their diet in France.
In the 18th century, some Acadians migrated to nearby Île Saint-Jean (now Prince Edward Island) to take advantage of the fertile cropland. Prince Edward Island (ˌprɪns ˌɛdwɚd ˈaɪlɨnd ( PEI or P In 1732, the island had 347 settlers but with 25 years its population had expanded to 5000 Europeans. 
Most Acadian households were self-sufficient, with families engaged in subsistence farming supplemented with meat caught through fishing and hunting.  In the early days of the colony, Acadia was an "economic backwater", with few trade goods and little money to attract merchants. Acadia was not near the sea lanes which brought ships to Quebec and Boston, and transportation within the peninsula was difficult.  Farms tended to remain small plots of land worked by individual families rather than slave labor.  Farmers grew wheat, peas, cabbage, turnips, and apples, and raised maize as a secondary crop. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Barley, oats, and potatoes were also planted as feed for the livestock, including cattle, pigs, and poultry. These animals provided a steady supply of meat to the Acadians, which they supplemented with fish. 
After 1630, the Acadians began to build dykes and drain the sea marsh above Port Royal. The high salinity of the reclaimed coastal marshland meant that the land would need to sit for three years after it was drained before it could be cultivated.  The land reclamation techniques that were used closely resembled the enclosures near La Rochelle that helped make solar salt. 
As time progressed, the Acadian agriculture improved, and Acadians traded with the British colonies in New England to gain ironware, fine cloth, rum, and salt. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the During the French administration of Acadia, this trade was illegal, but it did not stop some English traders from establishing small stores in Port Royal.  Under English rule, the Acadians often smuggled their excess food to Boston merchants at Baie Verte and to the French at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island. 
Many adult sons who did not inherit land from their parents settled on adjacent vacant lands to remain close to their families.  As the best land was taken, some moved further north of Port Royal, into the Upper Bay of Fundy settlements, including Mines, Pisiquid, and Beaubassin. Tides Folklore in the Mi'kmaq First Nation claims that the tides in the Bay of Fundy are caused by a giant whale splashing in the water The Tantramar Marshes are a National Wildlife Area on the southern part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, which joins Many of the pioneers into that area persuaded some of their relatives to accompany them, and most of the frontier settlements contained only five to ten interrelated family unites. 
Today, Acadia has been used to refer to regions of Atlantic Canada with French roots, language, and culture, primarily in northern and eastern New Brunswick. Atlantic Canada, also known as the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising four provinces located on the Atlantic coast:  In the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture on Canada’s east coast. (See also Acadians. This article is about the Acadian people and culture The Acadians (Acadiens are the descendants of the seventeenth-century French )
The French language has gradually returned to modern Acadia, and from 1951 through 1986 over 58% of the Acadian population spoke French as their maternal tongue. 
The anthem of contemporary Acadia is Ave Maris Stella, and it is represented by the flag adopted at Miscouche, Prince Edward Island in 1884. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Ave Maris Stella ("Hail Star of the Sea" is a Plainsong Vespers hymn to the Virgin Mary. The flag of Acadia was adopted on August 15, 1884, at the Second Acadian National Convention held in Miscouche Prince Edward Island by nearly 5 000 Miscouche (2001 population 766 is a Canadian rural community in Prince County, Prince Edward Island Incorporated in 1957, Miscouche is Prince Edward Island (ˌprɪns ˌɛdwɚd ˈaɪlɨnd ( PEI or P