Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893) was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Year 1819 ( MDCCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar in the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 1893 ( MDCCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South He fired the first shot in defense of Fort Sumter, the opening battle of the war, and had a pivotal role in the early fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg. Background South Carolina declared its secession from the Union shortly after Lincoln's victory in the presidential election of 1860, and by February 1861 six Background and movement to battle See also [[Gettysburg Campaign]] [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] Gettysburg was his finest hour, but his relief by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade caused lasting enmity between the two men. Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries George Gordon Meade ( December 31, 1815 &ndash November 6, 1872) was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer involved
In San Francisco, California, after the war, he obtained a patent on the cable car railway that still runs there. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city A cable car or cable railway is a Mass transit system using rail cars that are propelled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed In his final years in New Jersey, he was a prominent member and later president of the Theosophical Society. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual principles and search for Truth known as Theosophy. His most lasting claim to fame is the popular myth that he invented baseball, which has been debunked by almost all sports historians, although Doubleday himself never made such a claim. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each
Doubleday was born in Ballston Spa, New York. Ballston Spa is a Village in Saratoga County, New York in the United States. His grandfather had fought in the American Revolutionary War and his father, Ulysses F. Doubleday, represented Auburn, New York, for four years in the United States Congress. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Userpolbot from http//bioguidecongressgov/scripts/biodisplaypl?index=D000444 Auburn ( Áhsku•ˀ in Tuscarora) is a City in Cayuga County, New York, United States of America. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses  Abner practiced as a surveyor and civil engineer for two years before entering the United States Military Academy in 1838, from which he graduated in 1842, 24th in a class of 56 cadets, and was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 3rd U. "USMA" redirects here For other uses see USMA (disambiguation The United States Military Academy (also known as USMA, In the UK and US military brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a Commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily but usually without receiving Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned officer Military rank in many Armed forces. S. Artillery. 
Doubleday initially served in coastal garrisons and then in the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848 and the Seminole Wars from 1856 to 1858. The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as In 1852 he married Mary Hewitt of Baltimore.  In 1858 he was transferred to Fort Moultrie in Charleston harbor, but by the start of the Civil War, he was a captain and second in command in the garrison at Fort Sumter, under Major Robert Anderson. Fort Moultrie is the name of a series of forts on Sullivan's Island South Carolina, built Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. Fort Sumter, a Third System masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor South Carolina, was named after General Thomas Sumter  He aimed the cannon that fired the first return shot in answer to the Confederate bombardment on April 12, 1861, starting the war. The War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common He subsequently referred to himself as the "hero of Sumter" for this role. 
Doubleday was promoted to major on May 14, 1861, and commanded the Artillery Department in the Shenandoah Valley from June to August, and then the artillery for Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks's division of the Army of the Potomac. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia and West Virginia is bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Appalachian Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries Nathaniel Prentice (or Prentiss Banks ( January 30, 1816 September 1, 1894) was an American Politician and Soldier The Army of the Potomac was the major Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. He was appointed brigadier general of volunteers on February 3, 1862, and was assigned to duty in northern Virginia while the Army of the Potomac conducted the Peninsula Campaign. Brigadier General is the lowest ranking General Officer in some countries usually sitting between the ranks of Colonel and Major General. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern His first combat assignment was to lead the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps of the Army of Virginia during the Northern Virginia Campaign. There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Army Corps) during the American Civil War. The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. Background and opposing forces After the collapse of McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in the Seven Days Battles of June 1862 President Abraham Lincoln appointed In the actions at Brawner's farm, just before the Second Battle of Bull Run, he took the initiative to send two of his regiments to reinforce Brig. Background and opposing forces See also Northern Virginia Campaign See also [[Second Bull Run Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] Gen. John Gibbon's brigade against a larger Confederate force, fighting it to a standstill. John Gibbon ( April 20, 1827 &ndash February 6, 1896) was a career United States Army officer who fought in the American Civil (Personal initiative was required since his division commander, Brig. Gen. Rufus King, was incapacitated by an epileptic seizure at the time. Rufus King ( January 26 or July 26, 1814 &ndash October 13 1876) was a newspaper editor educator U Epilepsy is a common chronic Neurological disorder that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. He was replaced by Brig. Gen. John P. Hatch. John Porter Hatch (January 9 1822 &ndash April 12 1901 was a career American soldier who served as general in the Union Army during the American Civil War ) His men were routed when they encountered Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's corps, but by the following day, August 30, he took command of the division when Hatch was wounded, and he led his men to cover the retreat of the Union Army. James Longstreet (January 8 1821 &ndash January 2 1904 was one of the foremost Confederate Generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and 
Doubleday again led the division, now assigned to the I Corps of the Army of the Potomac, after South Mountain, where Hatch was wounded again. I Corps (First Corps was the designation of three different Corps -sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The Battle of South Mountain (known in several early Southern accounts as the Battle of Boonsboro Gap) was fought September 14, 1862, as At Antietam, he led his men into the deadly fighting in the Cornfield and the West Woods, and one colonel described him as a "gallant officer . . . remarkably cool and at the very front of battle. " he was wounded when an artillery shell exploded near his horse, throwing him to the ground in a violent fall. He received a brevet promotion to lieutenant colonel in the regular army for his actions at Antietam and was promoted in March 1863 to major general of volunteers, to rank from November 29, 1862. Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies Please see Regular Army (disambiguation for countries other than the United States that use this term The United States Regular Army Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday  At Fredericksburg in December 1862, his division mostly sat idle. Background and Burnside's plan The battle was the result of an effort by the Union Army to regain the initiative in its struggle against Lee's smaller but more aggressive army During the winter, the I Corps was reorganized and Doubleday assumed command of the 3rd Division. At Chancellorsville in May 1863, the division was kept in reserve. Forces and plans The Chancellorsville campaign began with the potential of leading to one of the most lopsided clashes in the war 
At the start of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, Doubleday's division was the second infantry division on the field to reinforce the cavalry division of Brig. Background and movement to battle See also [[Gettysburg Campaign]] [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Gen. John Buford. John Buford Jr ( March 4, 1826 &ndash December 16, 1863) was a Union Cavalry officer during the American Civil War When his corps commander, Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds, was killed very early in the fighting, Doubleday found himself in command of the corps. John Fulton Reynolds ( September 20, 1820 &ndash July 1, 1863) was a career United States Army officer and a General in His men fought well in the morning, putting up a stout resistance, but as overwhelming Confederate forces massed against them, their line eventually broke and they retreated back through the town of Gettysburg to the relative safety of Cemetery Hill south of town. Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the Cemetery Hill is a key terrain feature in Gettysburg Pennsylvania, the northernmost extent of Cemetery Ridge. It was Doubleday's finest performance during the war, five hours leading 9,500 men against ten Confederate brigades that numbered more than 16,000. Seven of those brigades incurred casualties that ranged from 35 to 50 percent, indicating the ferocity of the Union defense. But on Cemetery Hill, the I Corps could muster only a third of its men as effective for duty and the corps was essentially destroyed as a combat force for the rest of the battle; it would be decommissioned in March 1864, its surviving units combined into other corps. 
On July 2, Army of the Potomac commander Maj. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Gen. George G. Meade replaced Doubleday with Maj. George Gordon Meade ( December 31, 1815 &ndash November 6, 1872) was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer involved Gen. John Newton, a more junior officer from another corps. John Newton ( August 25, 1822 &ndash May 1, 1895) was a career engineer officer in the United States Army, a Union general The ostensible reason was a report by XI Corps commander Maj. The XI Corps ( Eleventh Army Corps) was a Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at Gen. Oliver O. Howard that Doubleday's corps broke first, causing the entire Union line to collapse, but Meade also had a long history of disdain for Doubleday's combat effectiveness, dating back to South Mountain. Oliver Otis Howard ( November 8, 1830 &ndash October 26, 1909) was a career United States Army officer and a Union Doubleday was humiliated by this snub and held a lasting grudge against Meade, but he returned to division command and fought well for the remainder of the battle.  He was wounded in the neck on the second day of Gettysburg and received a brevet promotion to colonel in the regular army for his service.  He formally requested reinstatement as I Corps commander, but Meade refused, and Doubleday left Gettysburg on July 7 for Washington. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death 
Doubleday assumed mostly administrative duties in the defenses of Washington, D.C., where his only return to combat was directing a portion of the defenses against the attack by Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early in the Valley Campaigns of 1864. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D This article is about a United States military rank For other countries that use a similar rank see Lieutenant General. Jubal Anderson Early ( November 3 1816 &ndash March 2 1894) was a Lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October 1864 Also while in Washington, Doubleday testified against George Meade at the United States Congress Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, criticizing him harshly over his conduct of the Battle of Gettysburg. The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was a United States Congressional investigating committee created to handle issues surrounding the American Civil War 
After the Civil War, Doubleday mustered out of the volunteer service on August 24, 1865, reverted to the rank of lieutenant colonel, and became the colonel of the 35th U. Elena Petrovna Gan (Елена Петровна Ган also Hélène, Yekaterinoslav, Ukraine, Russian Empire — May 8 1891 London) better William Quan Judge ( April 13, 1851 – March 21, 1896) was a mystic, Esotericist, and Occultist, and one of Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (1832–1907 founder and first president of the Theosophical Society, was the first well-known person of European ancestry to make a formal conversion Alice Ann Bailey ( June 16, 1880 &ndash December 15, 1949) known as Alice A Annie Wood Besant (ˈbɛsənt Clapham London October 1 1847 &ndash September 20 1933 in Adyar, India) was a prominent Theosophist, Geoffrey Hodson (12 March 1886 in Lincolnshire – 23 January 1983 in Auckland New Zealand) was a Occultist, Theosophist, mystic, CW Leadbeater ( Feb 16, 1854 Stockport, Cheshire, England - March 1, 1934 Perth, Western AP Sinnett (18 January 1840 - 26 June 1921 was an Author and Theosophist. Rudolf Steiner ( 25 February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher literary scholar educator artist playwright The Seven Rays is a metaphysical concept that has appeared in several religions and Esoteric philosophies since at least the sixth century BCE in both Western culture Initiation is a concept in Theosophy that there are nine levels of spiritual development The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual principles and search for Truth known as Theosophy. The Theosophy Society - Adyar is the main remnant of the original Theosophical Society founded by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and others in 1875. The Theosophical Society (Pasadena is a successor organization to the original Theosophical Society founded by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and others in 1875 The United Lodge of Theosophists, or ULT, was founded in 1909 by a Theosophical Society member Robert Crosbie (1849-1919 Isis Unveiled, published in 1877, is a book of Esoteric Philosophy, and was Helena Petrovna Blavatsky 's first major work The Key to Theosophy is a popular book by Helena P Blavatsky first published in 1889 and still in print today expounding the principles of theosophy in a readable The Mahatma Letters are letters that were written by the Theosophical Mahatmas to certain Theosophists especially A The Secret Doctrine the Synthesis of Science Religion and Philosophy, a book originally published as two volumes in 1888, is Helena P The Voice of the Silence is a book by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. For Sanat-Kumara the sage from Puranic - Hinduism, see Four Kumaras or Sanatkumara. Djwal Khul (variously spelled 'Djwhal Khul' 'Djwal Kul' or simply 'DK' is supposed by some Theosophists and others to be a Tibetan Master in the The Master Morya, in the teachings of the Theosophical Society is one of the "Masters of Wisdom" and in the Ascended Master Teachings is one The Master Kuthumi, in the teachings of Theosophy is one of the "Masters of Wisdom" and in the Ascended Master Teachings is one of the Ascended Paul the Venetian is one of the "Masters of the Ancient Wisdom" in the teachings of Theosophy and is regarded as one of the Ascended masters in the Ascended Serapis Bey, sometimes written as Serapis, is regarded in Theosophy as being one of the Masters of Wisdom; and in the Ascended Master Teachings The Master Hilarion, in the teachings of Theosophy is one of the "Masters of Wisdom" and in the Ascended Master Teachings is one of the Ascended The Master Jesus is Jesus as understood by the metaphysical system of Theosophy as opposed to the Jesus Christ of the Christian religion The Count of St Germain ( fl 1710–1784 has been variously described as a Courtier, Adventurer, Charlatan, Inventor, Agni Yoga is a spiritual teaching transmitted by the artist Nicholas Roerich (Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh in Russian and his wife Helena Roerich (Yelena Ivanovna Anthroposophy is a spiritual philosophy based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner (25 February 1861 – 30 March 1925 which postulates the existence of an objective intellectually The term Neo-Theosophy is a term originally derogatory for the system of Theosophical ideas expounded by Annie Besant and Charles Webster Leadbeater The Liberal Catholic Church (LCC is a form of Christianity open to Theosophical ideas and even Reincarnation. Students of Ascended Master Teachings organizations (also known as " Ascended Master Activities " believe that the Presence of Life - God - Individualizes as the "I Benjamin Creme (b Dec 5 1922 Scotland) is a British Esotericist, lecturer author artist and chief editor of Share International magazine. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year S. Infantry in September 1867. He was stationed in San Francisco from 1869 through 1871 and he took out a patent for the cable car railway that still runs there, receiving a charter for its operation, but signing away his rights when he was reassigned. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city A cable car or cable railway is a Mass transit system using rail cars that are propelled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed In 1871 he commanded the 24th U.S. Infantry, an all African-American regiment, in Texas. History The 24th Infantry Regiment (one of the Buffalo Soldier regiments was organized on 1 November 1869 from the 38th and 41st Infantry Regiments  He retired in 1873 and, by 1878, he was living in Mendham, New Jersey, from where, that year, he became a prominent member of the Theosophical Society. The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual principles and search for Truth known as Theosophy. When two of the founders of that society, Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott, moved to India at the end of that year, he was constituted as the President of the American body. Elena Petrovna Gan (Елена Петровна Ган also Hélène, Yekaterinoslav, Ukraine, Russian Empire — May 8 1891 London) better Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (1832–1907 founder and first president of the Theosophical Society, was the first well-known person of European ancestry to make a formal conversion 
Doubleday died of heart disease in Mendham, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington Virginia, is a military cemetery in the United States, established during the American Civil War 
Although Doubleday was a competent, if colorless, combat general with experience in many important Civil War battles, the lore of baseball credits Doubleday with inventing the game, supposedly in Elihu Phinney's cow pasture in Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. The question of the origins of baseball has been the subject of debate and controversy for more than a century Elihu Phinney (1756&ndash1813 was the first printer in Cooperstown New York.
The Mills Commission, chaired by Abraham G. Mills, the fourth president of the National League, was appointed in 1905 to determine the origin of baseball. The committee's final report, on December 30, 1907, stated, in part, that "the first scheme for playing baseball, according to the best evidence obtainable to date, was devised by Abner Doubleday at Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year " It concluded by saying, "in the years to come, in the view of the hundreds of thousands of people who are devoted to baseball, and the millions who will be, Abner Doubleday's fame will rest evenly, if not quite as much, upon the fact that he was its inventor . . . as upon his brilliant and distinguished career as an officer in the Federal Army. "
However, there is considerable evidence to dispute this claim. Baseball historian George B. Kirsch has described the results of the Mills commission as a "myth. " He wrote, "Robert Henderson, Harold Seymour, and other scholars have since debunked the Doubleday-Cooperstown myth, which nonetheless remains powerful in the American imagination because of the efforts of Major League Baseball and the Hall of Fame in Cooperstown. " At his death, Doubleday left many letters and papers, none of which describe baseball, or give any suggestion that he considered himself a prominent person in the evolution of the game. Chairman Mills himself, who had been a Civil War colleague of Doubleday and a member of the honor guard for Doubleday's body as it lay in state in New York City, never recalled hearing Doubleday describe his role as the inventor. Doubleday was a cadet at West Point in the year of the alleged invention and his family had moved away from Cooperstown the prior year. Furthermore, the primary testimony to the commission that connected baseball to Doubleday was that of Abner Graves, whose credibility is questionable; a few years later, he shot his wife to death, apparently because of mental illness, and he was committed to an institution for the criminally insane for the rest of his life. 
Doubleday Field is a minor league baseball stadium named for Abner Doubleday, located in Cooperstown near the Baseball Hall of Fame. Doubleday Field is a Minor league baseball Stadium in Cooperstown New York named for Abner Doubleday and located two city blocks from the Part of the History of baseball series Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of Professional baseball leagues in North A modern stadium (plural stadiums or stadia in English is a place or venue for (mostly outdoor Sports Concerts or other events consisting It hosts the annual Hall of Fame Game, originally between "old-timers" teams, but currently an exhibition game between two major league teams. An exhibition game (also known as an exhibition match or simply exhibition, or a demonstration or demo event is a sporting event
Doubleday published two important works on the Civil War: Reminiscences of Forts Sumter and Moultrie (1876), and Chancellorsville and Gettysburg (1882), the latter being a volume of the series Campaigns of the Civil War. 
Doubleday's indecision as a commander earned him the uncomplimentary nickname "Forty-Eight Hours. "
In World War II the United States liberty ship SS Abner Doubleday was named in his honor. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The United States of America —commonly referred to as the History and service In 1936 the American Merchant Marine Act was passed to subsidize the annual construction of 50 commercial merchant vessels to be used in wartime by The SS Abner Doubleday was a Liberty ship built during World War II.
John F. Reynolds
|Commander of the I Corps (ACW)|
July 1, 1863 - July 2, 1863
John Newton (engineer)