Leader of the Shining Path
|Succeeded by||Óscar Ramírez|
|Born||December 3, 1934 |
|Political party||Communist Party of Peru - Shining Path|
|Residence||Callao Naval Base|
Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso (born 3 December 1934), also known by the nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo (English: President Gonzalo), a former professor of philosophy, was the leader of the Shining Path during the Maoist insurgency known as the internal conflict in Peru. The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish Partido Comunista del Perú) more commonly known as the Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso) is a Maoist Óscar Ramírez Durand, who is commonly known as Comrade Feliciano, was one of the leaders of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla movement Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For the Cactus Genus, see Oreocereus. Arequipa is the capital of the Arequipa Region in southern Peru Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Elena Iparraguirre is a high-ranking member of the Shining Path who was caught with Shining Path leader Abimael Guzmán in Lima in 1992 Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish Partido Comunista del Perú) more commonly known as the Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso) is a Maoist Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution It has been estimated that nearly 70000 people died in the internal conflict in Peru that started in 1980 and although still ongoing had greatly wound down by 2000 Shining Path had been active in Peru since the late 1970s and began what it called "the armed struggle" on May 17, 1980. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Wanted on charges of terrorism and treason, Guzmán was captured by the Peruvian government in 1992 and sentenced to life imprisonment. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation.
He is currently incarcerated at the Callao naval base, near the city of Lima, Peru. Callao in Perupng see image description page at http//enwikipedia Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking While the activity of the insurgency actually increased shortly after Guzmán's capture, it has declined in the years following. It has been criticized for its violence against peasants, trade union organizers, and elected officials, which were deemed by the group to be collaborating with the Peruvian state. A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming "Shining Path" is on the U.S. Department of State's "Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations" list. " Foreign Terrorist Organization " is a designation of non- United States -based organizations declared terrorist by the United States Secretary of State  The United Kingdom, the European Union, and Peru likewise regard Shining Path as a terrorist group and prohibit providing funding or other financial support. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion
Guzmán was born in Mollendo, a port town in the province of Islay, in the region of Arequipa, about 1000 km south of Lima. Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted In the Marxist-Leninist movement an anti-revisionist is one who favors the line of theory and practice associated with Marx - Engels - Lenin The Three Worlds Theory is a Theory developed by former Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong that suggests that the Social-imperialism is a term applied by Mao to the Soviet Union, arguing that the Soviet Union had come to dominate and exploit the smaller countries in its sphere The Mass Line is the political/organizational/leadership method developed by Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China (CPC during the Chinese revolution People's War ( Chinese language: 人民战争 also called protracted people's war, is a military-political strategy invented by Mao Zedong. For different uses of the term including Political parties with the name "New Democracy" see New Democracy (disambiguation. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Prachanda (प्रचण्ड pɾəʦəɳɖə born Pushpa Kumal Dahal on 11 December 1954 is the Post Officer of Nepal. Bob Avakian is Chairman of the Revolutionary Communist Party USA, which he has led since its formation in 1975 Zhang Chunqiao ( (1917&ndash April 21, 2005) was a member of the Gang of Four. José María Sison (born February 8, 1939 in Cabugao Ilocos Sur, Philippines) is a Writer and activist who reorganized the Charu Majumdar ( Bangla: চারু মজুমদার (1918–1972 was an Indian Maoist Revolutionary born in 1918 in Siliguri Jiang Qing ( March 14, 1914 May 14, 1991) is the Pseudonym that was used by Chinese leader Mao Zedong 's last wife İbrahim Kaypakkaya was a leader of the Turkish Communist movement Pierre Mulele ( August 11, 1929 - October 3 [[October 9] depending on the source] 1968 was a Congolese Revolutionary who was briefly The International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (ICMLPO is a grouping of parties and organizations adhering to Marxist-Leninist-Maoist thought The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement is an international Communist organization which upholds Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. The Marxist-Leninist Party of Germany ( German: Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands, MLPD is an antirevisionist Political party in The Communist Party of India (Maoist is an underground Maoist Political party in India. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी is a Maoist Political party The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish Partido Comunista del Perú) more commonly known as the Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso) is a Maoist The Communist Party of the Philippines (in Filipino: Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas) is the leading Communist party in the Philippines. The Communist Party of the Portuguese Workers / Reorganizative Movement of the Party of the Proletariat ( Portuguese: Partido Comunista dos Trabalhadores Portugueses / Movimento The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong ( better known in the West as The Little Red Book, was published by the Government of the Naxalite or Naxalism is an informal name given to Communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement Mollendo is a town bordering the Pacific Ocean in southern Peru. Islay Province Arequipa is a region in southwestern Peru. It is bordered by the Ica, Ayacucho, Apurímac and Cusco regions on the north the He was the illegitimate son of a well-off merchant, the winner of the national lottery who had six children by three different women. A lottery is a form of Gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize Guzmán's mother, Berenice Reynoso, died when he was only five years old.
From 1939 to 1946 Guzmán lived with his mother's family. After 1947 he lived with his father and his father's wife in the city of Arequipa, where he studied at a private Catholic secondary school. For the Cactus Genus, see Oreocereus. Arequipa is the capital of the Arequipa Region in southern Peru At the age of 19 he became a student at the Social Studies department of San Agustín National University, in Arequipa. National University of St Augustin of Arequipa, known locally as Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa ( UNSA) is a state-owned University His classmates at the university later described him as shy, disciplined, obsessive, and ascetic. Increasingly attracted by Marxism, his political thinking was influenced by the book Seven Essays on the Interpretation of the Peruvian Reality of José Carlos Mariátegui, the founder of the Communist Party of Peru. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. José Carlos Mariátegui La Chira ( 14 June 1894 16 April 1930) was a Peruvian journalist Political philosopher, and activist Several different left -oriented organizations refer to themselves as the Communist Party of Peru (in Spanish: Partido Comunista del Peru) or similar names
At Arequipa, Guzmán completed bachelor degrees in philosophy and law. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society His dissertations were entitled "The Kantian Theory of Space" and "The Bourgeois Democratic State. " In 1962, Guzmán was recruited as a professor of philosophy by the rector of San Cristóbal of Huamanga University in Ayacucho, a city in the central Peruvian Andes. The San Cristóbal of Huamanga National University (in Spanish Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga) is a public university located in the city of Ayacucho Ayacucho ( Ayacuchu in Quechua) is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. The rector was Dr. Efraín Morote Best, an anthropologist who some believe later became the true intellectual leader of the "Shining Path movement. Efraín Morote Best ( circa 1925 - 1991 was a Peruvian anthropologist and academic administrator Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of " Encouraged by Morote, Guzmán studied Quechua, the language spoken by Peru's indigenous population, and became increasingly active in left-wing political circles. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. He attracted several like-minded young academics committed to bringing about revolution in Peru. Guzmán was arrested twice during the 1970's because of his participation on violent riots in the city of Arequipa against the government of presidents Velasco Alvarado and Belaunde Terry. He visited the People's Republic of China for the first time in 1965. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES After serving as the head of personnel for San Cristóbal of Huamanga University, Guzmán left the institution in the mid-1970s and went underground.
In the 1960s, the Peruvian Communist Party splintered over ideological and personal disputes. Guzmán, who had taken a pro-Chinese rather than pro-Soviet line, emerged as the leader of the faction which came to be known as the "Shining Path" (Mariátegui's wrote once: "Marxism-Leninism is the shining path of the future"). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 He adopted the nom de guerre President Gonzalo and began advocating a peasant-led revolution on the Maoist model. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) His followers declared Guzmán, who cultivated anonymity, to be the "Fourth Sword of Communism" (after Marx, Lenin, and Mao). Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led In his political declarations, Guzmán praised Mao's development of Lenin's theses regarding the role of imperialism in propping up the bourgeois capitalist system. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where He claimed that imperialism ultimately "creates disruption and is unsuccessful, and it will end up in ruins in the next 50 to 100 years". Guzmán applied this criticism not only to U.S. imperialism, but also to what he termed the "social-imperialism" of the Soviet Union. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
In 1965 he married Augusta la Torre, who later died under unclear circumstances. It has been rumored that her premature death was actually a murder executed by Elena Iparraguirre, Guzmán's 2nd wife with the chairman's complicity. Elena Iparraguirre is a high-ranking member of the Shining Path who was caught with Shining Path leader Abimael Guzmán in Lima in 1992 Both have refused to talk about La Torre's fate since their imprisonment. In the fall of 2006, while in prison, Guzmán proposed to Elena Iparraguirre, one of his long-time lieutenants who is also serving a life sentence in a separate prison. The couple have not yet disclosed the date they plan to wed. 
The Shining Path movement was at first largely circumscribed to academic circles in Peruvian universities. In the late 1970s, however, the movement developed into a guerrilla group centered around Ayacucho. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc In May 1980, the group launched its war against the government of Perú by burning the ballot boxes in Chuschi, a village near Ayacucho, in an effort to disrupt the first democratic elections in the country since 1964. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Shining Path eventually grew to control vast rural territories in central and southern Peru and achieved a presence even in the outskirts of Lima, where it staged numerous attacks. Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking The purpose of Shining Path's campaign was to demoralize and undermine the government of Perú in order to create a situation conducive to a violent coup which would put its leaders in power. The Shining Path targeted not only the army and police, but also government employees at all levels, other leftist militants such as members of the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), workers who did not participate in the strikes organized by the group, peasants who cooperated with the government in any way (including by voting in democratic elections), and ordinary middle-class inhabitants of Perú's main cities. The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement ( Spanish: Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA was a Communist guerrilla movement The Truth and Reconciliation Commission later estimated that the resulting conflict led to the deaths of some seventy thousand people, approximately half of them at the hands of the Shining Path and a third at the hands of the state. The Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC (in Spanish: Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación (CVR) was established in June 2001 to examine 
Initially Guzmán attempted to win over the support of citizens by punishing corrupt government officials and other unpopular leaders. However Shining Path's increasingly brutal methods together with strictly imposed curfews, the prohibition of alcohol and an overall sense of insecurity and fear lead to an increased popular reaction against the communist party. Eventually Guzmán's plan backfired as rural militia or "rondas" rallied support for the military against Shining Path. The very peasants Guzmán sought to defend had turned against the Shining Path. This resulted in a cyclical state of violence in which Maoist guerillas embarked in ruthless punitive expeditions against Peruvian civilians living in the Andean region. During 1983, 69 people (including women and children) from the highland town of Lucanamarca were tortured and murdered by the Shining Path in what became known as the Lucanamarca massacre. The Lucanamarca massacre was a massacre of 69 peasants in and around the town of Lucanamarca Peru that took place on April 3, 1983.
Abimael's image as a dispassionate murderer became widespread after he moved against the city of Lima. After a series of bombings and selective assassinations the whole nation was shocked when a car bomb exploded in one of Lima's busiest commercial districts on Tarata street, thus causing many casualties and enormous material losses. To this day, Guzmán denies responsibility for the bombing by claiming that it was a "deplorable mistake".
The movement promoted the writings of Guzmán, called Gonzalo Thought, a new "theoretical understanding" that built upon Marxism, Leninism, and Maoism whereby he declared Maoism as a "third and higher stage of Marxism," having defined Maoism as "people's war. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader " In 1989, Guzmán declared that the Shining Path (which he referred to as the "Communist Party of Peru") had progressed from waging a people's war to waging a "war of movements. " He further argued that this was a step towards achieving "strategic equilibrium" in the near future, based on Maoist theories of waging people's war. Guzmán claimed that such an equilibrium would manifest itself by ungovernability under the "old order. " When that moment arrived, Guzmán believed that Shining Path would be ready to move on to its "strategic offensive".
Theodore Dalrymple has written that "the worst brutality I ever saw was that committed by Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) in Peru, in the days when it seemed possible that it might come to power. Anthony (AM Daniels (born 1949 is a British writer and retired Physician (prison doctor and psychiatrist who generally uses the Pen name Theodore If it had, I think its massacres would have dwarfed those of the Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge (ខ្មែរក្រហម Kmae Krɑhɑɑm was the Communist ruling political party of Cambodia &mdashwhich it renamed As a doctor, I am accustomed to unpleasant sights, but nothing prepared me for what I saw in Ayacucho, where Sendero first developed under the sway of a professor of philosophy, Abimael Guzmán. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health "
In 1992, during the first administration of President Alberto Fujimori, the National Directorate Against Terrorism (DINCOTE) began casing several residences in Lima because agents suspected that terrorists were using them as safehouses. Alberto Ken'ya Fujimori (Japanese name) (born in Lima, Peru on July 28 1938 is a Peruvian and Japanese ref> Fujimori secures Japanese haven Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking One of those residences, in the upper-class neighborhood of Surco, had been operating as a ballet studio. The DINCOTE operatives routinely searched the garbage taken out from the house. The house was supposedly inhabited by only one person, the dance teacher Maritza Garrido Lecca, but it was soon noticed that the household produced more garbage than one person could account for. Furthermore, agents found discarded tubes of cream for the treatment of psoriasis, an ailment that Guzmán was known to have. Psoriasis (səˈraɪəsɪs ( suh-RI-uh-sus) is a non-contagious disorder which affects the Skin and Joints It commonly causes red scaly On 12 September 1992, an elite unit of the DINCOTE raided the Surco residence. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) On the second floor of the house, they found and arrested Guzmán and eight others, including Laura Zambrano and Elena Iparraguirre, Guzmán's female companion. Ironically Abimael Guzmán had been conducting a savage war from the comforts of a luxurious upper-class Lima residence. (This episode inspired Nicholas Shakespeare's novel The Dancer Upstairs). Nicholas William Richmond Shakespeare (born March 3, 1957 in Worcester) is a British journalist and writer The Dancer Upstairs is a 1995 Novel by Nicholas Shakespeare. It is based on the Maoist insurgency of the 1980s in Peru, and tells
At the time of capture, the police seized Guzmán's computer, in which they found a very detailed register of his armed forces and the weapons each regiment, militia and support base had in each region of the country. Guzmán had recorded that, in 1990, the Shining Path had 23,430 members armed with approximately 235 revolvers, 500 rifles and 300 other items of military hardware such as grenades. rEVOLVEr is the fourth studio album by Swedish metal band The Haunted. For the band The Rifles see The Rifles (band. For the novel by William T Guzmán was later exhibited publicly in a cage with a black and white striped uniform to the relief of millions of Peruvians. The actions of Shining Path lingered even after Guzmán's capture.
Guzmán was tried by a court of hooded military judges under provisions of the anti-terrorism laws adopted by Fujimori's government. The idea of this was to protect the judge's lives for Shining Path was remembered for brutal retaliation against judges which convicted their members. After a three-day trial, Guzmán was sentenced to life imprisonment and incarcerated at the San Lorenzo Island naval base, in Callao, the port of Lima, where he remains currently. Callao in Perupng see image description page at http//enwikipedia Subsequently, he is said to have negotiated with presidential advisor at the time, Vladimiro Montesinos, in order to receive some benefits in exchange for helping the Peruvian government put an end to the Shining Path's militant activities. Vladimiro Lenin Montesinos Torres (born May 20, 1945) was the long-standing head of Peru 's intelligence service Guzmán appeared several times on Peruvian television and in 1993 he publicly declared "peace" with the Peruvian government. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) This declaration split the Shining Path and raised questions about the organization's future. Some within the party accepted it as a sign of defeat. Others held that it was either a forgery or an insincere statement made under duress.
Although there is little doubt that Guzmán was indeed the leader of the Shining Path, more than 5,000 individuals presented an appeal to Peru's Constitutional Court in 2003 asking that the verdicts against more than other 1800 prisoners convicted of terrorism, including Guzmán, be voided. The court agreed, declaring that the military trials had been unconstitutional and ordering new trials before civilian courts. The new trials began in 2003. Since then, more than 400 prisoners who had been found guilty by military courts have been freed.
Guzmán's re-trial was scheduled to begin on 5 November 2004. Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The international press was held in a sound proof chamber and all media was banned from observing the trial after the Shining Path cadre turned their backs on the judges and delivered a revolutionary salute to the media gallery. The only words Guzmán spoke in the presence of the international press were "Long live the Communist Party of Peru! Glory to Marxism-Leninism-Maoism! Glory to the Peruvian people! Long live the heroes of the people’s war!" After he made this statement, the courtroom microphones were silenced and the press was unable to hear any of the proceedings that followed. The trial resumed on November 12. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days No reporters were allowed to observe the new proceedings but two more of the judges subsequently recused themselves. Guzmán's third trial began in September 2005 and was opened and closed amid a media blackout. No reporters were allowed to attend. On October 13, 2006, Guzmán was sentenced to life in prison on charges of aggravated terrorism. Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
He is currently incarcerated in Callao in one of four subterranean cells. His neighbours include Víctor Polay, leader of the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, and, ironically, Vladimiro Montesinos, the former head of the National Intelligence Service under President Alberto Fujimori. Víctor Polay Campos (born April 6, 1951) is one of the founders of the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, a Peruvian guerrilla organization The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement ( Spanish: Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA was a Communist guerrilla movement Vladimiro Lenin Montesinos Torres (born May 20, 1945) was the long-standing head of Peru 's intelligence service Alberto Ken'ya Fujimori (Japanese name) (born in Lima, Peru on July 28 1938 is a Peruvian and Japanese ref> Fujimori secures Japanese haven