|21st Army Group|
|Active||July, 1943 to August, 1945|
|Country|| United Kingdom|
|Part of||Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF)|
The Twenty-first Army Group was a formation comprising British and Canadian forces stationed in the United Kingdom. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF, pronounced "shāf" was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC, (məntˈgʌmərɪ əv ˈæləmeɪn The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page who were assigned for the invasion of Europe. The formation was established in London in July of 1943. The Group was an important Allied force in the European Theatre of World War II. The European Theatre of Operations ( ETO) was an area of heavy fighting across Europe during World War II, from Nazi Germany's Invasion of Poland World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Twenty-First Army Group operated in Northern France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Holland and Germany.
Commanded by General (later Field Marshal) Sir Bernard Montgomery, Twenty-First Army Group initially controlled all ground forces in Operation Overlord. Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC, (məntˈgʌmərɪ əv ˈæləmeɪn When sufficient American forces had landed, their own 12th Army Group was activated, under General Omar Bradley and the formation was left with British Second Army and First Canadian Army under its control. The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful American military formation ever to take to the field Omar Nelson Bradley KCB ( February 12, 1893 &ndash April 8, 1981) was one of the main U The British Second Army existed in both the First and Second World Wars World War I During World War I, the army was formed on The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War.
Normandy was a battle of attrition for the British and Canadian armies, sucking in the available German reinforcements around Caen at the eastern end of the lodgement. Caen (kɑ̃ is a commune in northwestern France. It is the Prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the A lodgement is an enclave made by increasing the size of a Bridgehead, Beachhead or Airhead. In the end the Germans lacked the reserves and air protection to prevent the US breakout at the western end in early August, 1944 and they were routed.
After the successful landings in the south of France by the U.S. 6th Army Group, Twenty-First Army Group formed the left flank of the three Allied army groups arrayed against German forces in the west. Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of southern France, on 15 August, 1944, as part of World War II. The Sixth United States Army Group was an Army Group of the Allies during World War II, and as contained armies from both the United States Army It was therefore responsible for securing the ports upon which Allied supply depended.
By 29 August, the Germans had largely crossed the Seine, but without their heavy equipment. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) The campaign through Northern France and Belgium was largely a pursuit, with the ports - formally designated "Fortress Towns" - offering only limited opposition to the Canadian 1st Army. Their facilities were destroyed though. The advance was so rapid, 250 miles in 4 days, that Antwerp was captured on 4th September undefended and with its port facilities intact. ||-||-||-||} Antwerp ( Dutch:, French: Anvers) is a City and Municipality in Belgium and the capital of the
On September 1, the Twenty-first Army Group was relieved of operational control of the United States Armies and these Armies became the chief components of the Twelfth Army Group. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle.
By mid September, elements of Twenty-First Army Group had reached Holland and halted. Supplies were short. The long haul from Normandy had to be by truck. Ports and railways were unusable. Eisenhower had to choose which line of advance to supply - the Allies could not do it all.
The Twenty-First Army Group then took part in one of the most famous operations in WWII; Operation Market Garden. Operation Market Garden ( September 17, 1944 – September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation fought in the Netherlands
After the break-out from Normandy, there were high hopes that the war could be ended in 1944. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In order to do so, the last great natural defensive barrier of Germany in the west, the River Rhine had to be crossed. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Operation Market Garden was the first attempt to do this. Operation Market Garden ( September 17, 1944 – September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation fought in the Netherlands It was staged in the Netherlands with American and British parachute divisions and a Polish parachute brigade being dropped to capture bridges over the lower Rhine before they were blown by the Germans. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The parachute formations would then be relieved by armoured forces advancing rapidly northwards through Eindhoven and Nijmegen to Arnhem. Eindhoven ( is a Municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence Nijmegen (ˈnɛɪmeɣən) (obsolete spellings Nijmwegen Nymegen Nieumeghen &mdash Nimwegen in local dialect and in German, Nimègue in French Arnhem ( ( South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and Municipality, situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The north German plain would then be open to the Allies.
However, the armoured formations would have only one road to use - referred to as a "battlefront two tanks wide". Crucial information about the German formations in the area was either missing or ignored. The scratch forces remaining after the retreat from France were much stronger than expected, thus giving the armoured units of XXX Corps a much tougher fight than had been anticipated, slowing the advance. XXX Corps (30 Corps was a Corps within the British Army during World War II. The American divisions and the Polish parachute brigade that had fought south of the Rhine were relieved but the British 1st Airborne Division in Arnhem was practically destroyed. The 1st Airborne Division was a Military formation that was raised and fought during World War II.
Since the approaches to the port of Antwerp had not been cleared when the city was captured it had allowed the German army time to reorganise and dig in along the approaches making the port completely unusable. ||-||-||-||} Antwerp ( Dutch:, French: Anvers) is a City and Municipality in Belgium and the capital of the Thus an operation was needed to clear the approaches and thereby ease the supply problem. The island of Walcheren was strongly held by German forces and commanded the estuary of the Meuse which flows through Antwerp. Walcheren is a former Island in the Province of Zeeland in the Netherlands at the mouth of the Scheldt Estuary Meuse (møːz is a department in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. It was captured in late 1944 by the last major amphibious assault in Europe in WWII. A combination of Canadian forces and Royal Marines undertook the operation. The Royal Marines ( RM) are the marine corps and amphibious Infantry of the United Kingdom and along with the Royal Navy
After the capture of Walcheren came the last great German offensive of the war. In a repeat of their 1940 attack, German formations smashed through weak Allied lines in the Ardennes in Belgium. For the political subdivision of France see Ardennes (department. However, unlike 1940, the Allies were able to blunt the attack and then destroy the forces that had mounted it.
The Battle of the Bulge presented a command problem to General Eisenhower. The Ardennes Offensive (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945 was a major German offensive launched towards the end of World War II through the forested Ardennes Mountains Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general It had sliced through US lines, leaving some American formations north and south of the new German salient. However, the headquarters of U.S. 12th Army Group lay to the south, so US forces north of the salient were placed under Twenty-First Army Group. The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful American military formation ever to take to the field They with U.S. Third Army under General George Patton, reduced the salient. United States Army Central, formerly the Third United States Army was a field army of the United States Army. For the 19th century Scottish jurist/politician see George Patton Lord Glenalmond.
After the battle, control of U.S. First Army which had been placed under Montgomery's temporary command was returned to Bradley's 12th Army Group. The First United States Army was a field army of the United States Army. U.S. Ninth Army remained under Montgomery for the final attack into Germany. The Ninth United States Army was one of the main US Army combat commands used during the campaign in northwest Europe in 1944 and 1945
Prior to the Rhineland Campaign the enemy had to be cleared from the Roer Triangle during Operation Blackcock. Operation Blackcock was the code name for the clearing of the Roer Triangle formed by the towns of Roermond, Sittard and Heinsberg This large methodical mopping up operation took place between 14 and 27 January 1945. It was not planned to make any deep thrust into the enemy defences or capture large numbers of prisoners. It proceeded from stage to stage almost entirely as planned and was completed with minimal casualties.
Allied forces closed up to the Rhine by March 1945. Twenty-First Army Group at this time comprised the British Second Army under General Miles C Dempsey, the Canadian 1st Army under General Harry Crerar and the US Ninth Army, under General William Simpson. General Henry Duncan Graham "Harry" Crerar CH, CB, DSO, KStJ, CD, PC ( April 28, 1888 Lieutenant General William Hood Simpson (May 18 1888 – August 15 1980 was a distinguished U
The Canadian 1st Army had executed Operation Veritable in difficult conditions from Nijmegen eastwards through the Reichswald Forest then southwards. Operation Veritable was the northern part of the Second World War pincer movement by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery 's 21st Army Group Nijmegen (ˈnɛɪmeɣən) (obsolete spellings Nijmwegen Nymegen Nieumeghen &mdash Nimwegen in local dialect and in German, Nimègue in French This was to have been the northern part of a pincer movement with the US Ninth Army moving northwards towards Düsseldorf and Krefeld (Operation Grenade), to clear the west bank of the Rhine north of Cologne. Düsseldorf (ˈdʏsəldɔɐf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. History The origins of the town were in Roman times when the legions founded the military camp of Gelduba (today the borough of Gellep During World War II, Operation Grenade was the plan for the U The Americans were delayed by two weeks when the Germans destroyed the Roer dams and flooded the American route of advance. As a result the Canadians engaged and mauled, the German reserves intended to defend the Cologne Plain.
In Operation Plunder, starting on 13 March 1945, the British Second Army and the US Ninth Army crossed the Rhine at various places north of the Ruhr and German resistance in the west quickly crumbled. Commencing on the night of 23 March, 1945 during World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The Canadian First Army wheeled left and liberated northern Holland, the British Second Army occupied much of north-west Germany and liberated Denmark and the US Ninth Army formed the northern arm of the envelopment of German forces in the Ruhr Pocket and on 4 April reverted to Bradley's 12th Army Group. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The pincer movement or double envelopment is a basic element of Military strategy which has been used to some extent in many Wars and is considered The Ruhr Pocket was a battle of encirclement that took place in late March and early April 1945 near the end of World War II, in the Ruhr Area of Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Omar Nelson Bradley KCB ( February 12, 1893 &ndash April 8, 1981) was one of the main U
After the German surrender, Twenty-First Army Group was converted into the headquarters for the British zone of occupation in Germany. It was renamed the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) on 25 August 1945 and eventually formed the nucleus of the British forces stationed in Germany throughout the Cold War. There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine (BAOR Events 1248 - The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III the Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
The main constituent formations of Twenty-First Army Group were the 1st Canadian Army and the 2nd British Army. The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. The British Second Army existed in both the First and Second World Wars World War I During World War I, the army was formed on In practice, neither of the two armies were homogeneously British or Canadian. Also included were Polish units, from Normandy onwards and small Dutch, Belgian and Czech units; U. S. units were attached from time to time. British units were included in the Canadian Army.
American army units were placed under British command at various times. For political and personal rivalry reasons, these were never more than temporary. These arrangements occurred when