The Sorlie Bridge connecting Grand Forks and East Grand Forks became submerged on April 17
|Damages||$3. 5 billion|
|Areas affected||-Greater Grand Forks|
-Grand Forks, ND
-East Grand Forks, MN
The Red River Flood of 1997 was a major flood that occurred in April and May 1997, along the Red River of the North in North Dakota, Minnesota, and Southern Manitoba. " Greater Grand Forks " is the name used by some people to designate the Twin cities of Grand Forks North Dakota and East Grand Forks Minnesota Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the US state of North Dakota and the County seat of Grand Forks County. East Grand Forks is a city in Polk County, Minnesota in the United States. Winnipeg (ˈwɪnɨpɛg is the capital and largest city in the Canadian province of Manitoba, and 7th largest municipality in Canada with a population A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land a deluge The Red River (rivière Rouge is a North American river Formed by the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America It was the most severe flood of the river since 1826. The flood reached throughout the Red River Valley, affecting the cities of Fargo and Winnipeg, but none so greatly as in Grand Forks and East Grand Forks, where floodwaters reached over 3 miles (5 km) inland, inundating virtually everything in the twin communities. For other uses see Red River (disambiguation The Red River Valley is a region in central North America that is drained by Fargo is a city in Cass County, North Dakota in the United States. Winnipeg (ˈwɪnɨpɛg is the capital and largest city in the Canadian province of Manitoba, and 7th largest municipality in Canada with a population Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the US state of North Dakota and the County seat of Grand Forks County. East Grand Forks is a city in Polk County, Minnesota in the United States. Total damages for the Red River region were US$3. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 5 billion in damages.
The flood was the result of abundant snowfall and extreme temperatures. Although hundreds of people prepared for the flood with sandbag dikes, based on a 49-foot estimate of flooding set by the National Weather Service, the river crested at 54 feet in Grand Forks. A sandbag (floodbag is a sack made of burlap, polypropylene or other materials that is filled with Sand or Soil and used for such purposes as flood LeveeEmbankmentDitch A dike (or dyke) levee, levée, embankment, floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial The National Weather Service ( NWS) once known as the Weather Bureau is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Grand Forks mayor Pat Owens had to order the evacuation of over 50,000 people as a large portion of the city would eventually be flooded. Patrica A Owens (born 1941 in East Grand Forks, Minnesota) was the Mayor of Grand Forks North Dakota during the flood A large fire started in Grand Forks, engulfing eleven buildings and sixty apartment units before being extinguished. Flooding in Manitoba resulted in over $500 million in damages, although a large dike known as "Brunkild Z-dike" helped to prevent Winnipeg from flooding.
Those affected by the flood received donations from across the nation, along with billions in federal aid. City officials and flood-forecasters were criticized for the difference in estimates and actual flood levels. Grand Forks and East Grand Forks built new dikes to prevent damages from future floods and began to rebuild around the river, developing a campground recreation area, park, and shopping districts where homes once stood. The Red River State Recreation Area is part of the Greater Grand Forks Greenway and is located in the city of East Grand Forks Minnesota on the banks of the The Greater Grand Forks Greenway is a huge greenway bordering the Red River and Red Lake River in the Twin cities of Grand Forks North
The Red River in Manitoba and the U. S. states of Minnesota and North Dakota has flooded repeatedly through the centuries, endangering lives and property. The river is highly prone to flooding because of its northward flow. As spring approaches, the snow is melted from south to north alongside the riverflow. There is also the possibility that the surplus water can hit unmelted ice on the river and back up. The flatness of the terrain and small slope of the river is a significant factor.
Floods occurred in both 1948 and 1950. The 1950 flood reached a high of 30 ft (9. The 1950 Red River Flood was a devastating Flood that took place in Winnipeg Manitoba, in Canada on May 8, 1950. 2 m) at Winnipeg—causing 100,000 people to be evacuated and $606 million CAD (1997) of damage, prompting the government of Manitoba to set up flood safety measures. 
The first known records of floods along the Red River appeared in the 1770s. Severe floods occurred throughout the 1800s and 1900s, with one of the most recent major floods occurring in 1979.  Homes not damaged in that flood were incorrectly assumed to be safe from a future flood.
The Red River forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota. The Red River Flood of 1997 in the United States was a major Flood that occurred in April 1997 along the Red River of the North in North Dakota and North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers A few sets of "sister cities" sit directly on this border, with the most devastated by the floodwaters being Grand Forks, North Dakota and its counterpart East Grand Forks, Minnesota, although other pairs saw significant flooding and damage as well, including Fargo, North Dakota/Moorhead, Minnesota (Fargo-Moorhead) and Wahpeton, North Dakota/Breckenridge, Minnesota. Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the US state of North Dakota and the County seat of Grand Forks County. East Grand Forks is a city in Polk County, Minnesota in the United States. Fargo is a city in Cass County, North Dakota in the United States. Moorhead is a city in Clay County, Minnesota, United States, and the largest city in northwest Minnesota Fargo-Moorhead is a common name given to the Metropolitan area comprising Fargo North Dakota, Moorhead Minnesota, and the surrounding communities Wahpeton is a city in Richland County, North Dakota in the United States. Breckenridge is a city in Wilkin County, Minnesota, United States. Much of the flooding occurred not only from the rising river, but from overland flooding, as the flooded Red River was unable to drain meltwater away, necessitating dikes on both the riverfront and around the edges of towns.
There was some sense of imminent threat in Grand Forks, but the cities could not prepare for such an enormous flood. The National Weather Service (NWS) had a long-standing forecast for the river to crest at 49 feet (14. The National Weather Service ( NWS) once known as the Weather Bureau is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 9 m), which was the river's highest level during the 1979 flood.  The cities had been able to get their dikes to this level, but the river continued to rise past it, to the astonishment of the NWS (which didn't upgrade its forecast until April 16, the day the river actually reached 49 feet). Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom  The dikes in the low-lying Lincoln Drive neighborhood of Grand Forks were the first to break, doing so early on April 18. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland.  Other dikes over Grand Forks and East Grand Forks area would fail that day and the next, flooding thousands of homes. During this time, Grand Forks mayor Pat Owens ordered the evacuation of over 50,000 people, which up to that time, had been the largest evacuation in the United States since the evacuation of residents in Atlanta, Georgia during the Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South 
Water would end up reaching areas over two miles (3 km) away from the Red River, necessitating the evacuation of all of East Grand Forks and 75% of Grand Forks. School was canceled in both cities for the remainder of the term, as were classes at the University of North Dakota. The University of North Dakota ( UND) is a Public university in Grand Forks North Dakota, USA.  Because all transportation was cut off between the two cities (and for many miles, the two states), East Grand Forks residents were evacuated to nearby Crookston, namely to the University of Minnesota Crookston, while residents of Grand Forks, who were given mandatory evacuation orders on April 18, went to Grand Forks Air Force Base (residents stayed in airplane hangers containing more than 3,000 cots). Crookston is a city in the US state of Minnesota. It is the County seat of Polk County. The University of Minnesota Crookston ( UMC) is a four-year university located in Crookston Minnesota. Grand Forks Air Force Base, also known as Grand Forks AFB or GFAFB, is a base of the United States Air Force located in Grand Forks  Many residents also evacuated to motels and homes in neighboring communities. The river crested at 54. 35 feet (16. 6 m) on April 21 and the river level would not fall below 49 feet (14. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) 9 m) until April 26. Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy.  Because water drained so slowly out of the most low-lying areas, some homeowners couldn't visit their damaged property until May. By May 30, the Red River had receded below flood stages everywhere in North Dakota. 
The province of Manitoba completed the Red River Floodway in 1968 after six years of excavation, put up permanent dikes in eight towns south of Winnipeg, and built clay dikes and diversion dams in the Winnipeg area. The Red River Flood of 1997 in Canada was a major Flood that occurred in April and May 1997 along the Red River in Southern Manitoba. The Red River Floodway is an artificial Flood control waterway in Western Canada, first used in 1969 Winnipeg (ˈwɪnɨpɛg is the capital and largest city in the Canadian province of Manitoba, and 7th largest municipality in Canada with a population Other flood control structures completed later were the Portage Diversion and the Shellmouth Dam on the Assiniboine. The Portage Diversion ( (also known as the Assiniboine River Floodway) is a water control structure on the Assiniboine River in Manitoba, Canada The Shellmouth Reservoir is a man-made reservoir in Manitoba, Canada. The Assiniboine River is a long River that runs through the Prairies of Western Canada in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. However, even with these flood protection measures, in 1997 the province experienced a flood of 7. 5 m (21. 6 ft), which caused 28,000 people to be evacuated and $500 million CAD in damage to property and infrastructure.  Called "The Flood of the Century", the 1997 flood had a probability of occurrence of about once in 100 years, and came close to overcoming Winnipeg's existing flood protection system. 
Towns upriver in Manitoba, forewarned by footage of Grand Forks buildings burning and covered in meters of water, built ring dikes to protect their homes and properties, and the province of Manitoba called in the Canadian Forces, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the provincial Department of Natural Resources. The Canadian Forces (CF ( French: Forces canadiennes) are the unified Armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Many also chose to evacuate, including residents from Morris who had only two days notice to evacuate to Winnipeg. Morris ( or "Mo-Town" is a small town of about 1700 people in the Pembina Valley region of Manitoba, Canada, located about 50 km south of Winnipeg (ˈwɪnɨpɛg is the capital and largest city in the Canadian province of Manitoba, and 7th largest municipality in Canada with a population Thousands of volunteers also helped to build sandbag dikes around homes and property. A sandbag (floodbag is a sack made of burlap, polypropylene or other materials that is filled with Sand or Soil and used for such purposes as flood LeveeEmbankmentDitch A dike (or dyke) levee, levée, embankment, floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial  An emergency dike, later called the Brunkild Z-dike, 42 km (26 miles) long, was constructed in a matter of days at a cost of $10 million (CAD) when it was realized that overland flooding threatened the city of Winnipeg. 
Almost all of the ring dikes around the towns held, except for St. Agathe. The town's dike system was prepared for the river approaching from the south, but the river had spread and swamped the town from the west.  At the flood's peak in Canada on May 4, the Red River occupied an area of 1,840 km² (710 mi²) with more than 2,560 km² (990 mi²) of land underwater, which earned it the nickname "Red Sea". Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV 
The province of Manitoba asked the International Joint Commission (IJC) to provide a report on the flood event and to recommend measures to ensure further flood protection for the city of Winnipeg. The International Joint Commission is an independent binational organization established by the United States and Canada under the International Boundary  Largely as a result of this study, the province has been widening the floodway since 2004.
While the flooding was still underway, the federal Liberal government led by Jean Chrétien called a snap election. The Liberal Party of Canada ( Parti libéral du Canada) colloquially known as the Grits (originally " Clear Grits " is a major Canadian political Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, (generally known as Jean Chrétien) (born January 11, 1934) is a Canadian politician who was the twentieth Prime A snap election is an election called earlier than scheduled Generally it refers to an election called when no one expects it usually to capitalize on a unique electoral opportunity or The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 36th Parliament of Several of the party's MPs from the province, including Reg Alcock, requested a delay until the flooding was under control. Reginald B Alcock, PC (born April 16, 1948) is a Canadian politician  When Chrétien let the election go ahead as originally planned, Alcock transformed his campaign office into a volunteer relief centre, spending his time in relief efforts instead of campaigning, and won re-election.