During the 1925 serum run to Nome, also known as the "Great Race of Mercy", 20 mushers and about 150 sled dogs relayed diphtheria antitoxin 674 miles (1,085 km) by dog sled across the U.S. territory of Alaska in a record-breaking five and a half days, saving the small city of Nome and the surrounding communities from an incipient epidemic. Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually The City of New York Mushing also means playing on a MUSH. Mushing also can be used to describe the kneading behavior of domestic cats Sled dogs, known also as sleightman dogs sledge dogs or sleddogs are types of Dogs that are used to pull a wheel-less vehicle Diphtheria ( Greek διφθερα ( diphthera)—“pair of leather scrolls" is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore An antitoxin is an Antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific Toxin. A dog sled is a Sled pulled by one or more Sled dogs used to travel over Ice and through Snow. The Alaska Territory was an incorporated territory of the United States from 1912 to 1959 Nome is a city located on the southern Seward Peninsula coast on Norton Sound of the Bering Sea In Epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people is a classification of a disease that appears as new cases in a Both the mushers and their dogs were portrayed as heroes in the newly popular medium of radio, and received headline coverage in newspapers across the United States. "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" A headline (sometimes termed a news hed) is text at the top of a Newspaper article indicating the nature of the article below it A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Balto, the lead sled dog on the final stretch into Nome, became the most famous canine celebrity of the era after Rin Tin Tin, and his statue is still one of the most popular tourist attractions in New York City's Central Park. Balto (c 1919 &ndash 14 March, 1933) was a Siberian Husky Sled dog (although some sources incorrectly state that he is an Alaskan Malamute List of dogs is an annotated list of real Dogs See also the List of fictional dogs and List of dog breeds. Rin Tin Tin (often billed as Rin-Tin-Tin in the 1920s and 1930s was the name given to several related German Shepherd dogs seen in films and television dramas Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel The City of New York Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually The publicity also helped spur an inoculation campaign in the U. S. that dramatically reduced the threat of the disease.
The sled dog was the primary means of transportation and communication in subarctic communities around the world, and the race became both the last great hurrah and the most famous event in the history of mushing, before first aircraft in the 1930s and then the snowmobile in the 1960s drove the dog sled almost into extinction. Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long usually very cold winters and brief warm summers A snowmobile (known locally as snowmachine, snowsled or by the Brandname Ski-Doo) is a land vehicle that is commonly propelled by The resurgence of recreational mushing in Alaska since the 1970s is a direct result of the tremendous popularity of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, which honors the history of dog mushing with many traditions that commemorate the serum run. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, usually just called the " Iditarod " is an annual Sled dog race in Alaska, where mushers
Nome lies just two degrees south of the Arctic Circle, and while greatly diminished from its peak of 20,000 during the gold rush days at the turn of the 20th century, it was still the largest town in the northern half of Alaska in 1925 with 455 Alaska Native and 975 settlers of European descent. The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. The Klondike Gold Rush, infrequently referred to as the Yukon Gold Rush or Alaska Gold Rush, was a frenzy of Gold rush Immigration to and for Alaska Natives are Indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. (Salisbury & Salisbury 2003, p. 16) From November to July, the port on the southern shore of the Seward Peninsula of the Bering Sea was icebound and inaccessible by steamship, and the days shortened with the onset of the polar night. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula on the western coast of the U The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water in the Pacific Ocean that comprises a deep water basin (the Aleutian Basin) which rises through A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving a Propeller The polar night is the night lasting more than 24 hours usually inside the Polar circles The opposite phenomenon when the sun stays above the horizon for a long time is called The only link to the rest of the world during the winter was the Iditarod Trail, which ran 938 miles (1,510 km) from the port of Seward in the south, across several mountain ranges and the vast Alaska Interior before reaching Nome. The Iditarod Trail, also known historically as the Seward-to-Nome Mail Trail refers to a thousand-plus mile (1 Seward is a city in Kenai Peninsula Borough in the US state of Alaska. The Alaska Interior covers most of that US state 's territory While within a decade bush pilots would become the dominant method of transportation during the winter months, the primary source of mail and needed supplies in 1925 was the dog sled. Bush flying is a term for air operations carried out in remote regions of the world Mail, or post, is a method for transmitting information and tangible objects wherein written Documents typically enclosed in Envelopes and also
Mail from the "Outside" (outside the Alaska Territory) was transported 420 miles (676 km) by train from the icefree port of Seward to Nenana, and then was transported the 674 miles (1,085 km) from Nenana to Nome by dog sled, which normally took 25 days. The Alaska Territory was an incorporated territory of the United States from 1912 to 1959 A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another Seward is a city in Kenai Peninsula Borough in the US state of Alaska. Nenana (nɛˈnænə is a Home Rule City on the Tanana River in the U A dog sled is a Sled pulled by one or more Sled dogs used to travel over Ice and through Snow.
The only doctor in Nome and the surrounding communities was Curtis Welch, who was supported by four nurses at the 24-bed Maynard Columbus Hospital. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health A nurse is responsible—along with other Health care Professionals —for the treatment safety and recovery of acutely or chronically In the summer of 1924, his supply of 8,000 units of diphtheria antitoxin (from 1918) expired, but the order he placed with the health commissioner in Juneau did not arrive before the port closed. Diphtheria ( Greek διφθερα ( diphthera)—“pair of leather scrolls" is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore An antitoxin is an Antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific Toxin.
Shortly after the departure of the last ship of the year, the Alameda, a two-year-old Alaska Native from the nearby village of Holy Cross became the first to display symptoms of diphtheria. Welch diagnosed it as tonsillitis, dismissing diphtheria because no one else in the child's family or village showed signs of the disease, which is extremely contagious and can survive for weeks outside the body. Tonsillitis is an Infection of the Tonsils and will often but not necessarily cause a Sore throat and Fever. The child died the next morning, and an abnormally large number of cases of tonsillitis were diagnosed through December, including another fatality on December 28, which is rare. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of The child's mother refused to allow an autopsy. Two more Alaska Native children died, and on January 20 the first case of diphtheria was diagnosed in three-year-old Bill Barnett, who had the characteristic grayish lesions on his throat and in his nasal membranes. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Diphtheria ( Greek διφθερα ( diphthera)—“pair of leather scrolls" is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore A Sign is an indication of some fact or quality and a medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or quality that is detected by a Physician A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism usually damaged by disease or trauma Anatomically a nose is a protuberance in Vertebrates that houses the Nostrils or nares which admit and expel air for respiration in conjunction with the Welch did not administer the antitoxin, because he was worried the expired batch might weaken the boy, who died the next day.
On January 21, seven-year-old Bessie Stanley was diagnosed in the late stages of the disease, and was injected with 6,000 units of antitoxin. Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. She died later that day. The same evening, Welch called Mayor George Maynard, and arranged an emergency town council meeting. Welch announced he needed at least one million units to stave off an epidemic. The council immediately implemented a quarantine, and Emily Morgan was appointed Quarantine Nurse. For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation typically to contain the spread of something
On January 22, 1925, Welch sent a radio telegram via the U.S. Army Signal Corps and alerted all major towns in Alaska including the governor in Juneau of the public health risk. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Governor of Alaska is the head of the Executive branch of Alaska 's government and the Commander-in-chief of the state's military forces Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations A second to the U.S. Public Health Service in Washington, D.C. read:
AN EPIDEMIC OF DIPHTHERIA IS ALMOST INEVITABLE HERE STOP I AM IN URGENT NEED OF ONE MILLION UNITS OF DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN STOP MAIL IS ONLY FORM OF TRANSPORTATION STOP I HAVE MADE APPLICATION TO COMMISSIONER OF HEALTH OF THE TERRITORIES FOR ANTITOXIN ALREADY STOP THERE ARE ABOUT 3000¢WHITE NATIVES IN THE DISTRICT
—Salisbury & Salisbury 2003, image of archived telegram on page 47
By January 24 there were two more fatalities, and Welch and Morgan diagnosed 20 more confirmed cases, and 50 more at risk. Organization of the Public Health Service The Public Health Service Act placed the United States Public Health Service ( PHS) as the primary division Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled The number of people threatened in the area of northwest Alaska centered around Nome was about 10,000, and the expected mortality rate was close to 100 percent without the antitoxin. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Nome is a city located on the southern Seward Peninsula coast on Norton Sound of the Bering Sea Mortality rate is a measure of the number of Deaths (in general or due to a specific cause in some population scaled to the size of that population per unit time An antitoxin is an Antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific Toxin. A previous influenza epidemic (Spanish flu) across the Seward Peninsula in 1918 and 1919 wiped out about 50 percent of the native population of Nome, and 8 percent of the native population of Alaska. In Epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people is a classification of a disease that appears as new cases in a The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was an Influenza Pandemic that spread to nearly every part of the world The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula on the western coast of the U More than 1,000 people died in northwest Alaska, and double that across the state, and the majority were Alaska Natives. Alaska Natives are Indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. The Native Americans had no resistance to either of these diseases. Alaska Natives are Indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly (Salisbury & Salisbury 2003, pp. 42, 50)
At the January 24 meeting of the board of health superintendent Mark Summers of the Hammon Consolidated Gold Fields proposed a dogsled relay, using two fast teams. Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled One would start at Nenana and the other at Nome, and they would meet at Nulato. Nulato is a city in Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska, United States. His employee, the Norwegian Leonhard Seppala, was the obvious and only choice for the 630-mile (1,014 km) round trip from Nome to Nulato and back. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Leonhard Seppala ( September 14, 1877 &ndash January 1967 was a Norwegian of Kven descent He had previously made the run from Nome to Nulato in a record-breaking four days, won the All-Alaska Sweepstakes three times, and had become something of a legend for his athletic ability and rapport with his Siberian huskies. His lead dog Togo was equally famous for his leadership, intelligence, and ability to sense danger. Togo (October 1913 &ndash December 5, 1929) was the Sled dog who led Leonhard Seppala and his Dog sled team as they covered the longest
Mayor Maynard proposed flying the antitoxin by aircraft. In February 1924, the first winter aircraft flight in Alaska had been conducted between Fairbanks and McGrath by Carl Eielson, who flew a reliable De Havilland DH-4 issued by the U.S. Post Office on 8 experimental trips. Fairbanks (ˈfɛrbæŋks is a Home Rule City in Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska, United States. McGrath is a village in on the Kuskokwim River in Alaska, United States. Carl Benjamin Eielson (1897 - 1929 was an Aviator, Bush pilot and Explorer. The de Havilland Aircraft Company (less commonly spelled de Haviland was a British aviation manufacturer founded in 1920 when Airco, of which Geoffrey WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The longest flight was only 260 miles (418 km), the worst conditions were −10 °F (−23 °C) which required so much winter clothing that the plane was almost unflyable, and the plane made several crash landings. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. An emergency landing is an unplanned Landing made by an Aircraft in response to a crisis which either interferes with the operation of the aircraft or involves
The only planes operating in Alaska in 1925 were three World War I vintage Standard J-1 biplanes belonging to Bennet Rodebaugh's Fairbanks Airplane company (later Wien Air Alaska) The aircraft were dismantled for the winter, had open cockpits, and had water-cooled engines that were unreliable in cold weather. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" is a series of Biplane aircraft built by the Curtiss Aeroplane Company of Hammondsport New York, later the Curtiss Aeroplane A biplane is a Fixed-wing aircraft with two main Wings The first powered heavier-than-air Aircraft, the Wright brothers' Wright Flyer Wien Air Alaska was formed from Northern Consolidated Airlines and Wien Alaska Airways. Since both pilots were in the continental United States, Alaska Delegate Dan Sutherland attempted to get the authorization to use an inexperienced pilot, Roy Darling. The term continental United States refers to the 48 contiguous states located on the North American continent south of the border with Canada plus the District Daniel Alexander Sutherland ( April 17, 1869 &ndash March 24, 1955) nicknamed " Fighting Dan " was an American
While potentially quicker, the board of health rejected the option and voted unanimously for the dogsled relay. Seppala was notified that evening and immediately began to train.
The U. S. Public Health Service had located 1. 1 million units of serum in West Coast hospitals which could be shipped to Seattle, and then transported to Alaska. The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States The Alameda would be the next ship north, and would not arrive in Seattle until January 31, and then would take another 6 to 7 days to arrive in Seward. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes On January 26, 300,000 units were discovered in Anchorage Railroad Hospital, when the chief of surgery, John Beeson, heard of the need. Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. At Governor Bone's order, it was packed and handed to conductor Frank Knight, who arrived in Nenana on January 27. Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. While not sufficient to defeat the epidemic, the 300,000 units could hold it at bay until the larger shipment arrived.
The temperatures across the Interior were at 20-year lows due to a high pressure system from the Arctic, and in Fairbanks the temperature was −50 °F (−45 °C). The Arctic is the Region around the Earth 's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. A second system was burying the Panhandle, as 25 mph (40 km/h) winds swept snow into 10 foot (3 m) drifts. The Alaska Panhandle, sometimes referred to as Southeast Alaska, is the southeastern portion of the U Travel by sea was hazardous, and across the Interior most forms of transportation shut down. In addition, there were limited hours of daylight to fly, due to the polar night. The polar night is the night lasting more than 24 hours usually inside the Polar circles The opposite phenomenon when the sun stays above the horizon for a long time is called
While the first batch of serum was traveling to Nenana, Governor Scott Bone gave final authorization to the dog relay, but ordered Edward Wetzler, the U. Governor Scott Cardelle Bone ( February 15, 1860 January 26, 1936) was the tenth Territorial Governor of Alaska, serving from 1921-1925 S. Post Office inspector, to arrange a relay of the best drivers and dogs across the Interior. The teams would travel day and night until they handed off the package to Seppala at Nulato.
The decision outraged William Fendtriss "Wrong Font" Thompson, publisher of the Daily Fairbanks News-Miner and aircraft advocate, who helped line up the pilot and plane. He used his paper to write scathing editorials.
The mail route from Nenana to Nome crossed the barren Alaska Interior, following the Tanana River for 137 miles (220 km) to the village Tanana at the junction with the Yukon River, and then following the Yukon for 230 miles (370 km) to Kaltag. The Tanana River (ˈtænənɑː is a tributary of the Yukon River in the U Tanana ( is a city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area in the US The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. Kaltag is a village in Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska, United States. The route then passed west 90 miles (145 km) over the Kaltag Portage and the forests and plateaus of the Kuskokwim Mountains to Unalakleet on the shore of Norton Sound. The Kuskokwim Mountains is a range of mountains in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska, United States, west of the Alaska Range and southeast Unalakleet is a large village in Western Alaska along the Norton Sound Norton Sound is an inlet of the Bering Sea on the western coast of the U The route then continued for 208 miles (335 km) northwest around the southern shore of the Seward Peninsula with no protection from gales and blizzards, including a 42 mile (68 km) stretch across the shifting ice of the Bering Sea. The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water in the Pacific Ocean that comprises a deep water basin (the Aleutian Basin) which rises through In total, 674 miles (1,085 km).
Wetzler contacted Tom Parson, an agent of the Northern Commercial Company, which contracted to deliver mail between Fairbanks and Unalakleet. Telephone and telegrams turned the drivers back to their assigned roadhouses. The mail carriers held a revered position in the territory, and were the best dog punchers in Alaska. The majority of relay drivers across the Interior were native Athabaskans, direct descendants of the original dog mushers. Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan, Athapaskan, Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes) is the name of a large group of closely
The first musher in the relay was "Wild Bill" Shannon, who was handed the 20 pound (9 kg) package at the train station in Nenana on January 27 at 9:00 PM AKST by Knight. Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. The Alaska Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting nine hours from Coordinated Universal Time ( UTC-9) Despite a temperature of −50 °F (−45 °C), Shannon left immediately with his team of 9 inexperienced dogs, led by Blackie. The temperature began to drop, and the team was forced onto the colder ice of the river because the trail had been destroyed by horses. Despite jogging alongside the sled to keep warm, Shannon developed hypothermia. Hypothermia is a condition in which an organism's temperature drops below that required for normal Metabolism and bodily functions He reached Minto at 3 AM, with parts of his face black from frostbite. Frostbite ( congelatio in Medical terminology) is the Medical condition whereby damage is caused to Skin and other tissues The temperature was −62 °F (−52 °C). After warming the serum by the fire and resting for four hours, Shannon dropped three dogs and left with the remaining 6. The three dogs died shortly after Shannon returned for them, and a fourth may have perished as well.
Half-Athabaskan Edgar Kallands arrived in Minto the night before, and was sent back to Tolovana, traveling 70 mi (113 km) the day before the relay. Shannon and his team arrived in bad shape at 11 AM, and handed over the serum. After warming the serum in the roadhouse, Kallands headed into the forest. The temperature had risen to −56 °F (−49 °C), and according to at least one report the owner of the roadhouse at Manley Hot Springs had to pour hot water over Kallands' hands to get them off the sled's handlebar when he arrived at 4 PM.
No new cases of diphtheria were diagnosed on January 28, but two new cases were diagnosed on January 29. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. The quarantine had been obeyed but lack of diagnostic tools and the contagiousness of the strain rendered it ineffective. More units of serum were discovered around Juneau the same day. While no count exists, the estimate based on weight is roughly 125,000 units, enough to treat 4 to 6 patients. The crisis had become headline news in newspapers, including San Francisco, Cleveland, Washington D.C., and New York, and spread to the radio sets which were just becoming common. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The storm system from Alaska hit the continental United States, bringing record lows to New York, and freezing the Hudson River. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami
A fifth death occurred on January 30. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Maynard and Sutherland renewed their campaign for flying the remaining serum by plane. Different proposals included flying a large aircraft 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from Seattle to Nome, carrying a plane to the edge of the pack ice via Navy ship and launching it, and the original plan of flying the serum from Fairbanks. Sea ice is formed from Ocean water that freezes Because the Oceans consist of Saltwater, this occurs at about -1 Fairbanks (ˈfɛrbæŋks is a Home Rule City in Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska, United States. Despite receiving headline coverage across the country, the support of several cabinet departments, and from Arctic explorer Roald Amundsen, the plans were rejected by experienced pilots, the Navy, and Governor Bone. Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (ˈɾuːɑl ˈɑmʉnsən ( July 16, 1872 – c Thompson's paper again became virulent.
In response, Bone decided to speed up the relay and authorized the addition of more drivers to Seppala's leg of the relay, so they could travel without rest. Seppala was still scheduled to cover the most dangerous leg, the shortcut across Norton Sound, but the telephone and telegraph systems bypassed the small villages he was passing through, and there was no way to tell him to wait at Shaktoolik. Norton Sound is an inlet of the Bering Sea on the western coast of the U Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio information Shaktoolik is a city in Nome Census Area, Alaska, United States. The plan relied on the driver from the north catching Seppala on the trail. Summers arranged for drivers along the last leg, including Seppala's colleague Gunnar Kaasen. Gunnar Kaasen (1882 &ndash 1960 was a Norwegian musher who delivered a cylinder containing 300000 units of Diphtheria Antitoxin to Nome
From Manley Hot Springs, the serum passed through largely Athabascan hands before George Nollner delivered it to Charlie Evans at Bishop Mountain on January 30 at 3 AM. Manley Hot Springs is a Census-designated place (CDP in Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska, United States. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain The temperature had warmed slightly, but at −62 °F (−52 °C) was dropping again. Evans relied on his lead dogs when he passed through ice fog where the Koyukuk River had broken through and surged over the ice, but forgot to protect the groins of his two short-haired mixed breed lead dogs with rabbit skins. The Koyukuk River is a principal Tributary of the Yukon River, approximately 500 mi (805 km long in northern Alaska in the United States. Both dogs collapsed with frostbite, Evans may have had to lead the team the remaining distance to Nulato himself. He arrived at 10 AM; both dogs were dead. Tommy Patsy departed within half an hour.
The serum then crossed the Kaltag Portage in the hands of "Jackscrew" and the Alaska Native Victor Anagick, who handed it to his fellow Alaska Native Myles Gonangnan on the shores of the Sound, at Unalakleet on January 31 at 5 AM. Unalakleet is a large village in Western Alaska along the Norton Sound Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Gonangan saw the signs of a storm brewing, and decided not to take the shortcut across the dangerous ice of the Sound. He departed at 5:30 AM, and as he crossed the hills, "the eddies of drifting, swirling snow passing between the dog's legs and under the bellies made them appear to be fording a fast running river. " (Salisbury & Salisbury 2003, p. 203) The whiteout conditions cleared as he reached the shore, and the gale-force winds drove the wind chill to −70 °F (−57 °C). Whiteout is a Weather condition in which visibility and contrast are severely reduced by Snow and diffuse lighting from overcast Clouds There are three At 3 PM he arrived at Shaktoolik. Seppala was not there, but Henry Ivanoff was waiting just in case.
On January 30, the number of cases in Nome had reached 27 and the antitoxin was depleted. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain According to a reporter living in Nome, "All hope is in the dogs and their heroic drivers… Nome appears to be a deserted city. " (Salisbury & Salisbury 2003, p. 205) With the report of Gonangan's progress on January 31, Welch believed the serum would arrive the next day. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes
Leonhard Seppala and his dog sled team, with his lead dog Togo, traveled 170 miles (274 km) from Nome from January 27 to January 31 into the oncoming storm. Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes They took the shortcut across the Norton Sound, and headed toward Shaktoolik. The temperature in Nome was a relatively warm −20 °F (−30 °C), but in Shaktoolik the temperature was estimated at −30 °F (−34 °C), and the gale force winds causing a wind chill of −85 °F (−65 °C). Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. A gale is a very strong Wind. There are conflicting definitions of how strong This page is for the movie "Wind Chill" For the term see Wind chill.
Henry Ivanoff's team ran into a reindeer and got tangled up just outside of Shaktoolik. Shaktoolik is a city in Nome Census Area, Alaska, United States. Seppala still believed he had more than 100 miles (160 km) to go and was racing to get off the Norton Sound before the storm hit. He was passing the team when Ivanoff shouted, "The serum! The serum! I have it here!" (Salisbury, 2003, page 207)
With the news of the worsening epidemic, Seppala decided to brave the storm and once again set out across the exposed open ice of the Norton Sound when he reached Ungalik, after dark. In general a reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates by linking to another object Norton Sound is an inlet of the Bering Sea on the western coast of the U The temperature was estimated at −30 °F (−35 °C), but the wind chill with the gale force winds was −85 °F (−65 °C). This page is for the movie "Wind Chill" For the term see Wind chill. A gale is a very strong Wind. There are conflicting definitions of how strong Togo led the team in a straight line through the dark, and they arrived at the roadhouse in Isaac's Point on the other side at 8 PM. In one day, they had traveled 84 miles (135 mk), averaging 8 mph (13 km/h). The team rested, and departed at 2 AM into the full power of the storm.
During the night the temperature dropped to −40 °F (−40 °C), and the wind increased to storm force (at least 65 mph (105 km/h). The team ran across the ice, which was breaking up, while following the shoreline. They returned to shore to cross Little McKinley Mountain, climbing 5,000 feet (1,500 m). After descending to the next roadhouse in Golovin, Seppala passed the serum to Charlie Olsen on February 1 at 3 PM. Golovin is a city in Nome Census Area, Alaska, United States. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen
On February 1, the number of cases rose to 28. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen The serum en route was sufficient to treat 30 people. With the powerful blizzard raging and winds of 80 mph (129 km/h), Welch ordered a stop to the relay until the storm passed, reasoning that a delay was better than the risk of losing it all. Messages were left at Solomon and Point Safety before the lines went dead. King Solomon ( Ge'ez: ስለሞን Arabic: ar سليمان, Sulayman, all from the Triliteral root S-L-M, "peace"
Olsen was blown off the trail, and suffered severe frostbite in his hands while putting blankets on his dogs. The wind chill was −70 °F (−57 °C). He arrived at Bluff on February 1 at 7 PM in poor shape. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Gunnar Kaasen waited until 10 PM for the storm to break, but it only got worse and the drifts would soon block the trail so he departed into a headwind. Gunnar Kaasen (1882 &ndash 1960 was a Norwegian musher who delivered a cylinder containing 300000 units of Diphtheria Antitoxin to Nome A headwind is a Wind that blows against the direction of travel of an object
Kaasen traveled through the night, through drifts, and river overflow over the 600 foot (180 m) Topkok Mountain. Balto led the team through visibility so poor that Kaasen could not always see the dogs harnessed closest to the sled. He was two miles (3 km) past Solomon before he realized it, and kept going. The winds after Solomon were so severe that his sled flipped over and he almost lost the cylinder containing the serum when it fell off and became buried in the snow. He acquired frostbite when he had to use his bare hands to feel for the cylinder.
Kaasen reached Point Safety ahead of schedule on February 2, at 3 AM. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Ed Rohn believed that Kaasen and the relay was halted at Solomon, so he was sleeping. Since the weather was improving, it would take time to prepare Rohn's team, and Balto and the other dogs were moving well, Kaasen pressed on the remaining 25 miles (40 km) to Nome, reaching Front Street at 5:30 AM. Not a single ampule was broken, and the antitoxin was thawed and ready by noon. ampoule (also ampule) is a small glass sealed Vial which is used to contain or preserve a fluid
Together, the teams covered the 674 miles (1,085 km) in 127 and a half hours, which was considered a world record, incredibly done in extreme subzero temperatures in near-blizzard conditions and hurricane-force winds. A blizzard is a severe Winter storm condition characterized by low Temperatures strong Winds and heavy blowing Snow Blizzards are formed when A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding Some dogs froze to death during the trip.
Margaret Curran from the Solomon roadhouse was infected, which raised fears that the disease might spread from patrons of the roadhouse to other communities. The 1. 1 million units had left Seattle on January 31, and was not due by dog sled until February 8. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Welch asked for half the serum to be delivered by aircraft from Fairbanks. Contacted Thompson and Sutherland, and Darling made a test flight the next morning. With his health advisor, Governor Bone concluded the cases in Nome were actually going down, and withheld permission, but preparations went ahead. The U. S. Navy moved a minesweeper north from Seattle, and the Signal Corps were ordered to light fires to guide the planes.
By February 3, the original 300,000 had proved to be still effective, and the epidemic was under control. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states A sixth death, probably unrelated to diphtheria, was widely reported as a new outbreak of the disease. The batch from Seattle arrived on board the Admiral Watson on February 7. Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince Acceding to pressure, Governor Bone authorized half to be delivered by plane. On February 8 the first half of the second shipment began its trip by dog sled, while the plane failed to start when a broken radiator shutter caused the engine to overheat. Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. The plane failed the next day as well, and the mission was scrapped. Thompson was gracious in his editorials.
The second relay included many of the same drivers, and also faced harsh conditions. The serum arrived on February 15. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor
The death toll is officially listed as either 5, 6, or 7, but Welch later estimated there were probably at least 100 additional cases among "the Eskimo camps outside the city. The Natives have a habit of burying their children without reporting the death. " Forty-three new cases were diagnosed in 1926, but they were easily managed with the fresh supply of serum. (Salisbury, 2003, footnotes on page 235 and 243)
All participants received letters of commendation from President Calvin Coolidge, and the Senate stopped work to recognize the event. In general a reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates by linking to another object John Calvin Coolidge Jr (July 4 1872 January 5 1933 was the thirtieth President of the United States (1923–1929 The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Each musher during the first relay received a gold medal from the H. K. Mulford company, and the territory awarded them each USD $25. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Poems and letters from children poured in, and spontaneous fund raising campaigns sprang up around the country.
Gunnar Kaasen and his team became celebrities and toured the West Coast from February 1925 to February 1926, and even starred in a 30-minute film entitled Balto's Race to Nome. The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States A statue of Balto by Frederick Roth was unveiled New York City's Central Park during a visit on December 15, 1925. Frederick George Richard Roth (1872 &ndash 1944 was an American sculptor and Animalier, well known for portraying living Animals The The City of New York Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Balto and the other dogs became part of a sideshow and lived in horrible conditions until they were rescued by George Kimble and fund raising campaign by the children of Cleveland, Ohio. In America a sideshow is an extra secondary production associated with a circus, carnival fair or other such attraction Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state On March 19, 1927, Balto received a hero's welcome as they arrived at their permanent home at the Cleveland Zoo. Events 1279 - A Mongolian victory in the Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China. Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Cleveland Metroparks Zoo is a Zoo in Cleveland Ohio. The zoo is 165 acres (66 After Balto's death on March 14, 1933, he was mounted and placed on display in the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is a Natural history Museum located approximately five miles (8 km east of downtown Cleveland Ohio in Balto was put down due to age.
But many mushers today consider Seppala and Togo to be the true heroes of the run as together they covered the longest and most hazardous leg. Mushing also means playing on a MUSH. Mushing also can be used to describe the kneading behavior of domestic cats They made a round trip of 261 miles (420 km) from Nome to Shaktoolik and back to Golovin, and delivered the serum a total of 91 miles (146 km), almost double the distance of any other team. After Kaasen's return, he was accused of being a glory hog. Seppala became upset when the media attributed Togo's achievements to Balto, and commented, "it was almost more than I could bear when the 'newspaper dog' Balto received a statue for his 'glorious achievements. '" (Salisbury & Salisbury 2003, p. 248)
In October 1926, Seppala took Togo and his team on a tour from Seattle to California, and then across the Midwest to New England, and consistently drew huge crowds. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the They were featured at Madison Square Gardens in New York City for 10 days, and Togo received a gold medal from Roald Amundsen. Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, and known colloquially as The Garden, has been the name of four Arenas in New York City. Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (ˈɾuːɑl ˈɑmʉnsən ( July 16, 1872 – c In New England Seppala's team of Siberian huskies ran in many races, easily defeating the local Chinooks. The Chinook is a rare dog breed of Sleddog type developed in the New England region of the United States in the early Seppala sold most of his team to a kennel in Poland Spring, Maine and most huskies in the U. Poland Spring is a brand of Bottled water manufactured by a subsidiary of Nestlé. S. can trace their descent from one of these dogs. Seppala visited Togo, until he was euthanised on December 5, 1929. Put to sleep redirects here For its literal meaning see Sleep or Anaesthetic. Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. After his death, Seppala had Togo preserved and mounted, and today the dog is on display in a glass case at the Iditarod museum in Wasilla, Alaska.
None of the other mushers received the same degree of attention, though Wild Bill Shannon briefly toured with Blackie. The media largely ignored the Athabaskan and Alaska Native mushers, who covered two-thirds the distance to Nome. According to Edgard Kallands, "it was just an every day occurrence as far as we were concerned. " (Salisbury & Salisbury 2003, p. 255)
The serum race helped the Kelly Act, which was signed into law on February 2. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor The bill allowed private aviation companies to bid on mail delivery contracts. Technology improved and in a decade, air mail routes were established in Alaska. The last private dog sled to deliver mail under contract took place in 1938, and the last U. S. Post Office dog sled route closed in 1963. Dog sledding remained in the rural Interior but became nearly extinct when snowmobiles spread in the 1960s. Mushing was revitalized as a recreational sport in the 1970s with the immense popularity of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively
While the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, which runs more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) across from Anchorage to Nome, is actually based on the All-Alaska Sweepstakes, it has many traditions which commemorate the race, and especially Seppala and Togo. The honorary musher for the first seven races was Leonhard Seppala. Other serum run participants, including "Wild Bill" Shannon, Edgar Kallands, Bill McCarty, Charlie Evans, Edgar Nollner, Harry Pitka, and Henry Ivanoff have also been honored. The 2005 Iditarod honored Jirdes Winther Baxter, the last known survivor of the epidemic. The ceremonial start of the 33rd annual Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race across the U The position is now known as Leonhard Seppala's Honorary Musher, and the Leonhard Seppala Humanitarian Award is given to the musher who provides the best dog care while still remaining competitive, and the Leonhard Seppala Heritage Grant is an Iditarod scholarship. The two races follow the same route from Ruby to Nome.
A reenactment of the serum run was held in 1975, which took 6 days longer than the 1925 serum run. Many of the participants were descendants of the original 20. In 1985, President Ronald Reagan sent a letter of recognition to Charlie Evans, Edgar Nollner, and Bill McCarty, the only remaining survivors. Nollner was the last to die, on January 18, 1999 of a heart attack. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply
There is much controversy surrounding Balto's role in this race and the statue in Central Park. According to Leonhard Seppala, Togo's musher, Balto was a scrub freight dog that was left behind when he set out on the trip. Leonhard Seppala ( September 14, 1877 &ndash January 1967 was a Norwegian of Kven descent Seppala was sent out on what he thought was a solo run to meet the train at Nenana. After he and his dogs were on the trail it was decided to send out other mushers in a relay. Seppala ran over 170 miles (270 km) across some of the most dangerous and treacherous parts of the run. He met the serum runner, took the hand off and returned another 91 miles (146 km), having run over 261 miles (420 km) in total. He then handed the serum off to Charlie Olson. Charlie carried it 25 miles (40 km) to Bluff where he turned it over to Gunnar Kaasen. Kaasen was supposed to hand-off the serum to Rohn at Port Safety, but Rohn had gone to sleep and Kaasen decided to keep going to Nome. In all, Kaasen and Balto ran a total of 53 miles (85 km) and many thought his decision to not wake Rohn was motivated by a desire to grab the glory for himself and Balto.
The actual statue of Balto was modeled after Balto, but shows him wearing Togo's colors (awards). In the last years of his life Seppala was heartbroken by the way the credit had gone to Balto; in his mind Togo was the real hero of the serum race.
Mushers (in order) and the distance they covered included: (Salisbury & Salisbury 2003, p. Mushing also means playing on a MUSH. Mushing also can be used to describe the kneading behavior of domestic cats 263)
|January 27||"Wild" Bill Shannon||Nenana to Tolovana||52 mi (84 km)|
|January 28||Edgar Kallands||Tolovana to Manley Hot Springs||31 mi (50 km)|
|Dan Green||Manley Hot Springs to Fish Lake||28 mi (45 km)|
|Johnny Folger||Fish Lake to Tanana||26 mi (42 km)|
|January 29||Sam Joseph||Tanana to Kallands||34 mi (55 km)|
|Titus Nikolai||Kallands to Nine Mile Cabin||24 mi (39 km)|
|Dan Corning||Nine Mile Cabin to Kokrines||30 mi (48 km)|
|Harry Pitka||Kokrines to Ruby||30 mi (48 km)|
|Bill McCarty||Ruby to Whiskey Creek||28 mi (45 km)|
|Edgar Nollner||Whiskey Creek to Galena||24 mi (39 km)|
|January 30||George Nollner||Galena to Bishop Mountain||18 mi (29 km)|
|Charlie Evans||Bishop Mountain to Nulato||30 mi (48 km)|
|Tommy Patsy||Nulato to Kaltag||36 mi (58 km)|
|Jackscrew||Kaltag to Old Woman Shelter||40 mi (64 km)|
|Victor Anagick||Old Woman Shelter to Unalakleet||34 mi (55 km)|
|January 31||Myles Gonangnan||Unalakleet to Shaktoolik||40 mi (64 km)|
|Henry Ivanoff||Shaktoolik to just outside Shaktoolik||0 mi (0 km)|
|Leonhard Seppala||Just outside Shaktoolik to Golovin||91 mi (146 km)|
|February 1||Charlie Olson||Golovin to Bluff||25 mi (40 km)|
|Gunnar Kaasen||Bluff to Nome||53 mi (85 km)|