|Date||April 18, 1906|
|Magnitude||7. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting 8 Mw|
|Epicenter location:||San Francisco|
|United States (San Francisco Bay Area)|
The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that struck San Francisco, California and the coast of Northern California at 5:12 A. TalkMoment magnitude scale#Real world examples please.--> The moment magnitude scale The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, or the Bay, is a geographically and ethnically diverse metropolitan region that surrounds the An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the Ocean. Northern California is the northern portion of the US state of California. M. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting  The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the earthquake is a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7. TalkMoment magnitude scale#Real world examples please.--> The moment magnitude scale 8; however, other values have been proposed from 7. 7 to as high as 8. 3.  The main shock epicenter occurred offshore about 2 miles (3 km) from the city, near Mussel Rock. The epicenter or epicentre is the point on the Earth 's surface that is directly above the Hypocenter or focus the point where an Earthquake Mussel Rock is a physical feature on the coast of San Mateo County California, offshore from the city of Daly City. It ruptured along the San Andreas Fault both northward and southward for a total length of 296 miles (477 km). The San Andreas Fault is a geologic Transform fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 km through California in the United States.  Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, and inland as far as central Nevada. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. The earthquake and resulting fire is remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in the history of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The death toll from the earthquake and resulting fire, estimated to be above 3,000, represents the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history. The economic impact has been compared with the more recent Hurricane Katrina disaster. An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest in the history of the United States 
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was caused by a rupture on the San Andreas Fault. The San Andreas Fault is a geologic Transform fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 km through California in the United States. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino to the north, a distance of about 800 miles (1,300 km). The Salton Sea is an inland Saline lake, occupying the lowest elevations of the Salton Sink, part of the larger Colorado Desert in Southern Cape Mendocino in Humboldt County California, USA is the westernmost point on the coast of California. The earthquake ruptured the northern third of the fault for a distance of 296 miles (477 km). The maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet (6 m); however, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet (8. Geodesy (dʒiːˈɒdɪsi also called geodetics, a branch of Earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals 5 m). 
A strong foreshock preceded the mainshock by about 20 to 25 seconds. An aftershock is an Earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake (the main shock The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds. The shaking intensity as described on the Modified Mercalli intensity scale reached VIII in San Francisco and up to IX in areas to the north like Santa Rosa where destruction was almost complete. The Mercalli intensity scale is a scale used for measuring the intensity of an Earthquake. Santa Rosa is the County seat of Sonoma County California, United States
There were decades of minor earthquakes - more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California - before the 1906 quake. Widely previously interpreted as precursory activity to the 1906 earthquake, they have been found to have a strong seasonal pattern and were found to be due to large seasonal sediment loads in coastal bays that overlie faults as a result of the erosion caused by "hydraulic mining" in the later years of the California Gold Rush. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California 
As damaging as the earthquake and its aftershocks were, the fires that burned out of control afterward were much more destructive. An aftershock is an Earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake (the main shock  It has been estimated that as much as 90% of the total destruction was a result from the subsequent fires. Due to the nearly universal practice of insurers to indemnify San Francisco properties from fire but not earthquake damage, most damage within the city was blamed on the fires. Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss It is probable, due to the extreme magnitude of the earthquake and the poor buildings standards of the time, that a majority of structures destroyed that day were initially destroyed from the movement of the earth before succumbing to fire. Fires broke out in many parts of town, some initially fueled by natural gas mains broken by the quake. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Other fires were the result of arson and campfires set by evacuees. Worst of all, many were set when firefighters untrained in the use of dynamite attempted to dynamite buildings to create firebreaks, which resulted in the destruction of more than half of buildings that would have otherwise survived. The San Francisco Fire Department provides Fire and emergency services to the City and County of San Francisco, California. Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of Nitroglycerin, initially using Diatomaceous earth (kieselgur US Spelling kieselguhr A firebreak (also called a fireroad, fire line or fuel break) is a gap in Vegetation or other combustible material that acts as a barrier to  The fire chief, who would have been responsible, had died in the initial quake. The dynamited buildings themselves often caught fire. The fires lasted for four days and nights. Some property owners set fire to their damaged buildings because most insurance policies covered fire losses while prohibiting payment if the building had only sustained earthquake damage. This effort was futile, as wealthier citizens of the city were burdened with the cost of repairing an estimated 80% of the city. Captain Leonard D. Wildman of the U.S. Army Signal Corps reported that he "was stopped by a fireman who told me that people in that neighborhood were firing their houses. . . They were told that they would not get their insurance on buildings damaged by the earthquake unless they were damaged by fire. "
As water mains were also broken, the city fire department had few resources with which to fight the fires. Several fires in the downtown area merged to become one giant inferno. One journalist at the time wrote that readers elsewhere should understand that it was not a fire in San Francisco, but rather a fire of San Francisco. The fire ultimately destroyed over 500 city blocks of the downtown core from Van Ness Avenue, an extra-wide arterial thoroughfare that bisects the center of the city, to the docks on San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Bay is a shallow productive Estuary through which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento It was erroneously reported that Mayor Eugene Schmitz and General Frederick Funston declared martial law. Eugene Edward Schmitz ( August 22, 1864 San Francisco California - November 20, 1928 San Francisco California) was Frederick N Funston (11 September 1865 &ndash 19 February 1917 also known as Fred Funston, was a General in the United States Army, best known for his Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice Schmitz did, however, issue an edict allowing police, vigilante patrols, and military troops to shoot looters on sight, and some 500 people were shot and killed. A vigilante is a person who ignores Due process of law and enacts their own form of Justice in response to a perception of insufficient response by the Funston tried to bring the fire under control by detonating blocks of buildings around the fire to create firebreaks with all sorts of means, ranging from black powder and dynamite to even artillery barrages. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine Often the explosions set the ruins on fire or helped spread it. Despite their shortcomings, these strategies did eventually prove effective in stopping the fire from spreading westward (beyond the extra-wide Van Ness Avenue) to the remaining half of the city.
One landmark building lost in the fire was the Palace Hotel, subsequently rebuilt, which had many famous visitors, including royalty and celebrated performers. The current ("New" Palace Hotel (opened in 1909 is an historic Hotel located in San Francisco California, at the SW corner of Market Street It was constructed in 1875 primarily financed by Bank of California co-founder William Ralston, the "man who built San Francisco". Year 1875 ( MDCCCLXXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common William "Billy" Chapman Ralston ( January 12, 1826 - August 27, 1875) was a San Francisco California businessman and In April 1906, the world's greatest tenor, Enrico Caruso, and members of the Metropolitan Opera Company came to San Francisco to give a series of performances at the Tivoli Opera House. Enrico Caruso (born Errico Caruso; February 25 1873 &ndash August 2 1921) was an Italian Opera singer The Metropolitan Opera Association of New York City, founded in April 1880 is a major presenter of all types of opera including Grand Opera. The night after Caruso's performance in Carmen, the tenor was awakened in the early morning in his Palace Hotel suite by a strong jolt. Carmen is a French Opéra comique by Georges Bizet. The Libretto is by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based Clutching an autographed photo of President Theodore Roosevelt, Caruso made an effort to get out of the city, first by boat and then by train, and vowed never to return to San Francisco. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T He kept his word. The Metropolitan Opera Company lost all of the sets and costumes it had brought to the earthquake and ensuing fires.
Some of the greatest losses from fire were in scientific laboratories. A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and Alice Eastwood, the Curator of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, is credited with saving nearly 1,500 specimens, including the entire type specimen collection for a newly discovered and extremely rare species, before the remainder of the largest botanical collection in the western United States was consumed by fire. Alice Eastwood (1859 in Toronto, Canada - October 30 1953 in San Francisco, California) was a Canadian American Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest Museums of natural history in the world and one of the oldest in the United States consisting of a coral  The entire laboratory and all the records of Benjamin R. Jacobs, a biochemist who was researching the nutrition of everyday foods, was lost. Benjamin Ricardo Jacobs Phd ( March 15, 1876 — February 1, 1962) was born at the American Consulate in Lima Peru to Rosa Mulet Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision to cells and Organisms of the materials necessary (in the form of food to support  Another treasure lost in the fires was the original California flag used in the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt at Sonoma, which at the time was being stored in a state building in San Francisco.
The city interim fire chief (the original one was killed when the earthquake first struck) sent an urgent request to the Presidio, an Army post on the edge of the stricken city, for dynamite. The San Francisco Fire Department provides Fire and emergency services to the City and County of San Francisco, California. The Presidio of San Francisco (originally El Presidio Real de San Francisco or Royal Presidio of San Francisco) is a park on the northern tip of the San Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of Nitroglycerin, initially using Diatomaceous earth (kieselgur US Spelling kieselguhr Brigadier General Frederick Funston, commander of the Department of California and a resident of San Francisco, had already decided the situation required the use of troops. Frederick N Funston (11 September 1865 &ndash 19 February 1917 also known as Fred Funston, was a General in the United States Army, best known for his Collaring a policeman, he sent word to Mayor Schmitz of his decision to assist, and then ordered Army troops from as far away as Angel Island to mobilize and come into the City. Angel Island is an island in San Francisco Bay that offers spectacular views of the San Francisco skyline the Marin County Headlands and Mount Explosives were ferried across the Bay from the California Powder Works in what is now Hercules. Hercules is a city in Contra Costa County, California, United States. Martial law was never declared, however, and troops took guidance from the City's civilian administrators. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice 
During the first few days, soldiers provided valuable services patrolling streets to discourage looting and guarding buildings such as the US Mint, post office, and county jail. The San Francisco Mint is a branch of the United States Mint, and was opened in 1854 to serve the gold mines of the California Gold Rush. They aided the fire department in dynamiting to demolish buildings in the path of the fires. The Army also became responsible for feeding, sheltering, and clothing the tens of thousands of displaced residents of the city. This support prompted many citizens to exclaim, "Thank God for the soldiers!" Under the command of Funston's superior, Major General Adolphus Greely, Commanding Officer, Pacific Division, over 4,000 troops saw service during the emergency. Adolphus Washington Greely (1844&ndash1935 born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, was an American Polar explorer a United States Army On July 1, 1906, civil authorities assumed responsibility for relief efforts, and the Army withdrew from the city. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting
On April 18, in response to riots among evacuees and looting, Mayor Schmitz issued and ordered posted a proclamation that "The Federal Troops, the members of the Regular Police Force and all Special Police Officers have been authorized by me to KILL any and all persons found engaged in Looting or in the Commission of Any Other Crime. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. The San Francisco Police Department, also known as the SFPD, is the police department of the City and County of San Francisco California. " It is estimated that as many as 500 people were shot dead in the city, many of whom, it has been suggested, were not looting at all, but were attempting to save their own possessions from the advancing fire.  In addition, accusations of soldiers themselves engaging in looting also surfaced. 
The Army built 5,610 redwood and fir "relief houses" to accommodate 20,000 displaced people. Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living Species of the Genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly Firs ( Abies) are a genus of between 45-55 species of Evergreen conifers in the family Pinaceae. The houses were designed by John McLaren, and were grouped in eleven camps, packed close to each other and rented to people for two dollars per month until rebuilding was completed. Dr John Hays McLaren (1846 &ndash 1943 served as superintendent of the Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, CA for 53 years They were painted olive drab, partly to blend in with the site, and partly because the military had large quantities of olive drab paint on hand. The camps had a peak population of 16,448 people, but by 1907 most people had moved out. The camps were then re-used as garages, storage spaces or shops. The cottages cost on average $100-741 to put up. The $2 monthly rents went towards the full purchase price of $50. Most of the shacks have been destroyed, but a small number survived. One of the modest 720 sq ft homes was recently purchased for more than $600,000. 
Property losses from the disaster have been estimated to be more than $400 million.  An insurance industry source tallies insured losses at $235 million (equivalent to $5. 59 billion in 2007 dollars).
Political and business leaders strongly downplayed the effects of the earthquake, fearing loss of outside investment in the city. In his first public statement, California governor George C. Pardee emphasized the need to rebuild quickly: "this is not the first time that San Francisco has been destroyed by fire, I have not the slightest doubt that the City by the Golden Gate will be speedily rebuilt, and will, almost before we know it, resume her former great activity. George Cooper Pardee ( July 25, 1857 September 1, 1941) was an American Medical doctor and Politician. " The earthquake itself is not even mentioned in the statement. Fatality and monetary damage estimates were manipulated.  In one of the most blatant attempts to cover up the realities of the earthquake, one of the photographs circulated around the country has been shown by forensic image analyst George Reid to have been altered as much as 30% to downplay the damage.
In the rush to rebuild the city, building standards were in fact lowered instead of strengthened "by upwards of 50%" according to historian Robert Hansen. Part of the rush to rebuild was the desire to be ready for an international exposition set to be hosted in 1915, and indeed by that year there was almost no visible damage to be seen in the city. The Panama-Pacific International Exposition (PPIE was a World's fair held in San Francisco California between February 20 and December 4 in The total disregard to earthquake safety plagues the city today, as a majority of buildings standing in the city today were built in the first half of the 20th century. Incredibly, it has been suggested that building standards did not reach even 1906 levels until the 1950s. A detailed analysis of the city today estimates that an earthquake even less powerful than the 1906 quake would completely destroy many sections of the city and result in thousands of deaths.
Almost immediately after the quake (and even during the disaster), planning and reconstruction plans were hatched to quickly rebuild the city. One of the more famous and ambitious plans came from famed urban planner Daniel Burnham. Daniel Hudson Burnham, FAIA ( September 4, 1846 &ndash June 1, 1912) was an American Architect and Urban planner. His bold plan called for, among other proposals, Haussmann-style avenues, boulevards, arterial thoroughfares that radiated across the city, a massive civic center complex with classical structures, and what would have been the largest urban park in the world, stretching from Twin Peaks to Lake Merced with a large atheneum at its peak. Georges-Eugène Haussmann ( March 27, 1809 &ndash January 11, 1891) who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French The Twin Peaks (formerly named San Miguel Hills because of the San Miguel land grant Los Picos Gemelos in Spanish) are two Hills with Lake Merced is a freshwater Lake in the southwest corner of San Francisco California. But this plan was dismissed at the time as impractical and unrealistic. For example, real estate investors and other land owners were against the idea due to the large amount of land the city would have to purchase to realize such proposals.
While the original street grid was restored, many of Burnham's proposals inadvertently saw the light of day, such as a neoclassical civic center complex, wider streets, a preference of arterial thoroughfares, a subway under Market Street, a more people-friendly Fisherman's Wharf, and a monument to the city on Telegraph Hill, Coit Tower. Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo The Market Street Subway is a tunnel that carries both Rapid transit and Light rail traffic in San Francisco California. Fisherman's Wharf may refer to Fisherman's Wharf Monterey California - a historic fishing wharf in Monterey California Fisherman's Wharf Telegraph Hill (elev 275 ft 83 m refers to a small district in San Francisco California. Coit Tower was built atop Telegraph Hill in 1933 at the bequest of Lillie Hitchcock Coit to beautify the City of San Francisco. Furthermore, plans to move Chinatown and the poor away from the city center failed, as Chinatown was rebuilt in the newer, modern, Western form that exists today. San Francisco 's Chinatown is the oldest Chinatown in North America. In fact, the destruction of City Hall and the Hall of Records enabled thousands of Chinese immigrants to claim residency and citizenship, and bring in their relatives from China. 
The earthquake was also responsible for the development of the Pacific Heights neighborhood. Pacific Heights is an affluent Neighborhood of San Francisco, California, on the north side of California Street in the city The immense power of the earthquake had destroyed almost all of the mansions on Nob Hill except for the Flood Mansion. Nob Hill refers to a small district in San Francisco California adjacent to the intersection of California and Powell streets (and the respective cable car lines As a result, the wealthy looked westward where the land was cheap and relatively undeveloped, and where there were better views and a consistently warmer climate. In the years after the war, the "money" on Nob Hill migrated to Pacific Heights, where it has remained to this day.
Reconstruction was swift, and largely completed by 1915, in time for the Panama-Pacific Exposition which celebrated the reconstruction of the city and its "rise from the ashes". Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
Since 1915, the city has officially commemorated the disaster each year by gathering the remaining survivors at Lotta's Fountain, a fountain in the city's financial district that served as a meeting point during the disaster for people to look for loved ones and exchange information. Lottas_fountainjpg|200px|thumb|right|Lotta's Fountain 2000]] Lotta's fountain was dedicated in 1875 at the intersection of Market Street where Geary and Kearny The Financial District is a Neighborhood in San Francisco, California that serves as its main Central business district.
During the first few days after news of the disaster reached the rest of the world, relief efforts reached over $5,000,000. George Raymond Lawrence ( February 24 1868 &ndash December 15 1938) was a commercial Photographer of northern Illinois. London, England, had raised hundreds of thousands of dollars. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Individual citizens and businesses donated large sums of money for the relief effort: Standard Oil gave $100,000; Andrew Carnegie gave $100,000; the Dominion of Canada made a special appropriation of $100,000 and even the Bank of Canada in Toronto gave $25,000. Standard Oil was a predominant American integrated oil producing transporting refining and marketing company Andrew Carnegie (properly kɑrˈneɪgi but commonly /ˈkɑrnɨgi/ or /kɑrˈnɛgi/ (25 November 1835 – 11 August 1919 was a Scottish -born American Industrialist Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For the defunct commercial bank see Bank of Canada (commercial. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario The US government quickly voted for one million dollars in supplies which were immediately rushed to the area. These relief efforts, however, were not nearly enough to get families on their feet again, and consequently the burden was placed on wealthier members of the city, who were reluctant to assist in the rebuilding of homes they were not responsible for. Additional funds were taken from racial minorities in the city, who were to be deported in the near future.
Insurance companies, faced with staggering claims of $250 million, paid out between $235 million and $265 million on policyholders' claims, chiefly for fire damage, since shake damage from earthquakes was excluded from coverage under most policies.  At least 137 insurance companies were directly involved and another 17 as reinsurers.  Many insurance companies launched public relations campaigns right after the earthquake, claiming that they had paid all policyholder claims without discount - which was nothing else than their legal obligation. Some companies continue this to this day. For instance, Lloyds of London maintains having paid more than $50 million in claims (about $1. For the film see Lloyd's of London (film. Lloyd's of London is a British Insurance market 19 billion in present-day terms), an assertion which still needs full historical proof.
The earthquake was the worst single incident for the insurance industry before the September 11, 2001 attacks. After the 1906 earthquake, a global discussion arose concerning a legally flawless exclusion of the earthquake hazard from fire insurance contracts. It was pressed ahead mainly by re-insurers. Their aim was the globally uniform solution of the problem of earthquake hazard in fire insurance contracts. Until 1910, a few countries, especially in Europe, followed the call for an exclusion of the earthquake hazard from all fire insurance contracts. In the US, however, the question was discussed differently. But the traumatized public reacted with fierce opposition. On August 1, 1909, the California Senate enacted the California Standard Form of Fire Insurance Policy, which did not contain any earthquake clause. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. Thus the state decided that insurers would have to pay again if another earthquake was followed by fires. Other earthquake-endangered countries followed the California example.  The insurance payments heavily affected the international financial system. Gold transfers from European insurance companies to policyholders in San Francisco led to a rise in interest rates, subsequently to a lack of available loans and finally to the Knickerbocker Crisis of October 1907 and a recession of the US economy. 
The 1906 Centennial Alliance was set up as a clearing-house for various centennial events commemorating the earthquake. Award presentations, religious services, a National Geographic TV movie, a projection of fire onto the Coit Tower, memorials, and lectures were part of the commemorations. The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program issued a series of Internet documents, and the tourism industry promoted the 100th anniversary as well. The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. 
For a number of years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement. Olema is an unincorporated community located in western Marin County California, along State Route 1 Point Reyes is a prominent cape on the Pacific coast of northern California. March 11, 1889 | In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, to the northwest of the Golden Gate. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley The Golden Gate is the North American Strait connecting San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. However, the most recent analysis by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the most likely epicenter was very near Mussel Rock on the coast of Daly City, an adjacent suburb just south of San Francisco. The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. Mussel Rock is a physical feature on the coast of San Mateo County California, offshore from the city of Daly City. Daly City is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States with a 2000 population of 103621 
The most important characteristic of the shaking intensity noted in Lawson's (1908) report was the clear correlation of intensity with underlying geologic conditions. In Probability theory and Statistics, correlation, (often measured as a correlation coefficient) indicates the strength and direction of a linear Areas situated in sediment-filled valleys sustained stronger shaking than nearby bedrock sites, and the strongest shaking occurred in areas of Bay where landfill failed in the earthquake (earthquake liquefaction). Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of Soil liquefaction describes the behavior of loose saturated unconsolidated soils i Modern seismic-zonation practice accounts for the differences in seismic hazard posed by varying geologic conditions.
An analysis of the displacements and strain in the surrounding crust led Reid (1910) to formulate his elastic-rebound theory of the earthquake source, which remains today the principal model of the earthquake cycle. The elastic rebound theory is an explanation for how energy is spread during earthquakes
The USGS estimates that the earthquake measured a powerful 7. 9 on the moment magnitude scale. TalkMoment magnitude scale#Real world examples please.--> The moment magnitude scale The earthquake caused ruptures visible on the surface for a length of 470 kilometers (290 miles). Modified Mercalli Intensities of VII to IX paralleled the length of the rupture, extending as far as 80 kilometers inland from the fault trace. The Mercalli intensity scale is a scale used for measuring the intensity of an Earthquake.