The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration ( IAST) is a popular Transliteration scheme that allows a lossless Romanization of Indic Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Vedanta ( Devanagari: sa वेदान्त Vedānta) is a spiritual tradition explained in the Upanishads that is concerned with the Self-realisation The soul, according to many religious and philosophical beliefs is the self-awareness, or Consciousness, unique to a particular living It is one's true self (hence generally translated into English as 'Self') beyond identification with the phenomenal reality of worldly existence.
The word ātman is connected with the Indo-European root *ēt-men (breath) and is cognate with Old English "æthm" and German "Atem". The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. 
Philosophical schools such as Advaita (monism) see the soul within each living entity as being fully identical with Brahman - the all-pervading soul of the universe, whereas other schools such as Dvaita (dualism) differentiate between the individual atma in living beings, and the Supreme atma (Paramatma) as being at least partially separate beings. Advaita Vedanta ( IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə is a sub-school of the Brahman ( bráhman-, Nominative bráhma sa ब्रह्म is a concept of Hinduism. The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy Dvaita ( Kannada: ದ್ವೈತ Devanagari:द्बैत is a dualist school of Vedanta Hindu philosophy. In Hindu theology Paramatman or Paramātmā is the Absolute Atman or Supreme Soul or Spirit (also known as Supersoul or Oversoul)  Thus atman refers to the individual soul or the observer. 
Within Advaita Vedanta philosophy the Atman is the universal life-principle, the animator of all organisms, and the world-soul. This view is of a sort of panentheism (not pantheism) and thus is sometimes not equated with the single creator God of monotheism. Panentheism (from Greek (pân "all" (en "in" and (Theós "God" "all-in-God" is a belief system Pantheism ( Greek: πάν ( 'pan') = all and θεός ( 'theos') = God it literally means " God is All A creator deity is a Deity in a Creation myth responsible for the creation of the World (or Universe) God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] Identification of individual living beings/souls, or jiva-atmas, with the 'One Atman' is the monistic Advaita Vedanta position, which is critiqued by dualistic/theistic Dvaita Vedanta. Advaita Vedanta ( IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə is a sub-school of the Dvaita ( Kannada: ದ್ವೈತ Devanagari:द्बैत is a dualist school of Vedanta Hindu philosophy. Dvaita Vedanta calls the all-pervading aspect of Brahman Paramatman quantitatively different from individual Atman and claims reality for both a God functioning as the ultimate metaphorical "soul" of the universe, and for actual individual "souls" as such. In Hindu theology Paramatman or Paramātmā is the Absolute Atman or Supreme Soul or Spirit (also known as Supersoul or Oversoul) The Dvaita, dualist schools, therefore, in contrast to Advaita, advocate an exclusive monotheistic position wherein Brahman is made synonymous with Vishnu. Brahman ( bráhman-, Nominative bráhma sa ब्रह्म is a concept of Hinduism. For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific Aspects of both philosophies are found within the schools of Vishishtadvaita Vedanta and Achintya Bheda Abheda. VishishtAdvaita Vedanta ( IAST Viśishṭādvaita Vedanta; Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत is a sub-school of the Vedānta Achintya-Bheda-Abheda ( acintya bhedābheda in IAST) is a school of Vedanta representing the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference
In some instances both Advaita and Dvaita schools may accommodate the others's belief as a lower form of worship or practice towards the same ultimate goal. 
Adherents to Jainism also use the phrase the atman to refer to 'the self'. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Often atma is mistaken as being interchangeable with the word jiva with the difference being somewhat subtle. In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva (जीव jīva alternate spelling jiwa) is a living being or more specifically the immortal essence of a living being Whereas atman refers to the self, jiva refers to the living being, the exact comprehension of which varies throughout the philosophical schools.